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Sunday, August 8, 2010

Bella Dodd's Exposure of Communism

Bella Dodd's Exposure of Communism

August 3, 2010

School of Darkness by Bella V. Dodd
By Henry Makow Ph.D

Bella Dodd was a leader of the Communist Party of America (CPUSA) in the 1930' s and 1940's. Her book, "School of Darkness" (1954) reveals that Communism was a hoax perpetrated by financiers "to control the common man" and to advance world tyranny. Naturally this important book is out-of-print and not in any used bookstores. (I found it through interlibrary loan.)


Bella Dodd was born Maria Asunta Isabella Visono in Italy about 1904. A brilliant and dedicated woman, she graduated from Hunter College and NYU Law School. She became head of the New York State Teachers Union and was a member of the CPUSA's National Council until 1949.
Dodd describes Communism as "a strange secret cult" whose goal is the destruction of Western (i.e. Christian) Civilization. Millions of naïve idealists ("innocents") are tricked by its talk of helping the poor, but it cares only for power. For example, Dodd found there was no social research at party headquarters. "We are a revolutionary party, not a reform party," she was told. (163)
CREATING "HUMAN BEINGS THAT WOULD CONFORM"
The Communist Party operates by infiltrating and subverting social institutions like the churches, schools, mass media and government. Its aim was "to create new types of human beings who would conform to the blueprint of the world they confidently expected to control." (162)
For example, Dodd reveals that the CPUSA had 1100 members become Catholic priests in the 1930's. It also subverted the American education system by taking over the teacher's unions and learned societies. Only people who accepted the "materialistic, collectivist international class struggle approach" advanced. (98)
Involving women in the war effort fitted the long-range program:
"The party did all it could to induce women to go into industry. Its fashion designers created special styles for them and its songwriters wrote special songs to spur them.... War-period conditions, they planned, were to become a permanent part of the future educational program. The bourgeois family as a social unit was to be made obsolete." (153)
There was to be no family but the party and the state. Dodd helped organize the Congress of American Women, a forerunner of the feminist movement.
"Since it was supposedly a movement for peace, it attracted many women. But it was really only a renewed offensive to control American women... Like youth and minority groups, they are regarded as a reserve force of the revolution because they are more easily moved by emotional appeals." (194-195)
SUBVERSION OF U.S. COMPLETED IN THE 1930's
When FDR recognized Russia in 1933, he deliberately turned a blind eye to the CPUSA's massive program of espionage and subversion. Liberals denied that this took place and complained about a "witch hunt." Guess what? The "loony right" was correct. A new book (The Secret World of American Communism, based on newly opened Kremlin archives, confirms that CPUSA was a puppet of Moscow and the Roosevelt and Truman administrations were practically run by Soviet agents, Alger Hiss, Harry Hopkins and Harry Dexter White to name a few.
The war years saw the CPUSA actually renounce the class struggle and join the so-called "Roosevelt camp of progress" which included "progressive capitalists."
"The Communist Party now assumed the responsibility of establishing a rigid discipline over the working class. No employer was more effective or more relentless in checking strikes among the workers, or minimizing complaints...while wages rose a little during those years, they did not compare with the rise in profits and in monopoly control of basic necessities...war production was chiefly in the hands of ten large corporations...the Communists carefully muted such information." (153)
The war years saw amazing coordination between the Communist Party and America's financial elite. The elite financed a sophisticated propaganda agency called the Russian Institute located on Park Ave. across 68th Street from Rockefeller's Council on Foreign Relations. Here "famous names like Vanderbilt, Lamont, Whitney and Morgan mingled with those of Communist leaders. "(153)
At Roosevelt's insistence, Stalin "dissolved" the Comintern in order to make the CPUSA look like an American party. The CPUSA leader Earl Browder achieved national prominence and consulted with senior Roosevelt cabinet ministers.
The joint US-Russian war effort was to be the basis of the new world order. But, inexplicably, the policy changed and Browder instantly became a non-person. Apparently the financial elite had decided the time wasn't right for world government. A cold war would be much more lucrative. Dodd was told that in the future, the party would often find itself opposed not only to the government, but also to U.S. workers.
"I now saw that with the best motives and a desire to serve the working people... I and thousands like me, had been led to a betrayal of these very people.... I had been on the side of those who sought the destruction of my own country." (229)
Like frightened mice, the CPUSA membership scurried to adopt the new party line. Dodd tried to quit but was told: "No one gets out of the party. You die or you are thrown out." (197)
Eventually Dodd was expelled and smeared as "anti-Negro, anti-Puerto Rican, anti-Semitic, anti-labor and a defender of the landlord." (220). Sound familiar? After more than 20 year of tireless sacrifice, she was without family or friends. The party had been her family. Its "hates had become my hates."
"This is the key to the mental enslavement of mankind. The individual is made into nothing ... he operates as the physical part of [a] higher group intelligence... he has no awareness of the plans the higher group intelligence has for utilizing him." (158)
"A SECRET WELL-ORGANIZED WORLD POWER"
Bella Dodd was circumspect about the people behind the Communist Party. She once was told to phone two multi-millionaires who live in the Waldorf Towers if she lost contact with Moscow. Elsewhere, she refers to "a secret well organized world power." She is obviously afraid to be candid. She suspects that one CPUSA leader's "suicide" was in fact murder. (172)
But she does drop a possible clue. She says that each of the nine floors of the party-owned headquarters at 35 E. 12th St. was devoted to CPUSA business. The Sixth Floor held "the publication offices of the Yiddish newspaper, the Freiheit, and the "Jewish Commission." (162) Indeed Jews were prominent among Communist dupes.
"What now became clear to me was the collusion of these two forces: the Communists with their timetable for world control, and certain mercenary forces in the free world bent on making profits from blood." (229)
As "one piece of the puzzle that finally became a picture," Dodd tells the story of the ship "Erica Reed" typical of "hundreds of other stories." During the Spanish Civil War, Americans donated money to load the ship with medical supplies and food for Spain. The Communists diverted the ship to Russia instead. (89)
Censorship is crucial to Communists, Dodd says. "I have often seen leaders pull books from shelves in homes and warn members to destroy them."(223)
Communism is essentially a deceitful system of international elite control. It was not suppressed during the McCarthy era. Rather it morphed into the New Left, Counter Culture, Civil Rights, Anti War and Woman's Liberation Movements, and later into a plethora of elite-sponsored NGO's, and media, Democratic and Republican party factions, Liberal, Zionist, Labor, and Gay Rights groups. Like the CPUSA itself, these groups are controlled from the top so their memberships are unaware of being used.
To the objection that some of the above mentioned groups oppose globalization, Dodd refers to examples where the CPUSA ostensibly supported causes they wished to sabotage. (205)
In conclusion, Communism was/is a plot designed to substitute a cabal of the rich for the rule of God. It is a utopian fraud hatched by the rich to thwart the dreams of ordinary people and stunt human progress. The same cabal is behind most wars including the impending attack on Iraq.
A precursor to the new world order, Communism espouses brotherhood, peace and equality in order to deceive us. It has taken over society's eyes, ears, mind and spirit. Much of what passes for truth in the media and schools is part of this monstrous con job. The expression "politically correct" in widespread use in America is an old Communist Party term. Our politicians are mostly traitors.
Feminism is Communist both in origin and spirit. It pretends to champion women but in fact neuters both sexes and destroys the basic social unit, the family. The promotion of homosexuality as a "lifestyle choice" for heterosexuals is also part of this brazen elitist fraud designed to "create new types of human beings who would conform..."
Western Civilization is like a ship floundering in a sea of evil, yet the passengers are too duped and distracted to realize it. Bella Dodd had the courage to sound the alarm 50 years ago. It is never too late to begin to resist tyranny.
There are no lifeboats.

