The Hollow Earth
The Subterranean Origin of the Flying SaucersEvidence That They Come From the Hollow Interior of the Earth
By: Dr. R. W. Bernard, B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
The conception of a hollow earth presented in this book offers the most reasonable theory of the origin of the flying saucers and far more logical than the belief in their interplanetary origin. For this reason, leading flying saucer experts, as Ray Palmer, editor of "Flying Saucers" magazine, and Gray Barker, a well known writer on flying saucers, have accepted the theory of their subterranean origin as against the idea that they come from other planets.
The theory that flying saucers came from the Earth's interior and not from other planets originated in Brazil and only later was it taken up by American flying saucer experts.
In 1957, while browsing in a Sao Paulo, Brazil, bookstore, the author came across a book that struck his attention, entitled, "From the Subterranean World to the Sky: Flying Saucers". The book was devoted to the thesis that flying saucers were not space ships from other planets but were of terrestrial origin and came from a subterranean race dwelling inside the earth.
At first, the author could not accept this strange, unorthodox theory concerning the origin of the flying saucers, which seemed improbable and impossible, since it would require the existence of a cavity of tremendous size inside the earth in which they could fly, in view of their tremendous speed. In fact, this cavity would have to be so large that it would make the earth a hollow sphere. At this time the author had not come across the remarkable books of two American scientists, William Reed and Marshall B. Gardner, proving, on basis of evidence from Arctic explorers, that the earth is hollow with openings at the Poles, with a diameter of 5,800 miles in its hollow interior, large enough for flying saucers to fly in.
Huguenin's theory of the subterranean origin of the flying saucers, however, was not original. The idea was first put forward by Professor Henruique Jose de Souza, president of the Brazilian Theosophical Society, which has its headquarters in Sao Lourenco in the State of Minas Gerais, where there is an immense temple in Greek style dedicated to "Agharta," the Buddhist name for the Subterranean World.
Among the professor's students at Sao Lourenco were Mr. Huguenin and Commander Paulo Justino Strauss, officer of the Brazilian Navy and member of the Diretoria of the Brazilian Theosophical Society, From him they learned about the Subterranean World, and also the idea that flying saucers come from the Earth's interior. It was for this reason that Mr. Huguenin dedicated his book to Prof. de Souza and his wife, D. Helena Jefferson de Souza.
While Huguenin incorporated the idea of the subterranean origin of the flying saucers in a book, Commander Strauss presented it in a series of lectures which he held in Rio de Janeiro, in which he affirmed that the flying saucers are of terrestrial origin, but do not come from any known nation on the earth's surface. They originate, he believes, in the Subterranean World, the World of Agharta, whose capital city is known as Shamballah.
In his book, Huguenin presents Strauss's views on the subterranean origin of the flying saucers and against the theory that they come from other planets as follows:
"The hypothesis of the extra-terrestrial origin of the flying saucers does not seem acceptable. Another possibility is that they are military aircraft belonging to some existing nation on earth. This hypothesis, however, is opposed by the following arguments:After presenting the argument that flying saucers do not come from any existing nation and his view that they are not of interplanetary origin, Huguenin quotes Strauss to the fact that they come from the Subterranean World. On this subject he writes:
"Finally, we must consider the most recent and interesting theory that has been offered to account for the origin of the flying saucers: the existence of a great Subterranean World with innumerable cities in which live millions of inhabitants. This other humanity must have reached a very high degree of civilization, economic organization and social, cultural and spiritual development, together with an extraordinary scientific progress, in comparison with whom the humanity that lives on the earth's surface may be considered as a race of barbarians.
Huguenin then asks how these marvelous subterranean cities and this advanced civilization in the interior of the earth arose. His answer is that the builders and most of the inhabitants of this Subterranean World are members of an antediluvian race which came from the prehistoric submerged continents of Lemuria and Atlantis, who found refuge there from the flood that destroyed their Motherland. (Lemuria sank under the Pacific Ocean ... while Atlantis was submerged by a series of inundations, the last of which occurred 11,500 years ago, according to Plato's account, derived from ancient Egyptian records. Egypt was a colony of Atlantis to the East, just as the Aztec, Mayan and Inca empires were to the West.)(Huguenin here refers to the views of Professor de Souza and Commander Strauss on the controversial subject of Colonel Fawcett's mysterious disappearance, claiming that he and his son Jack are still living in a subterranean city to which they gained access through a tunnel in the Roncador Mountains of Northeast Matto Grosso, and were not killed by Indians as commonly supposed. Fawcett's wife, who claims to be in telepathic contact with him, is positive that he is still living, so much so that she sent an expedition to Matto Grosso, in charge of her other son, to find him, but in vain, because he was no longer on the earth's surface, but in the Subterranean World.)
Huguenin claims that the Atlanteans, who were far in advance of us in scientific development, flew the sky in aircraft utilizing a form of energy obtained directly from the atmosphere, and which were known as "vimanas," which were identical with what we know as flying saucers. Prior to the catastrophe that destroyed Atlantis, the Atlanteans found refuge in the Subterranean World in the hollow interior of the earth, to which they traveled on their "vimanas" or flying saucers, reaching it through the polar openings. Ever since then, their flying saucers remained in the earth's interior atmosphere and were used for purposes of transportation from one point in the interior concave world to another, for in this world, inside the crust of the earth, a straight aerial line is the shortest distance between any two points, no matter how far apart. It was only after the Hiroshima atomic explosion that these Atlantean aircraft rose to the surface for the first time, and were known as flying saucers. As we have pointed out previously, they came as an act of self-defense, to prevent radioactive pollution of the air they receive from the outside.