Tony B said (August 4, 2010):
One of Dodd's statements you quote stands out for me now:
"Since it was supposedly a movement for peace, it attracted many women. But it was really only a renewed offensive to control American women... Like youth and minority groups, they are regarded as a reserve force of the revolution because they are more easily moved by emotional appeals." (194-195)"
I have been trying to get this truth through to people for years. The brainwashing is that women and men are equal and should share equally in everything. Huge lie. Was it "Venus & Mars" that women titled her book about the DIFFERENCES?
Women are NOT suited to compete in the world outside the home. Their emotions are so easily manipulated by the pros (even by amateurs) it is a no brainer to see why the elitists want women in positions of decision making and other powers. "Easily moved by emotional appeals" translates into easily controlled. You see it everywhere. Remember that lesbian bitch, Reno? How about Hillary and Pelosi? Bunch of self-loving robots, doing as ordered. Ever had any dealings with a woman cop? Totally out of her orbit and usually a total bitch to boot. When not manipulated one way or another a woman's decision will ALWAYS be for her usually petty self interest, and to hell with any other issue apparent. That often means her kids given any and every advantage. It's still for HER. She doesn't give an honest damn about someone else's kids. No sense of fairness in business dealings, or marriage dealings, for that matter. Self-destructive self-interest in steroids. Always and forever. Without the totally biased law on their side even their material lives would be miserable indeed.
Unless, of course, held in check by the no nonsense care of a real man. This is why nature wants women and men to work together as one person. But NOT as equals. Women have their personal sphere at home which they can handle and men have the spheres that run the world, which THEY only can handle. Otherwise you have the horrible chaos we are in today. Even women who fight these words tooth and nail will usually admit (to someone - probably another woman) that what they really need is a strong man who will "take care" of them. But usually the higher their intelligence the more their brainwashing makes it impossible for them to be satisfied with the type man they desperately need.


Patrick said (August 4, 2010):
To illustrate the false Cold War"
Here is an example given by my Cajun sailor (MMarines) friend. His ship was delivering grain to England in the 1950's. As they unloaded the grain unto the English ship the grain at the very exact moment was sucked up and piped into the USSR ship. My Cajun friend is still alive and tests to this. (he once told me how at a Venice restaurant 50 years ago, he walked to the bathroom, opened the door and walked right into the Venice water- true story- he was one maaad Cajun).
Bishop Fulton Sheen seemed to have a hand in her conversion. Her book, incidentally is still sold at the SSPX bookstore.
This book compliments AA 1025-
AA-1025
Memoirs of the Communist Infiltration Into the Church
By: Marie Carre
AA-1025. Memoirs of a Communist injured in an auto accident in France; he died in the hospital a few hours later. The nurse who attended him kept his journals, read them and published them as AA-1025. He had become a Catholic priest to subvert the Church from within. Describes his methods & plans. Says there were many more like him. Very enlightening! 156 pgs, Tan Books.

In Defense of Danish manhood.

viking1.jpg In Defense of Danish manhood.
by (the late) Philip Jones

I remember as a small boy being completely enthralled by the Hollywood Movie, `The Vikings` starring Kirk Douglas, Tony Curtis and the beautiful Janet Leigh.

I must have been around seven years old at the time I first viewed this epic, and in many ways, it stimulated in me a life long interest in history generally and that of Northern Europe particularly. Many books have been written about the `terrible` and fierce men of the north; The `Norsemen` or more famously, `The Vikings`. Such books are generally filled with descriptions of immensely tall, strong and brutal warriors with names like `Harald Bluetooth, Sveyn Forkbeard, Canute the Great, and Brodir. I think it fair to say that these men were not projecting their masculinity due to any deeply felt feelings of insecurity about their manhood.

By the time I moved to Denmark back in 1995, I had been thoroughly immersed in and fascinated by Viking History, myths and legends for the greater part of thirty years. It is fair to say that I was looking forward to seeing the homeland of my childhood heroes for myself. and I was looking forward to actually meeting the descendants of the Vikings. Real men, the sons of warriors.

Now before I continue, I must make it clear that what comes next is not intended as a degradation of Danish men at all . Quite the contrary. But it must also be said that what I found upon arriving in Denmark was not quite what I had expected. Within a short space of time, I was asking the question; "Where were the sons of Odin, the Berserker's, the Wolves of the North Sea"?

With some exceptions, it is true to say that many of the Danish men I have come into contact with these past thirteen or so years, have borne very little resemblance to those warriors described in the `tales of old`. It's not that Danish men appear physically weak or in any way lesser men than anywhere else.

 In fact, Danish men, like all Scandinavian males, are generally taller, and more muscular than say Slavs, Scots, Welsh and Irish men for example. No, the difference was in their demeanour. My impression was then and still is that Danish men have been deliberately cowed down, and emasculated by a State Apparatus seeking absolute authority over every minute detail of a Danes life. There can be no arguing that here in Denmark, as it would seem with the rest of Scandinavia, the socially strategic `High ground` has been well and truly captured by the `Feminists` with the complicity of successive sitting governments.

Only a few days ago, I was speaking with a young Tunisian woman studying here as an exchange student, and she remarked to me that it appeared to her that it was the women who `ruled the roost` in Denmark, and she motioned with her hands depicting how one leads a Bull by the Nose. Exactly the same observations were made by another young woman staying here who comes from Moldavia. She is lodging with a Danish family locally and has been astounded at how dominant the wife is, and how compliant the husband is. It should be noted that the husband in question is physically very strong, intelligent and articulate, so why the subservience at home? Danish men have had their self confidence very badly bruised by incessant `pro femi` propaganda, which attacks them on all fronts simultaneously.

Having lived here for many years now, I must say that I can only concur with the comments made by the two young women mentioned above, and furthermore, this `Feminist` dominance, at least on the surface, is across the board and throughout all the public institutions. It seems to me that in order to actually get to deal with another man these days, one has to set one's sights very high up the Corporate or Municipal ladder.

So how were the progeny of `The Vikings` so reduced in stature? Scandinavia is the home of Social Democracy, which in reality is nothing more than `Cutural Marxism`. The whole social ethos of these Northern lands is Marxist to the bone. But there is more to this than first meets the eye. In fact, Danish society can appear to be something of a paradox, with it's flourishing consumerism (somewhat curtailed of late by the world economic downturn) and unashamed materialism on the one hand, neatly wed to a deeply embedded Marxist Socialist spirit on the other. Yet in reality, there is no paradox.. What do you get when a Socialist State gets in bed with Monopoly Capitalist Corporatism ? You get as Mussolini is once quoted as describing, `Corporatism` or rather ``Fascism`. That's right, I'm saying that Denmark is a Fascist State. A place whereby even the most minute details of a persons life are regulated and micromanaged by a vast State Bureaucracy. A Totalitarian Regime, elected by an deliberately uninformed populace.

Back in the 1960's, `equality of the sexes` was adopted as policy by the Social Democrats and placed on the school curriculum. At an early age, conventional ideas of male and female roles were broken down. Boys were taught to sew, girls to do woodwork. So called equality was taken to it's logical conclusion. There was no longer any reason why a father could not stay at home and care for the children whilst the mother went out to work. One of the purposes in predisposing women to work was clearly economic, but I suggest that this is only one `cog in the wheel`.

Men don't like being told what to do. Women are far easier to coerce and manipulate. The greatest obstruction to Totalitarianism is masculinity. The Danish State like all the other Dictatorships masquerading as democracies, hand in hand with Feminist ideologues, has conspired to emasculate the Danish male to the point where any prospect of some long lost `Viking` mentality rearing it's head in defiance, of the suffocating levels of control exercised by the State here would be unthinkable. Instead, as is the case in many other western lands, Danish men console themselves with Sports, DIY and other non ideological, apolitical diversions, leaving such things very often to what arguably passes for the female here. These `hobbies` are the only outlet left for men to express their masculinity, and the Danes do so with gusto. The Danish National Football (Soccer for North American readers) consistently outperforms sides from much larger countries, and Danish Boxers, although not truly World Class, are to be found around and about every weight division of the various Boxing Authorities. It is similarly the case with other sports.

Gender Role confusion is rampant, particularly in young men and teenage boys. My own Step Son has confided in me many times that he just doesn't understand what girls expect of him. He tells me that they are impossibly argumentative, confrontational, show no respect for the masculine at all. He says that he would like to meet a nice girl and settle down, but he cannot imagine ever finding one.

Danish girls play football, chew gum, shout and behave badly in public, dress slovenly, have bad attitudes and are generally not a good advertisement for the feminine at all. I myself, as a former `Guest Lecturer` have been dumbfounded at the open bias towards girls and young women in the schools and universities here. If anyone reading this doubts my accuracy, please check out the website of any Danish School or University. The preponderance of young women featured in the photographs on these web pages defies any such argument to the contrary. When a young male student is depicted, it is usually some unfortunately effeminate `girly boy`, with his girly hair and girly clothes complete with those hideous girly shoulder bags.

The whole system here is set up to belittle and ridicule the masculine. How many nauseating times have I heard this phrase, " Macho man are really frightened little boys". How I hate that one, and challenge any `woman` to say that to my face.

In conclusion, what has been done to Danish men is in many ways what is being done to men all across the world, only here, the condition is extreme. Nothing about the masculine is celebrated. Everything about the `Feminist` (note, I said feminist, not feminine) is automatically taken as being the accepted `Truth` and symbolically carved in stone.

One last point, I was driving back from the local village a month or so ago when I saw some teen aged boys and girls playing football together. Not wishing to appear in any way strange, I parked up some distance away and watched, and saw that almost every time there was a disputed call, the referee (a non male) awarded the decision to the girls. Every time the boys scored, it was disallowed, every time a girl was tackled, she fell to the floor and was awarded a penalty. One could see the heads of the boys dropping, their enthusiasm and will to win being sucked from them, resigned to the hopelessness of their situation. What could they do, everything was against them. Of course, the girls won and jumped around , shouting and screaming, making fun of the opposing team. It was all rather sad, and in many ways, encapsulated what has become of the masculine in Danish Society.

Every now and then though, one gets a glimpse of what once was, when Danish men were the terror of all `Christendom`, like when recently, the excellent Danish Boxer Mikkail Kessler won the WBA Super Middleweight Belt. In the Danish man, there is a sleeping warrior, waiting for his time to come. The only problem is, that if he waits too much longer, the Aspartame, Fluoride, 21 vaccines per child, Tetra Waves and all the other insidious weapons being used against him and the rest of humanity by the New World Order will have dumbed him down to such a level, that resistance will be impossible.