Huguenin is convinced that flying saucers are not space ships from other planets, but Atlantean airships. It seems that throughout history, especially in ancient times, these aircraft occasionally rose to the surface, and some historical figures rode in them. Thus in the Indian epic, "Ramayana," there is a description of a Celestial Car of Rama, the great teacher of Vedic India, known as "vimana," a controlled aerial vehicle. It was capable of flying great distances. Rama's aerial record was a hop from Ceylon to Mount Kailas in Tibet. In the "Mahabharata," we read of Chrishna's enemies having built an aerial chariot with sides of iron and clad with wings. The "Smranagana Sutrahara" says that by means of skyships human beings can fly in the air and "heavenly beings" would come down to earth.
That aerial navigation existed long before the making of the first modern airplane by the Wright brothers, the director of the International Academy of Sanskrit Investigation at Mysen, India, discovered an ancient treatise on aeronautics, which was written three thousand years ago. It was attributed to the Indu sage Bharadway, who wrote a manuscript called "Vymacrika Shastra," meaning "the Science of Aeronautics." It has eight chapters with diagrams, describing three types of aircraft, including apparatuses that could neither catch on fire nor break, and mentions thirty-one essential parts of these vehicles and sixteen materials from which they are constructed, which absorb light and heat, for which reason they were considered suitable for the construction of airplanes. It is interesting to note the similarity of the word "vymacrika" and "vimanas," indicating that the Hindus obtained their knowledge of aerial navigation from the subterranean Atlanteans who must have visited them in ancient times and taught them.
From Brazil, where the theory of the subterranean origin of the flying saucers originated, it spread to the United States, where Ray Palmer, editor of "Flying Saucers" magazine became its enthusiastic proponent, abandoning his former belief in their interplanetary origin in favor of the new theory that they came from the hollow interior of the earth. In the December, 1959 issue of his magazine, he wrote:
"In this issue we have presented the results of years of research, in which we advance the possibility that the flying saucers not only are from our own planet, and not from space, inner or outer, but there is a tremendous mass to evidence to show that there is an UNKNOWN location of vast dimensions which is, insofar as we can safely state at this writing, also unexplored, where the flying saucers can, and most probably do originate."In reference to the claims made by some flying saucer "contactees" that they were taken up on a flying saucer for a trip to Mars and other planets, Palmer says:
"We've read all the accounts of such voyages and nowhere, in any of them, can we find positive evidence that space was traversed: In all these accounts, we can see where the passengers could have been taken to this 'unknown land' discovered by Admiral Byrd, and if told they were on Mars, they would not know the difference.In an article, "Saucers From Earth: A Challenge to Secrecy;," in the Dec. 1959 issue of "Flying Saucers," Palmer writes:
"Flying Saucers magazine has amassed a large file of evidence which its editors consider unassailable, to prove that the flying saucers are native to the planet Earth: that the governments of more than one nation know this to be a fact; that a concerted effort is being made to learn all about them, and to explore their native land; that the facts already known are considered so important that they are the world's top secret; that the danger is so great that to offer public proof is to risk widespread panic; that public knowledge would bring public demand for action, which would topple governments both helpless and unwilling to comply; that the inherent nature of the flying saucers and their origination area (in the earth's hollow interior, reached through the polar openings - Author) is completely disruptive to political and economic status-quo."As against the theory that flying saucers were made by any existing government, Palmer says, "Flying saucers have been with humanity for centuries, if not thousands of years." Their antiquity, he says, " eliminates contemporary earth governments as the originators of the mysterious phenomenon.
After disproving that flying saucers come from any existing nation, Palmer attacks the theory of their interplanetary origin, whose chief proponent is the American flying saucer expert, Keyhoe, also some "contactees" who claim some flying saucers come from Mars, others from Venus, etc.
After showing that flying saucers do not come from any existing nation or from other planets, Palmer, America's greatest authority on flying saucers, concludes, in agreement with Commander Strauss and Huguenin, that they come from the earth's hollow interior through the polar opening, so He writes:
"In the opinion of the editors of `Flying Saucers,' this Polar origin of the flying saucers will now have to be factually disproved. Any denial must be accompanied with positive proof. `Flying Saucers' suggests that such proof cannot be provided. `Flying Saucers' takes the stand that all flying saucer groups should study the matter from the hollow earth viewpoint, amass all confirmatory evidence available in the last two centuries, and search diligently for any contrary evidence. Now that we have tracked the flying saucers to the most logical origin (the one we have consistently insisted must exist because of the insurmountable obstacles of interstellar origin, which demands factors beyond our imagination), that the flying saucers come from our own Earth, it must be proved or disproved, one way or the other.So ends Ray Palmer's great article, "Flying Saucers From the Earth," which created a sensation, causing certain government secret agencies to confiscate the magazine and stop its distribution, so that it did not reach its 5000 subscribers. Why? Obviously because the government was convinced that such an unclaimed, unknown territory, vast in extent, larger than the entire land surface of the earth, exists and wished its existence to be kept secret, so that no other nation would know about it or reach it before and claim this territory as its own. It was important that the Russians do not learn about it. For this reason it was decided to suppress this issue of "Flying Saucers" of December, 1959, which was mysteriously removed from circulation.