So, `Sons of Thor` it's now or never. Take back what's yours by right of your ancestors blood and toil, and stop giving in. Turn off the TV, leave the DIY alone and open your eyes to what is being done to you and yours by a government who's only reason for being is to control you, and drip by sodden drip, take away all the fruits of your labour.

Philip Jones.  true_brit58@hotmail.co.uk

Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870

Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870

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Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870

Itavia DC-9 (I-TIGI) in a photo taken eight years before the incident.
Occurrence summary
Date 27 June 1980
Type unknown in-flight explosion
Site Tyrrhenian Sea near Ustica, Italy
Passengers 77
Crew 4
Injuries 0
Fatalities 81
Survivors 0
Aircraft type McDonnell Douglas DC-9-15
Operator Aerolinee Itavia
Tail number I-TIGI
Flight origin Guglielmo Marconi Airport
Destination Palermo International Airport
Coordinates: 38°50′22″N 13°25′31″E / 38.839494°N 13.425293°E / 38.839494; 13.425293 Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870, also known in the Italian media as the Ustica Massacre ("Strage di Ustica"), was an Italian flight that suffered an in-flight explosion while in route from Bologna, Italy to Palermo, Italy. It was a regularly scheduled flight from Guglielmo Marconi Airport in Bologna to Palermo International Airport in Palermo. The flight departed 2 hours late at 20:08 CET on 27 June 1980. At the controls of the McDonnell Douglas DC-9-15 that evening were Captain Domenico Gatti and First Officer Enzo Fontana.
The aircraft (registered I-TIGI), which left Guglielmo Marconi Airport bound for Palermo International Airport, crashed at 20:59 CET into the Tyrrhenian Sea near the island of Ustica about 130 km southwest of Naples. All 81 people on board were killed (2 flight crew members, 2 flight attendants, and 77 passengers).
Two Italian Air Force F-104s were scrambled at 21:00 CET from Grosseto Air Force Base to locate the accident area and to spot any survivors but they failed due to lack of visibility.[citation needed] In July 2006 the re-assembled fragments of the DC-9 aircraft were returned to Bologna from Pratica di Mare Air Force Base near Rome. On 23 June 2008, Italy announced that they have reopened the case of Flight 870.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Official investigation

After years of investigations, no official explanation or final report has been provided by the Italian government. In 1989 the Parliamentary Commission on Terrorism, headed by Senator Giovanni Pellegrino, issued an official statement concerning the disappearance of Flight 870, which thus became known as the "Ustica Massacre" (Strage di Ustica).
The definitive sentence asserted: "The DC9 incident occurred following a military interception action, the DC9 was shot down, the lives of 81 innocent citizens were destroyed by an action properly described as an act of war, real war undeclared, a covert international police action against our country, which violated its borders and rights."
"L'incidente al DC9 è occorso a seguito di azione militare di intercettamento, il DC9 è stato abbattuto, è stata spezzata la vita a 81 cittadini innocenti con un'azione, che è stata propriamente atto di guerra, guerra di fatto e non dichiarata, operazione di polizia internazionale coperta contro il nostro Paese, di cui sono stati violati i confini e i diritti."
The perpetrators of the crime remain unidentified. The court, unable to proceed further, declared the case archived.
In June 2008, Rome prosecutors reopened the investigation into the crash after former Italian President Francesco Cossiga said that the aircraft had been shot down by French warplanes.[1]
On July 7, 2008 a claim for damages was served to the French President.

[edit] The "high treason" accusation against the Italian Air Force

The role of Italian Air Force personnel in the tragedy is unclear. Several of them have been investigated and brought to court for a number of offenses, including falsification of documents, perjury, abuse of office, and aiding and abetting. Four generals were charged with high treason, on the allegations that they obstructed government investigation of the accident by withholding information about air traffic at the time of Ustica disaster.
The first ruling, April 30, 2004, pronounced two of the generals, Corrado Melillo and Zeno Tascio, not guilty of high treason. Lesser charges against a number of other military personnel were also dropped. The abuse of office charge was no longer valid, due to some changes in legislation, and the other allegations could not be pursued further due to the statute of limitations, as the events in question had occurred more than 15 years prior.
For this same reason, action could not be taken against the other two generals, Lamberto Bartolucci and Franco Ferri. However, the ruling did not acquit them, and they were still alleged to be guilty of treason. Dissatisfied, they appealed, and in 2005 the appeals court ruled that the accusations were made on insufficient grounds. On January 10, 2007, the Italian Court of Cassation upheld this ruling and conclusively closed the case, fully acquitting Bartolucci and Ferri of any wrongdoing.
In June 2010, Italian President Giorgio Napolitano urged all Italian authorities to cooperate in the investigation of the incident.[2]

[edit] Theories

Speculation at the time and in the years since has been fueled in part by media reports, military officials statements, and ATC recordings, including radar images and trails of debris; particularly, trails of objects moving at high speeds.

[edit] A terrorist bomb

After the series of bombings which hit Italy in the 1970s, a terrorist act was quite naturally the first to be proposed. It must be considered that the flight was delayed outbound from Bologna by almost three hours, so apparently the timer would have been set to actually cause an explosion at Palermo airport, or on a further flight of the same plane.

[edit] Missile strike during training exercise

This involves NATO forces accidentally downing the DC-9 during an international exercise involving Italian, U.S., and French jet fighters. Aviation Week and Space Technology reported that damage had been found consistent with a continuous-rod warhead, which would have had to come from an anti-aircraft missile.

[edit] Missile strike during military operation

Major sources in the Italian media have alleged over the years that the aircraft was shot down during a dog fight involving Libyan, U.S., French and Italian Air Force fighters in an attempted assassination by NATO members on an important Libyan politician, maybe even the leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, who was flying in the same airspace that evening. Gaddafi has denied being in the area of the accident that evening. This version was supported in particular by investigative magistrate Rosario Priore in 1999.[3] The judge Priore said in his concluding report that his investigation had been deliberately obstructed by the Italian military and members of the secret service, in compliance with NATO requests.[3]
The media also reported that radar monitoring released in 1997 by NATO showed that at least seven fighter aircraft were in the vicinity when the jet plunged into the sea off the island of Ustica. According to these sources, the radar shows one or two Libyan MiG-23 had tried to evade detection by flying close to the airliner. Three Italian Air Force F-104S, one U.S. Navy A-7 Corsair II and a French fighter pursued the Libyan MiG-23 and a battle ensued.
On July 18, 1980, 21 days after the crash, a Libyan MiG-23 crashed on the Sila Mountains in Castelsilano, Calabria, southern Italy, according to eye witnesses and official reports. Media rumors reported that the plane may actually only have been discovered at that time, and that the pilot's body was decomposed, originated allegations that the MiG-23 may have been shot down at the time of the Flight 870 incident.[4]

[edit] Conspiracy theories

There are conspiracy theories surrounding this event. They are based on the series of events following the air crash. For example, the vessel that carried out the search for debris on the ocean floor was French, but only US officials had access to the aircraft parts they found. Several radar reports were erased and several Italian generals were indicted for obstruction of justice 20 years later. The impossibility for the investigators and the victims' relatives to receive complete, reliable information on the Ustica disaster has been popularily described as un muro di gomma (literally, a rubber wall), because investigations just seemed to "bounce back".
Some of the Italian Air Force officials who might have known about the disaster's background died suddenly.[5]
  • August 3, 1980: Col. Pierangelo Teoldi, was nominated to become Commander of Grosseto AFB, but had not yet assumed command as of date of death - Car accident.
  • May 9, 1981: Maurizio Gari, Poggio Ballone air defense radar controller - heart attack at age 37.
  • March 31, 1987: Mario Alberto Dettori, Poggio Ballone air defence radar controller - suicide by hanging.
  • August 28, 1988: Mario Naldini and Ivo Nutarelli, Italian Air Force the pilots, who crossed Flight 870s path on June 27 over Tuscany - mid air collision during the 1988 Ramstein Air Show.
  • February 1, 1991: Antonio Muzio, Lamezia Terme control tower officer - murdered.
  • February 2, 1992: Antonio Pagliara, Otranto air defence radar controller - car accident.
  • December 21, 1995: Franco Parisi, Otranto air defense radar controller - suicide by hanging.

Close Encounters With Unknown Missiles

PROJECT 1947



Close Encounters With Unknown Missiles

by Clas Svahn and Anders Liljegren


Reproduced with permission from
AFU Newsletter #37, Jan. '92 - Dec '93 Published by:
Archives For UFO Research
P.O. Box 11027,
S-600 11 Norrköpping
Sweden


On several occasions civilian aircraft with hundreds of passengers have encountered unknown cigar- or missile-shaped objects. A few unexplained collisions in the air have resulted in the loss of human life. AFU Newsletter reviews a dozen incidents from the last decade. In a recent Interview with Clas Svahn an Alitalia pilot confirmed, in detail, his sighting report to British authorities.
Some of the incidents we will be reporting are not known to a wide audience. No one (outside of the intelligence community?) seems to have mapped the full picture. There seems to be a recurring pattern behind these incidents. In some cases authorities have actively covered-up what has happened. One must presume that military organizations try to conceal that they mistakenly have nearly hit - or sometimes even shot down - civilian aircraft.
All indications point to the reported cases being just a tip of an iceberg. More incidents probably lurk behind the surface, never being reported.

The Crashes

At 20.56 hours on June 27, 1980, an Italian DC-9 from the Itavia company was on a flight from Bologna to Palermo on Sicily. Suddenly the tower at Ciampino near Rome lost contact with the plane which, seemingly without reason, dived into the Mediterranean killing all 81 on board. The next day some remains of the plane were found near the island (of) Ustica while the main body had sunk to a depth of 3,500 meters. An investigation of some of the dead bodies found at sea, pointed to some kind of external explosion or outside impact as the cause. Fragments from the undercarriage were found in the dead bodies which speaks against the theory of an explosion within the aircraft.
Analysis of metallic fragments convinced the investigation committee that the DC-9 was shot down by a military missile. Remains of phosphorus, common in missiles, were found in the bodies.
An anonymous military source, who contacted an Italian journalist the same night, claimed that the plane was hit by a missile. At a senatory inquest ten years later, a sergeant at a military control centre admitted that he had seen the plane disappear off the screen. Previously it had been categorically denied that the military had kept the plane under surveillance. The plane's radar echo was followed, on a parallel course, by another target. Then it was hit by a third (unknown?) object on a crossing trajectory and the resulting cascade of debris, seen on radar, was thrown in the same direction as the crossing object had moved. [1]

The Irish Sea

A similar accident happened in 1968, when an Air Lingus Viscount plane went down into the Irish Sea and 61 people were killed. Six years later the parts of a RPV-like missile were fished out of the sea, and the connection with the previous accident was made. The plane had passed south of a military test field for rockets near Aberporth in Wales. There has been no official confirmation of the presumed connection. [2]
According to The Sunday Times a similar incident occurred in 1982, when another Italian DC-9 almost collided with a mysterious object at 27,000 feet. The unknown object exploded near the plane. Passengers on board described the object as a "fast-moving projectile, like a missile". [3]

The Norwegian case

On March 11, 1982, a Norwegian Twin Otter with 15 people crashed off Honningsvåg in the northern part of Norway. The plane was en route between Berlevåg and Mehamn when, for unknown reasons, it crashed into the sea. All on board perished. First, the pilot was blamed but two witnesses had seen a fighter-like plane in the area seconds before the the crash. One of the witnesses, Selius Samuelsen, saw two airplanes "melt together". The chairman of the investigation committee, Lieutenant General Wilhelm Mohr, emphatically denied that any Norwegian or NATO airplane was in the area. According to the Narvik newspaper Fremover, a radar plot of the incident showed another echo on parallel course with the Twin Otter shortly before the accident and that the two plots crossed each other at the place of the accident.
"There is no doubt that the Twin Otter was hit by a NATO plane," says journalist Oddvar Kristoffersen of the Fremover newspaper, who has spent a long time investigating what really happened. Kristoffersen is convinced that the official explanations and the two crash investigations have been laid in order to protect NATO interests. [4]
The interesting thing about these cases is the secrecy and the lies from up high. All methods are allowed to cover-up the real cause. Such pieces of disinformation we must always count on concerning incidents that involve unknown missiles.
And the incidents continue. Sometimes the cases are so similar that it seems that the same blueprint was used.