Evidently the information contained in this magazine concerning the fact that flying saucers come from the earth's hollow interior through the polar openings, like news concerning Admiral Byrd's flights past the Poles into the new unknown territory beyond them, was considered dangerous to be released to the public and was consequently secretly suppressed by government authorities.
Another outstanding American authority on flying saucers is Gray Barker. A month after Palmer published his sensational article expressing his belief that flying saucers do not come from outer space but from the earth's interior, Barker, in his "The Saucerian Bulletin," on January 15, 1960, wrote:
"In the December 1951 issue of 'Flying Saucers' Ray Palmer came out with his findings. The theory had been advanced before, many years previously, in a book titled `A Journey to the Earth's Interior, Or Have the Poles Really Been Discovered?' now out of print and very rare. Many occult students, long before flying saucers became widely known about, believed that people lived inside the earth, emerging and entering through secret openings at the North and South Poles.In this connection it is interesting to note that American newspapers, some time back, published a report of a mysterious artificial satellite discovered to encircle the earth in an orbit that passed directly over both Poles and which was sent by no known nation. Did it emerge from one of the Poles and continue to rotate around its point of origin?
Gray Barker seems to agree with Palmer that flying saucers come from inside the earth; and in his editorial quoted above, he asks:
"What if there could be some unknown race, on some unexplored portion of the earth, which is responsible for the flying saucers? Palmer' s articles started me to thinking along that direction once again. THE INNER EARTH EXPLANATION WOULD FIT INTO MOST, IF NOT ALL THE FACETS OF THE FLYING SAUCER PICTURE.
"Various occult schools teach that polar entrances provide the doorways to cities of Agharta, the Subterranean World, such as Shamballah (the capital) and others. Let us accept, for a moment, that such a people has existed inside the earth for thousands of years, even before man - or maybe they seeded the outside with man. Maybe they have constantly watched over him, occasionally assisting him with technology, giving rise to what we now call `legends.' Maybe they built the Great Pyramid; maybe they are responsible for some of the 'miracles' reported in secular and religious histories. Until man, their protege, learned to be morally worthy, they would not wish to give him, suddenly, the knowledge of their existence or secrets of their technology.In his book, "They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers," Barker speaks of the "Antarctic Mystery" or the unusual number of flying saucers seen to ascend and descend in the region of the South Pole, which strongly supports the theory of a polar opening through which flying saucers emerge from and enter the hollow interior of the earth. In this book he mentions an Australian and New Zealand investigator, named Bender and Jarrold respectively, who believed that flying saucers originate and are based in the Antarctic and tried to trace their course, when they were suddenly stopped in their research by `three men in black,' who were secret government agents who apparently wished to suppress such research, just as publicity concerning Admiral Byrd's 2,300 mile flight to the new unknown territory not found on any map, that lies beyond the South Pole and inside the opening that leads to the earth's hollow interior, was suppressed in the press.
Theodore Fitch is another American writer who believes that flying saucers come from the hollow interior of the earth. In his book, "Our Paradise Inside the Earth;" he writes:
"Writers of books on flying saucers believe that they come from other planets. But how can that be? They are too far away. Traveling at terrific speeds it would take a lifetime to make the trip (especially from planets of other solar systems)."Fitch claims, as does Palmer, that the "spacemen" who came to us in flying saucers, who pose to be visitors from other planets, are really members of an advanced civilization in the hollow interior of the earth, who have important reasons for keeping their true place of origin secret, for which reason they purposely foster the false belief that they come from other planets. On this point, Fitch writes:
"They say that they come from other planets, but we doubt it." He considers this a white lie in order to prevent militaristic governments from learning that on the opposite side of the earth's crust there exists an advanced civilization whose scientific attainments far surpass our own, which is reached by the polar openings. In this way they protect themselves from molestation or possible war between subterranean and surface races."Fitch agrees with Palmer that flying saucers are not "space ships," as Adamski claims, nor are their pilots "spacemen". Rather they are vehicles for atmospheric travel which come from the hollow interior of the earth in which they fly, connecting each part of the concave subterranean world with the other. As for the little brown men" seen in flying saucers, Fitch believes that they belong to the same subterranean race from which the Eskimos descended. Fitch is in agreement with William Reed and Marshall B. Gardner that the ancestors of the Eskimos came from the hollow interior of the Earth through the polar opening. Describing these little brown men, who are the pilots of the flying saucers, evidently serving a master race (Atlantean) which built them and sent them to us Fitch says:
"Though smaller than we, they are stronger. Their grip is like a vice. One of them could quickly overpower a strong man. Their bodies are perfect in build. Both men and women dress neatly. Though not beautiful, they are nice lo·king. Not one of them looks to be over 30 years old. They say that they do not expect to ever die.Fitch describes these people as living under an economic system by which they own all things in common, without private aggrandizement or hoarding, and without class distinctions of rich and poor, capitalist or worker. Also they have an equitable system of distribution free from exploitation and usury; and there is no poverty among them, since all are on a basis of perfect equality through a system of common ownership. They have no private property and work together cooperatively for their mutual welfare. Fitch writes:
"They say they know all the secrets of every government. They say they are of higher intelligence and authority. Since they are our superiors they have authority over us. They claim to be experts in mental telepathy. They claim they came from an antediluvian race (Lemurian and Atlantean). They say they know nothing at all about our Jesus, and say our Bible has been mistranslated, misinterpreted and misconstrued. They claim that they are a race which has not fallen as we have... They say we should get rid of nuclear bombs and armaments.