Australian RAAF report

One case comes from Australia:


"17th December 1984 at 1500 (3 pm). From RAAF files, Canberra. A pilot observed a missile shaped object with tapered body coming to sharp conical point at nose and cut off rear section with "fins". The pilot considered it to be not unlike a cruise missile which was sand colored. No sound or exhaust was emitted. It disappeared after about 2-3 seconds, into the sky rather (than) over horizon." [5]

Over the Swiss-Italian border

A Greek Olympic Airways aircraft (flight OA 132) with 61 passengers on board had a very close encounter with a missile on August 15, 1985. The aircraft, with Christos Stamulis as chief pilot, was en route from Zürich to Athens and was just passing the Swiss-Italian border.
At 16.05 hours Stamulis contacted the Linate control tower and stated that he had just seen a projectile without wings pass by, from left to right. The Boeing 727 was flying in air corridor "Amber 14" on a southeasterly course at 7,500 meters altitude. It was just preparing an ascent when the missile passed by, only some 60-150 meters below the aircraft. The missile was dark brown, or black, and a couple of meters long. The passengers on board knew nothing about the near-hit.
Who was responsible? The Swiss military had, only a few minutes before the encounter, ended a military maneuver in the St. Gottard area with civilian air traffic being closed off. But spokesmen said the exercises were only with Army units and did not involve missiles. The Swiss military had three rocket systems at the time: Bloodhound, Rapier and Sidewinder. None had been actively used from Swiss territory. The Swiss Sidewinders have only been tested at the north-Swedish missile test area near Vidsel (sometimes used by the military forces of other neutral countries).
Judging from it's direction of flight, the projectile must have come from the Italian side of the border. Italian authorities denied knowledge of any military tests. The missile had, reportedly, not shown up on military radar and neither Italy nor NATO had anything going on that could explain the sighting.
The theory of a balloon was denied by Stamulis: "That was a military device, of that I am sure. It was a ballistic rocket." A radar operator stated that objects of that small size, travelling at great speed, could not be spotted on civilian radar. [6] Was it a long-distance test flight of an American or Soviet cruise missile? [7]

Missile That Followed the Power-lines

Three days later, on August 18, 1985, a similar encounter happened in Sweden. Four civilian pilots were flying a Cessna on a southerly course along the Swedish east coast, near Söderhamn, when they discovered a missile like object, some six meters long, on a counter course. "We were flying on about 1.000 meters between Umeå and Gävle when one of us suddenly spotted something glistening in the sun over the woods in front of us," says Per Lundqvist, who piloted the aircraft.

sweden 1985
"Coming closer we saw that it was a metallic missile with steering fins at the back. Now and then it changed it's course according to the terrain and I interpreted this as if it was following the power lines below us.
"Since we had become curious I dived down towards the missile and turned our plane to try to follow, but this was impossible. We simply didn't have the engine power to compete with the object. It disappeared from us at an altitude of a few hundred meters."
The four pilots reported the incident to the military who attempted, in vain, for a six month period to identify the object. However, no one from the defense authorities made direct contact with the pilots after their first report. [8] This kind of non-interest in the violation of Swedish air by unknown aerial objects (as compared to the military high-level interest in the recent wave of Swedish submarine violations) is typical, yet strange.

The Delta Case

Another small missile was encountered at 29,500 feet by the captain, William Cantrell, and the crew of Delta Airlines flight 1083 between Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Atlanta, Georgia. This happened on June 25th, 1987. The incident occurred near Charleston, West Virginia.
A small missile seemed to be heading straight for the Boeing 737 and its 60 passengers, before passing to the side and some 500-600 feet below the aircraft. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) report on the incident, released soon after incident stated:

Delta 1987

"The captain reported the missile had a short 4" squatty "Homemade" appearance. He described the projectile as approximately 4-6 feet long with large fins attached which ran halfway up its length. The main body of the missile was a white and yellow color and the fins were a beige to brown color. He said It appeared to be descending and unpowered when it passed below him. The pilot stated that he took no evasive action."
The object was reported by the newspapers (contrary to the FAA report) to have been moving "at high speed," in a northerly direction. Pilot Cantrell said he saw no exhaust from the missile. In this case a blimp-shaped balloon (notice the pilot's description of the object as being "homemade") may be a plausible explanation although the prevailing winds at the time does not support that solution. In a routine manner (?) a Pentagon spokesman denied anything military could explain the sighting. [9]

Over the English Channel

A little more than two years ago, a missile sighting was made by an Italian pilot, Achille Zaghetti, on a routine flight from Milan to London. On April 21, 1991, Zaghetti and his co-pilot were piloting a McDonnell Douglas MD-80 with 57 passengers on board. was 20.00 hours.
Clas Svahn interviewed the Italian pilot over the phone in his home in Rome, early this year, and this is his story - with a few abbreviations.
CS: Could you tell me, in your own words, what happened?
AZ: It was during descent, and our position was right in the middle of the Channel between France and England. We were coming down with the autopilot, which is connected to a computer. The descent rate was 1,200 feet per minute. When we were at about 26,000 feet we increased the rate of descent. Of course, when doing that, the speed was going up and we were going faster. So, me and my co-pilot looked outside since we had another aircraft in front. We didn't see the shape of that aircraft, we just saw their anticollision lights. The other plane was ahead of me, about 15 miles. It seemed to us that we were using this distance because of our increasing speed. We were looking out occasionally. Usually we do not look with such intensity as we did this time.
I was crossing 22,100 feet and we were heading 321 when I saw something coming, heading 110-120, about.
CS: So the object was coming from left to right in front of you?
AZ: It was coming from the left to the right. The day was coming down but we had light because of the height. So I saw something circular, very similar to a missile. I used the word "missile" because of the shape, not because I saw a missile. It was like a missile. It was round, about ten feet long, light brown colour and I said to my co-pilot "look out, look out". He was already looking outside with me because of the flight in front of us, not because of the unknown object. And he saw what I saw.
We reported it directly to the control and I asked "Have you something on your screen? It should be behind me now'. Our speed was about 380 knots, but I don't know about the object's speed, of course.
As soon as I asked this to the control, he said to me "Yes, I target something that is now ten miles behind you". That he said in the moment we asked him. When we landed in London I called, I think it was the chief controller, or something like that, and he told me that we were targeted at 22,100 feet.
After one day they told me that it had been a helicopter going northeast, instead of southeast as I had said. And, as you know, it is impossible for a helicopter to be at 22,000 feet. I suggested that they should replay the radar tape again and look at all the spots and rebuild the scene. That was what I suggested the day after, but I never have had any exchanges of ideas, as I am now having with you, with anybody from the British state, or someone else.
CS: I wrote a letter to the Civil Aviation Authority in London and got a reply. I can read from it if you are interested.
AZ: Yes.
CS: "Both Air Defence and Army firing ranges have been ruled out and the Ministry of Defence had no report of any space activity which could provide an explanation. The description of the object does not correspond to that expected had it been a meteorological balloon. The investigation has therefore been closed and the sighting will be listed as an unidentified flying object". So it is no helicopter anymore.
AZ: No helicopter. It is very strange... They thought about a meteorological balloon and so did I. As soon as I saw this object I scanned my INS platform about the wind. I remember that it was coming diagonal, five knots. Usually it goes straight up. It never goes in line as the object I saw, especially when there is no wind.
CS: Was this object passing between you and the other aircraft?
AZ: No, the other aircraft was below, at about 12,000 feet.
CS: How many minutes later did you land at Heathrow?
AZ: This was 23 minutes before landing.
CS: How was the weather at the time? Was it dark?
AZ: It was dark down. It was light up because of the sun.
CS: You didn't see any exhaust trail or something?
AZ: No. If you take a military aircraft, they carry an extra tip-fuel. It was similar to that as far as I remember, the shape could be that.
CS: But it was hard to see exactly?
AZ: Yes, quite impossible, it was just a flash. First, I didn't even want to make a report because It is always difficult that someone will believe you.
CS: So, if they hadn't seen it on radar on the ground you wouldn't have reported it?
AZ: No, I say no. It is strange that when I say "we have something around me that now should be behind me" the controller said to me "yes, you have a target behind you ten miles". I don't think he would have said this if it had been a meteorological balloon. If the object was stationary and not travelling towards me, and if you calculate the time from my question to his answer, it should be four-five miles behind me. My speed was about 400 miles per hour. But if it was something with speed he would be nine or ten miles behind me. From my question to the answer it was 40-60 seconds.
CS: So, the object was travelling with its own speed?
AZ: Yes.
CS: Then it must have had some sort of propulsion system.
AZ: But I didn't see any exhaust, flame or... nothing .
CS: When a pilot sees something he doesn't understand, he usually doesn't report it, if I understand you right?
AZ: Usually we ask the radar first if he saw what we saw. And if he says that he didn't see anything, we didn't see anything either.
CS: You need a confirmation.
AZ: Yeah.
CS: How were you treated afterwards, when you told other pilots and persons of your experience?
AZ: Some people smiled and some people asked me what it was. Some want to make clamour of this but I left home for four days to avoid the press. This is something you experience once in a lifetime and I will never forget it. It is like a photo that will never get out of my head. It was very, very fast. Even now I remember these brief moments. [10]
The Alitalia encounter hit the headlines and got front-page attention in newspapers such as The Sunday Times [11] According to a letter from CAA, the British Civil Aviation Authority, there were no military missile launchings that could explain the sighting (although the plane had been over an infantry training area) . [12]
Paul Murphy, a member of the British parliament approached the Ministry of Defence on the matter. The MoD claimed that at no time, so far, had there been any threat represented by UFO incidents such as this... [13] Believe it, if you like.

A Cylindrical Body

The next incident in our list took place over the British mainland, on June 1, 1991, at 1438 hours. A Britannia Airways Boeing 737 was bound from Dublin to London-Heathrow descending at 8,000 feet on a heading of 110 degrees. The two pilots both saw the unknown object for a very short period of only 1-2 seconds. It was seen through the windscreen and disappeared very rapidly down the port side. The flight officer described the missile (?) as a yellow-orange cylindrical body with a possible "wrinkled appearance". The size was estimated to be about 10 feet. The pilots theorized that it might have been a meteorological balloon, but the closure rate seemed very rapid for a stationary object. The CAA committee considered the weather balloon theory improbable, but one member thought that the "wrinkled" appearance of the body could suggest an advertising balloon that had broken away, although none had been reported. The case is still considered unidentified. [14]

The Dan Air case

Four passengers on board Dan Air flight DA 4700 from London (Gatwick) to Hamburg saw yet another of the unknown missiles on June 17, 1991. The wingless projectile passed below and to the left (north) of the Boeing 737. The missile appeared to be flying at an altitude of 4-5,000 feet just above the cloud layer. In Hamburg, the passengers notified the flight crew and a report was written. The main witness was German engineer Walter Liess. He was seated by a window and saw, at about 1830 hours, a flying object without wings and with no vapour trail.

"The object was slender, grey, and, so it seemed, sort of cigar-shaped. Its flightpath was on a parallel with ours but diametrically opposed. The object flew over the cloud-deck and under our aircraft; the object seemed to oscillate in altitude. It's possible the object was standing still and only gave the impression of movement (i.e. relative motion). The object was estimated to be visible for 2-3 minutes."
The Dan Air crew had not seen the object, but three other passengers did. [15]

The Britannia Encounter

A few months later, on July 15, 1991, another Britannia Airways Boeing 737 on a holiday flight from Crete to Gatwick (London) had a similar encounter at 17.45 hours in the evening. Descending at 15,000 feet the co-pilot caught sight of a "small black lozenge shaped object" some 500 meters ahead and above. The object was on a collision course and within two seconds it passed the aircraft's wing at a distance of only 100 meters at less than 10 meters above the wing. No impact or "wake" was felt by the crew and the passengers were not alerted. The pilot assessed the risk of collision as high. When reported to the London Air Traffic Control Center the missile was picked up on radar moving away from the aircraft. It was moving at 100 miles per hour in a southeasterly direction and was no known traffic since it had no transponder to identify it. Another aircraft was warned since the unknown target appeared to change heading towards it, but the other craft saw nothing. The radar target might, however, have been a helicopter on a lower level.
The sighted object was very small, some 1.5 feet in diameter, very smooth and roundish. A balloon, meteorological or toy, was suspected but this does not conform with the radar reports of an object moving at 100 m.p.h. - if that was the unknown object. The official report still regarded the unknown object as "untraced". [16]