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Thursday, September 13, 2012
The Hollow Earth
The Hollow Earth
By: Dr. R. W. Bernard, B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
Before Columbus discovered America, belief in the existence of a New World across the Atlantic, in the form of a western continent, was considered as the dream of a madman.
Equally strange, in our own time, is the belief in the existence of a New World, a Subterranean World, in the hollow interior of the Earth, and which is as unknown to present humanity as the American continent was to Europeans prior to its discovery by Columbus. Yet there is no reason why it, too, may not be discovered and its existence established as a fact.
Arnoldo de Azevedo, in his "Physical Geography," wrote as follows about the mysterious world below our feet, concerning which scientists know nothing beyond a few miles in profundity, entertaining only theories, hypotheses and conjectures to hide their ignorance:
"We have below, our feet an immense region whose radius is 6,290 kilometers, which is completely unknown, challenging the conceit and competence of scientists."This statement is absolutely true. Scientists to date have penetrated only a few miles inside the earth, and what lies further down they know nothing about, depending only on conjectures, guesses and suppositions. Many of the commonly accepted theories and beliefs about the Earth's interior do not rest on any scientific basis, and seem to originate in the old ecclesiastical idea of hellfire in the center of the Earth, which is so much like the belief of scientists that the core of the Earth is a mass of fire and molten metal. Yet the scientific belief rests on no more positive evidence than the religious one. Both are merely suppositions without an iota of proof.
The belief in the Earth having a fiery center probably arose from the fact that the deeper one penetrates into the Earth, the warmer it gets. But it is a far-fetched assumption to suppose that this increase of temperature continues until the center of the Earth. There is no evidence to support this view. It is more probable that the increase of temperature continues only until we reach the level where volcanic lava and earthquakes originate, probably due to the existence of much radioactive substances there. But after we pass through this layer of maximum heat, there is no reason why it should not get cooler and cooler as we get nearer and nearer to the Earth's center.
The total surface of the Earth is 197 million square miles and its estimated weight is six sextillion tons. If the Earth was a solid sphere, its weight would be much greater. This is one among other scientific evidences of the fact that the Earth has a hollow interior.
The author believes that the truest conception of the structure of the Earth is based on the idea that when it was in a molten state during its formation, centrifugal force caused the heavier substances to be thrown outward, toward its periphery, in the form of rocks and metals, to form its outer crust, leaving its interior hollow, with openings at the poles, where centrifugal force was less and where there was less tendency to throw materials outward, which was greater at the equator, causing the bulging of the earth in this region. It has been estimated that as a result of the Earth's rotation on its axis during its formative state, polar depressions and openings thus formed would measure about 1,400 miles in diameter.
Also, we shall present below evidence to indicate that some of the original fire and incandescent materials remained in the center of the Earth to form a central sun, much smaller, of course, than our sun, but capable of emitting light and supporting plant growth. We shall also see that the Aurora Borealis or streaming lights that illuminate the Arctic sky at night come from this central sun whose rays shine through the polar opening.
Thus, if the Earth was originally a ball of fire and molten metal, some of this fire remained in its center, while centrifugal force as a result of its rotation on its axis caused its solid matter to be thrown toward the surface, forming a solid crust and leaving its interior hollow, with a fiery ball in its center, forming the central sun, which provides illumination for plant, animal and human life.
The first one to present the theory of the earth being hollow with openings at its poles was an American thinker, William Reed, author of the book, "Phantom of the Poles," published in 1906. This book provides the first compilation of scientific evidence, based on the reports of Arctic explorers, in support of the theory that the Earth is hollow with openings at its poles. Reed estimates that the crust of the Earth has a thickness of 800 miles, while its hollow interior has a diameter of 6,400 miles. Reed summarizes his revolutionary theory as follows:
"The earth is hollow. The Poles, so long sought, are phantoms. There are openings at the northern and southern extremities. In the interior are vast continents, oceans, mountains and rivers. Vegetable and animal life are evident in this New World, and it is probably peopled by races unknown to dwellers on the Earth's surface."Reed pointed out that the Earth is not a true sphere, but is flattened at the Poles, or rather it begins to flatten out as one approaches the hypothetical North and South Pole, which really do not exist because the openings to its hollow interior occur there. Hence the Poles are really in midair, in the center of the polar openings and are not on its surface as would-be discoverers of the Poles suppose.
Reed claims that the Poles cannot be discovered because the Earth is hollow at its Pole points, which exist in midair, due to the existence there of polar openings leading to its interior. When explorers thought they reached the Pole, they were misled by the eccentric behavior of the compass in high latitudes, north and south. Reed claims that this happened in the case of Peary and Cook, neither of whom really reached the North Pole, as we shall see in later pages.
Starting at 70 to 75 degrees north and south latitude the Earth starts to curve IN. The Pole is simply the outer rim of a magnetic circle around the polar opening. The North Magnetic Pole, once thought to be a point in the Arctic Archipelago, has been lately shown by Soviet Arctic explorers to be a line approximately 1000 miles long. However, as we stated above, instead of being a straight line it is really a circular line constituting the rim of the polar opening. When an explorer reaches this rim, he has reached the North Magnetic Pole; and though the compass will always point to it after one passes it, it is really not the North Pole even if one is deluded into thinking it is, or that he discovered the Pole due to having been misled by his compass. When one reaches this magnetic circle (the rim of the polar opening), the magnetic needle of the compass points straight down. This has been observed by many Arctic explorers who, after reaching high latitudes, near to 90 degrees, were dumbfounded by the inexplicable action of the compass and its tendency to point vertically upward. (They were then inside the polar opening and the compass pointed to the Earth's North Magnetic Pole which was along the rim of this opening.
As the Earth turns on its axis, the motion is gyroscopic, like the spinning of a top. The outer gyroscopic pole is the magnetic circle of the rim of the polar opening. Beyond the rim the Earth flattens and slopes gradually toward its hollow interior. The true Pole is the exact center of the opening at the Poles, which, consequently, do not really exist, and those who claimed to have discovered them did not tell the truth, even if they thought they did, having been misled by the irregular action of the compass at high latitudes. For this reason, neither Cook nor Peary nor any other explorer ever reached the North or South Poles, and never will.
A very interesting article on the above subject appeared in the March 1962 issue of "Flying Saucers" magazine, written by its editor, Ray Palmer, who believes that flying saucers come from the hollow interior of the Earth through its polar openings. The article is entitled, "THE NORTH POLE - RUSSIAN STYLE. " It describes remarkable discoveries made by Russian Arctic explorers, which confirm the theory of a hollow earth and polar openings, as do the observations of Arctic explorers to which we shall refer below. The article bears the following subtitle:
"More Evidence of Mystery Lands at the Poles - Two Hundred Years of Exploration Have Given the Russians a New Concept of the Pole and Render all Previous Geographies Obsolete - Here are Indisputable Geophysical Facts!"We shall now quote from this article:
"Many readers will remember the articles we have published giving our theories that there is something mysterious about each polar area of the Earth. We have suggested that there is much more "area" at both poles than it is possible to show on a globe map. We have pointed out Admiral Byrd's strange flights `beyond' the poles. We have mentioned the case of missing mountains and different branches of the military discounting the mapping ability of the other. We have even suggested that the Earth is hollow, and that giant 2,100 mile openings exist at the poles, and there is much evidence of the existence of these openings. We have pointed out that there is a great deal of secrecy and double-talk about the Arctic and Antarctic areas. We have even suggested that the flying saucers might come from this mystery area, or from inside the Earth.
"The North Magnetic Pole, once thought to be virtually a point in the Arctic Archipelago, has been shown by recent investigations to extend across the polar basin to the Taimyr Penninsula in Siberia.
"The `Pole,' magnetically speaking, is a very extended area that crosses the Polar Basin from one continent to the other. It is at least 1,000 miles long, and more likely can be said to exist as a rather diffused line for 1,000 miles more. (It is really not a point in the far north, but is the rim of the polar opening, since after Admiral Byrd passed it and entered the polar opening leading to the Earth's interior, he left the Arctic ice and snow behind and entered a warmer territory - Author. ) Thus when Admiral Peary (and any other Arctic explorer who used a magnetic compass) claims to have `reached' the Pole, he is making a very vague claim indeed. He can only say that he reached a point, which can be anywhere in a demonstrable 2,000 mile area (the magnetic rim of the polar opening), where his compass pointed straight down. A noteworthy achievement, but not a `discovery of the Pole.'It is well known that the North and South Magnetic Poles do not coincide with the geographical poles, as they should were the Earth a solid sphere, convex at its poles. The reason why the magnetic and geographical poles don't coincide is because, while the magnetic pole lies along the rim of the polar opening, the geographical pole lies in its center, in midair and not on solid land. As we shall see below, the true magnetic pole is not on the external rim of the polar opening but the center of the Earth's crust, which should be about 400 miles below the surface, and running around the polar opening. For this reason the needle of the compass still continues to point vertically downward after one passes the rim of the polar opening and penetrates into it. Only after passing its center would the needle of the compass start pointing upward instead of downward, but in either case, after reaching the rim of the polar opening, the compass no longer functions horizontally, as previously, but vertically. This has been observed by all Arctic explorers who reached high latitudes and puzzled them.
The only explanation is provided on the conception of a hollow earth and polar openings, with the magnetic pole and center of gravity in the middle of the Earth's crust, and not in its geometrical center. As a result, ocean water on the inside of the crust adheres to its inner surface just as it does on the outside. We may calculate the Earth's magnetic pole and center of gravity as a circular line around the polar opening, but in its middle, about 400 miles from the Earth's surface.
In support of the above conception regarding the magnetic pole being situated in the rim of the polar opening, Palmer refers to the following facts: Between each magnetic pole around the Earth pass magnetic meridians. In contrast with geographical meridians, which measure longitude, the magnetic meridians move from east to west and back again. The difference between the geographical meridians, or true north and south, and the direction in which a magnetic compass points, or the magnetic meridian of the place, is called the declination. The first observation made was in London in 1580 and showed an easterly declination of 11 degrees. In 1815 the declination reached 24. 3 degrees westerly maximum. This makes a difference of 35. 3 degrees change in 235 years, which is equal to 2,118 miles. Now if we make a circle around the Pole, with a radius of 1,059 miles, so that it is 2,118 miles in diameter, this would represent the rim of the polar opening along which, in this case, the North Magnetic Pole traveled from one point to its diametrically opposite point on the circle, 2,118 miles away, in 235 years.