The United Airlines case

The pilots of United Airlines' flight 934, a Boeing jumbo jet, were the witnesses in the most recent incident, on August 5, 1992. They were en route from Los Angeles to London and the sighting occurred some 50 miles NE of George Air Force Base at about 13.45 in the afternoon. The 747 at 23,000 feet departing from Los Angeles on a 40 degree heading. Suddenly an unusual aircraft came directly towards the aircraft and passed under them at an estimated distance of 500-1,000 feet. During several seconds the crew got the impression of "a lifting body configuration, and they described it as looking like the forward fuselage of a Lockheed SR-71 - without wings but with a tail of sorts." The edges of the fuselage were rounded instead of sharp. The size was estimated to be similar to an F-16 (some 50 feet long). Speed was considered as supersonic.
The Defence Department and the Air Force denied any knowledge but added: "we're not the only ones with strange projects", referring to the CIA and other organizations. [17]

Summary

The reports in this category appear - at first sight - to be very similar but may, in fact, be a very mixed bag:
1. Military ballistic missiles gone astray.
It is public knowledge that at least two Soviet missiles went astray in the 1980's: one (probably a target missile) fell into a Finnish lake (December 1984) and was later returned to Russia [18], the other (a SSN-8 submarine shot on Sept. 11, 1986) landed in the borderlands between Russian and China [19]. Large continental/intercontinental ballistic missiles travelling at three times the speed of sound are unlikely as a cause for most of the mid-air encounters. Small anti-aircraft and other military purpose missiles are much more likely.
2. Remotely-piloted vehicles and cruise missiles.
Travelling at much lower speeds - and not on ballistic trajectories - objects in this category are the most likely candidates to explain the sightings. Cruise missiles, like the Tomahawk, may have been tested over the US and Europe. In Sweden and Norway there are several hundred RPV/missile sightings reported by ground level witnesses during the past 40-50 years. One peculiar factor in some of these sightings (as in the mid-air incidents) is the reported absence of any exhaust, vapour trail or other signs of a propulsion system. Most sightings in this category (like the aircraft encounters we have summarized in this article) are of a very short duration. Usually not more than 4-5 seconds. This may explain, in part, the official non- interest in the cases. The sightings are difficult to "prove" since they rest mostly on eye-witness data alone. Note, however, that in four of the cases reported in this article, the objects were probably spotted on radar.
3. Balloons.
Balloons of different kinds may be another explanation. Meteorological balloons usually collapse at relatively low altitudes, but large toy and advertising balloons may be likely. Five of the cases reported here occurred at altitudes above 20.000 feet. For pilots on high-speed aircraft it may be difficult to judge whether an approaching object is self-propelled or just blowing with the prevailing winds.
4. Para-missiles.
By comparison, there are volumes upon volumes of historic data recording "technological imitations" - "ghostly" or "phantom" appearances in our skies. To name but a few: the airship waves over Poland in 1892, the American continent in 1896-97 and over Europe, New Zealand and South Africa in 1908-1914; the ghost fliers in Canada and Norway 1914-1916 and in Scandinavia 1933-1938; the ghost rockets of 1946; ghost fliers again over west-Sweden in the mid-1970s; the Hudson valley boomerang in the 1980s; the Belgian triangle wave in 1989-91, and so on. Many of these waves have been associated with developing technologies in other parts of the world, but with no positive or definitive correlation made. After all, are these "technological imitations" a mirror of the human mind...? In that case the hallucinations are very much of the collective kind.



Sources:

1 The Sunday Times, May 5,1991. UFO-Aktuellt, 1982, issue 2, p. 3 and 1993, issue 1, p. 20. 2.   The Sunday Times, May 5, 1991.
3.   The Sunday Times, May 5,1991.
4.   UFO-Aktuellt, 1993, issue 1, pp. 20-21. Kristoffersen, Oddvar; Ingen kjent trafikk. J.W. Cappelen, 1988.
5.   Australian UFO Bulletin, September 1992, p. 7.
6.   CENAP-Report, nr 115 (translations from Il Giornale and La Republica, August 17, 1985).
7.   Investigations by Swiss researcher Bruno Mancusi revealed that the "elongated black object" seen by the Olympic Airways Boeing 727 crew was a large (10' long) "UFO Solar" balloon launched by a family for the amusement of their 5-year-old daughter.   See: "Le cas Italo-Suisse du 15 août 1985, by Bruno Mancusi, Ovni-Présence, #36, January 1987, pp.3-7     Return to Article
8.   Dagens Nyheter, May 24, 1991. UFO-Aktuellt, 1991, issue 2, p. 9.
9.   FAA report obtained by Stan Gordon, PASU. Newspaper articles, June 27. APRO Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 6.
10.   Telephone interview on January 18, 1993. UFO-Aktuellt, 1993, issue 1, pp. 18-20.
11.   The Sunday Times, May 5, 1991.
12.   Letter to Clas Svahn from CAA. Northern UFO News, issue 160, pp. 11-12.
13.   Northern UFO News, issue 160. The Alitalia case is also summarized in Northern UFO News, issue 149 (p. 11) and issue 155 (pp. 7-8).
14.   Ken Phillips: Around the world in eighty days. Part 1. UFO Times, issue 24, pp. 5-7.
15.   UFO Times, issue 25, pp. 9-10.
16.   UFO Times, issue 24, pp. 5-7. Northern UFO News, issue 155, pp. 7-8. Orbiter, issue 36, pp. 9-10.
17.   From Aviation Week & Space Technology, August 24, 1992. In: The Missing Link, issue 122, p. 14. Also: Tasmanian UFO Report, 1993, p. 13.
18.   Dagens Nyheter and Expressen, January 3/4/5, January 30/31, February 1-9, 1985.
19.   Dagens Nyheter, September 11,1986.