This is the reason why the magnetic pole and the geographical pole do not coincide. The geographical pole is an extension of the Earth's axis and since this runs through the center of the polar opening, it exists in empty space - hence can never be "discovered" by any explorer, since it is not on solid land.
According to Marshall Gardner, the rim of the polar opening, which is the true magnetic pole, is a large circle 1,400 miles in diameter. It is so large that when explorers pass it, as many did, the slope is so gradual that they never know they are entering the interior of the Earth, but imagine they are on the surface. The magnetic pole can therefore be any point on the circle of the magnetic rim of the polar opening. On this point, Palmer says:
"The focal point, or the actual `pinpoint' of the magnetic pole exists on only one portion of the circumference of that circle at a time, and moves progressively around the circle in a definite `orbit' that takes some 235 years. This would make the magnetic pole travel approximately 18 miles per year.If the Earth was a solid sphere, with two poles at the end of its axis, being a magnet, its magnetic poles would coincide with its geographical poles. The fact that they do not is inexplicable on the basis of the theory that it is a solid sphere. The explanation becomes clear when we assume the existence of polar openings, with magnetic poles along the circular rim of these openings, rather than at a fixed point.
Palmer quotes a significant statement by Russian Arctic explorers who say:
"Exploration and research have shown that an enormous area of the Earth's surface and correspondingly *large realms of the unknown* may be brought within the compass of human understanding in a very few years."This statement by the Russians sounds remarkably similar to Admiral Byrd's statements about the trans-Arctic region being "the center of the Great Unknown." Could it be that the Russians know about Admiral Byrd's discovery of "a vast new territory" beyond the Pole? Palmer comments on this Russian statement as follows:
"This is truly a stupendous sentence. Contemplate what it actually says. It says that not only exploration, but also `research' have shown that enormous regions of the Earth's surface AND correspondingly (this word is significant) large realms of the UNKNOWN may be brought within the compass of UNDERSTANDING of human beings in a very few years. In plain words, in addition to areas we can understand and investigate by exploration, there are large realms which have to be brought to human understanding by means of research.Palmer quotes the Russians as saying:
"As recently as 30 years ago more than half the total area of the Polar Basin was unexplored, and 16 per cent was still terra incognita only 15 years ago. Today, disappointing as this may be to young geographers, the area of blank spots on the map of the Polar Basin has shrunk to almost nothing. At the same time, to the regret of the older explorers and the understandable pleasure of the younger ones, there are still blank spots elsewhere in the Arctic. The ocean, the air and the ionosphere still hold many mysteries."Palmer comments on this Russian statement:
"We learn that the blank spots on the map of the Polar Basin have shrunk to almost nothing. In the next breath we find that there are still blank spots ELSEWHERE in the Arctic. Where else? The ocean, the air and the ionosphere, they say, still hold many mysteries. Particularly the ocean, in the UNKNOWN extent of which exist vast land masses so far not only beyond our ability to place on our maps, but beyond our ability to understand.The theory of a hollow earth with openings at the poles was originated by William Reed in 1906, when he first presented it in his book, "Phantom of the Poles." Fourteen years later, in 1920, another American writer, Marshall B. Gardner, published a book entitled "A Journey to the Earth's Interior or Have The Poles Really Been Discovered?" Apparently he knew nothing about Reed's book, since he did not mention it in his bibliography, which was quite extensive and included most of the important books on Arctic exploration, which he quoted in support of this theory of a hollow earth.
Gardner, in his book, presents the same conception o! the Earth's structure as Reed did, claiming that it is hollow, with openings at its Poles, but he differs from Reed in that he believes in the existence of a central sun which is the source of the aurora borealis. In the diagrams of his book, Gardner depicts the Earth as having circular openings at its poles; and the ocean water, which flows through these openings, adheres to the solid crust, both above and below, since the center of gravity of the Earth, according to his theory, resides in the middle of this solid portion and not in its hollow interior. For this reason, if a ship travels through the polar opening and reaches the Earth's interior, it would continue to sail in a reversed position on the inside of the crust, just as, at night, we are below the Earth's surface held to it by gravity.
Gardner's book, which is now out of print and very rare, seeming to have met the fate of other writings on this subject by being lost and forgotten and its message unknown to the world at present, has many interesting diagrams, some of which we are reproducing. We quote his description of these diagrams:
Gravitational pull is strongest around the curve from the exterior to the interior of the Earth. A 150 pound man would probably weigh 300 pounds while sailing through the polar opening and around the curve from the outside to the inside of the Earth. When he reached the inside he would weigh only 75 pounds. This is because less force is needed to hold a body to the inside of a hollow ball in rotation than to hold it to the outside, due to centrifugal force.
William Reed says that gravitational pull is strongest about half way around the curve leading to the interior of the Earth, where is the center of gravity, being so strong there that the salt water and fresh water of icebergs (which, as we shall see below, come from the Earth's interior) do not mix. The salt water remains a few feet below the fresh water. This enables one to obtain fresh drinking water from the Arctic Ocean. But how can fresh water be found in the extreme north, where there is only salty ocean water, and how can icebergs be formed of fresh water, not salt water? The only explanation, as both Reed and Gardner point out, and as we shall see below, is that this fresh water comes from rivers that arose in the Earth's warmer interior, which, after they reach the colder surface, suddenly freeze and turn into icebergs, which break off and fall into the sea, producing the strange tidal waves that Arctic explorers have observed in the far north, and which puzzled them.
Both Reed and Gardner claim that the temperature in the inside of the Earth is much more uniform than on the outside, being warmer in winter and cooler in summer. There is adequate rainfall, more than on the surface, but it is never cold enough to snow. It is an ideal subtropical climate, which is free from the oppressive heat of the tropics, as well as from the cold weather of the temperate zone. They also claim that the north polar opening is larger than the south. They say that there exists a Land of Paradise on the other side of the Mammoth Ice Barrier, which must be passed before one reaches a warmer climate in the land that lies beyond the Pole, over which Admiral Byrd flew.
Around the curve at the polar opening is another ring of ice, called the Great Massive Fresh Water Ice Pack or Ice Barrier. Here is where icebergs originate. Each winter, this ring of ice is formed from fresh water which flows out from the inside of the Earth. During the winter months, billions of tons of free-flowing fresh water, coming from rivers inside the Earth and flowing toward the outside through the polar openings, freeze at their mouth and form mountains of fresh water ice, whose presence in this region would be inexplicable if the Earth was a solid sphere. In summer time, huge icebergs, miles long, break off and float to the outside of the Earth. They are composed of fresh water, when there could exist only salt water at the poles. Since this is the case and since all water on the outside of the Earth in these regions is salty, the fresh water of which these icebergs are composed must come from its interior.
Inside the icebergs, the mammoth and other huge tropical animals, believed to be of prehistoric origin because never seen on the Earth's surface, have been found in a perfect state of preservation. Some of them have been found to have green vegetation in their mouths and stomachs at the time they were suddenly frozen. The usual explanation is that these are prehistoric animals which lived in the Arctic region at the time when it had a tropical climate, and that the coming of the Ice Age, suddenly converted the Arctic from a tropical to a frigid zone and froze them before they had time to flee southward. The great ivory deposits from elephants, found in Siberia and islands of the north, are also explained in this way. Gardner, however, holds to an entirely different theory, which was supported by the observations of Admiral Byrd of a huge mammoth-like creature in the "land beyond the Pole," which he discovered.
Gardner claims that mammoths are really animals now inhabiting the interior of the Earth, which have been carried to the surface by rivers and frozen inside of the ice that formed when the rivers reached the surface, forming glaciers and icebergs.
In Siberia, along the Lena River, there lie exposed on the soil and buried within it, the bones and tusks of millions of mammoths and mastadons. The consensus of scientific opinion is that they are prehistoric remains, and that the mammoth existed some 20,000 years ago, but was wiped out in the unknown catastrophe we now call the last Ice Age.
It was Schumachoff, a fisherman living in Tongoose, Siberia, who, in 1799, first discovered a complete mammoth frozen in a clear block of ice. Hacking it free, he removed its huge tusks and left the carcass of fresh meat to be devoured by wolves. Later an expedition was sent to examine it, and today its skeleton may be seen in the Museum of Natural History in Leningrad.
Polar explorers not only mention fauna (animals) but flora (vegetation) in the extreme north. Also many animals, like the musk-ox, strangely migrate northward in winter, which it would do only if it reached a warmer land there. Repeatedly, Arctic explorers have observed bears heading northward into an area where there cannot be food for them if there was no polar opening into a warmer region. Foxes also were found north of the 80th parallel heading north, obviously well fed. Without exception, Arctic explorers agree that, strangely, the further north one goes, after a certain latitude, the warmer it gets.
Invariably, a north wind brings warmer weather. Coniferous trees were found drifting ashore, coming from the far north. Butterflies and bees were found in the far north, and even mosquitoes, but they are not found hundreds of miles to the south and not until Canadian and Alaskan climate areas conducive to such insect life are reached.
Unknown varieties of flowers were also found in the extreme north. Birds resembling snipe, but unlike any known species of bird, were seen to come from the north, and to return there. Hare are plentiful in a far northern area where no vegetation grows but where vegetable matter is found in drifting debris from the more northern open waters.
Eskimo tribes have left unmistakable traces of their migration by their temporary camps, always advancing northward Southern Eskimos speak of tribes that live in the far north. They hold the belief that their ancestors came from a land of paradise in the extreme north.
In New Zealand and lower South America are found identical fauna and flora which could not have migrated from one of these places to the other. The only explanation is that they came from a common motherland - the Antarctic continent. Yet how could they come from there if it is a frozen waste where only penguins seem able to survive? "Only Admiral Byrd's 'mystery land' can account for these inexplicable facts and migrations," concludes Palmer.
Many Arctic explorers, after passing the ring of ice around the curve leading to the Earth's interior, continued straight north until they crossed this ice barrier. Many entered the opening leading to the interior but did not know it and thought they were still on the outer surface. The reason for this is that the opening is so large that one cannot know the difference except that the sun rises later and sets sooner, its rays being cut off by the rim of the polar opening after one enters it. This has been observed by all Arctic explorers who went sufficiently north. The polar opening is believed by Gardner to be 1,400 miles in diameter.
Once they were inside the Earth, explorers entered a New World where they found things opposite to what they expected. The needle of the compass pointed vertically instead of horizontally as it did before, due to the fact that the true magnetic pole is located in the middle of the curve leading from the outside to the inside of the earth. The further north they went, the warmer it became. The ice of Arctic regions further south disappeared and was replaced by open sea (Admiral Byrd found a total absence of ice and snow in the "land beyond the Pole" over which he passed for 1,700 miles.)
As explorers sailed further north, the north winds became warmer and warmer. The weather was mild and pleasant. Often the dust, carried by the wind, was unbearable. Some explorers, like Nansen, had to turn back due to the dust. Where could this dust come from in the extreme north, a land of ice and ocean? Reed and Gardner explain the origin of this dust, often noticed by Arctic explorers, to volcanoes inside the polar opening leading to the interior of the Earth. It would be impossible to expect volcanoes in the Arctic, except if they were inside the polar opening.
On August 3, 1894, Dr. Fritjof-Nansen, an Arctic explorer, in the far north, was surprised at the warm weather there and the fox tracks he found. He was probably inside the polar opening then. His compass utterly failed to work, so that he did not know where he was. The further into the opening he went, the warmer it became. It he went still further he would have seen tropical birds, as other explorers did, as well as other animals not seen on the Earth's surface, as the mammoth that Admiral Byrd observed when he looked down from his plane, during his 1,700 mile flight over this mysterious ice-free Arctic area.
Ray Palmer writes:
"The musk-ox, contrary to expectations, migrates north in the wintertime. Repeatedly, Arctic explorers have observed bears heading north into an area where there cannot be food for them. Foxes also are found north of the 80th parallel, heading north, obviously well fed. Without exception, Arctic explorers agree that the further north one goes, the warmer it gets. Invariably a north wind brings warmer weather. Coniferous trees drift ashore from out of the north. Butterflies and bees are found in the far north, but never hundreds of miles further south; not until Canadian and Alaskan climate areas conducive to such insect life are reached.The Scandinavian legend of a land of paradise in the far north, known as "Ultima Thule," commonly confused with Greenland, is significant because, centuries before Admiral Byrd's flight, the existence of such an ice-free land in the northern limits of the Earth was anticipated.
"The Scandinavian legend of a wonderful land far to the north called "Ultima Thule" (commonly confused with Greenland) is significant when studied in detail, because of its remarkable resemblance to the kind of land seen by Byrd, and its remarkable far north location. To assume that Ultima Thule is Greenland is to come face to lace with the contradiction of the Greenland Ice Cap, which fills the entire Greenland basin to the depth of 10,000 feet. Is Admiral Byrd's land of mystery, the center of the great unknown, the same as the Ultima Thule of the Scandinavian legends?Another American writer on the subject of the Earth being hollow, named Theodore Fitch, referring to the ice barriers that must be crossed before one can enter the polar openings leading to the Earth's interior, asks: "Why can't we fly over these huge ice barriers or make roads and travel overland over them to the inside of the Earth?" He sees no reason why this cannot be done, even though he, like most other Americans, was in total ignorance of the fact that Admiral Byrd flew over these ice barriers some years before, and had entered this new territory. Fitch believes that once these facts are made public, every large nation would try to establish a foothold in this New World, whose land area is greater than that on the Earth's surface and which is free from radioactive fallout to poison its soil and foods.
This New World could more easily be reached than the moon and is of much more importance to us, since it provides ideal conditions for human life, with a better climate than exists on the surface. Fitch calls it a Land of Paradise, and believes it is the true geographical location of Paradise, a wonderful land referred to in the religious writings of all peoples.
It seems that the Russians are now doing what Fitch suggested by sending fleets of icebreakers, some atomic-powered, to explore the far north The next step will be for the Russians to repeat Admiral Byrd's flight through the polar opening to the "land beyond the Pole."
Fitch's book is entitled "Our Paradise Inside the Earth." He based it on the works of Reed and Gardner. He mentioned that during the last century a sea captain, who traveled due north, curved inward into the interior of the Earth, though he thought he was heading toward the North Pole.
"Both William Reed and Marshall Gardner declare that there must be a land of paradise on the other side of the mammoth ice barrier. Both men are of the opinion that a race of little brown people live in the interior of the Earth. It is possible that the Eskimos descended from these people.Fitch points out that the hollow interior of the earth has a land area larger than the outer surface because while 75 per cent of the earth's surface is covered with water, leaving only 55 million square miles of land surface, the total surface of the earth is 197 million square miles. Fitch claims that there are no oceans in the interior comparable in size with those on the surface, and that there is three times as much land inside the earth as on the outside, so that in spite of the smaller circumference and less total area of the interior, its land area is greater.
Fitch says that it has a better and healthier climate than we have on the surface, without cold winters, hurricanes, earthquakes, electric storms, cyclones, radioactive fallout, nefarious cosmic rays, radioactive solar radiations, soil erosion from excessive rainfall and other disadvantages. It has an ideal subtropical climate.
Another American writer who was much influenced by the theories of Reed and Gardner is William L. Blessing who published a booklet on the subject in which he reproduced their diagrams of the Earth's structure. Blessing wrote:
"The Earth is not a true sphere. It is flat at the poles, or, I should say, it begins to flatten out at the poles. The pole is simply the outer rim of a magnetic circle, and at this point the magnetic needle of the compass points down. As the earth turns on its axis, the motion is gyroscopic. The outer gyroscopic pole is the magnetic rim of a circle. Beyond the rim the Earth flattens and slopes gradually like a canyon into the interior. The true pole in the exact center of the cone is perpendicular, for this point is the exact center of the opening or hollow into the Earth's interior.One of the most puzzling facts of Arctic exploration is that while the area is oceanic, covered with water, which is variously frozen over or partially open, depending on the time of the year, many explorers remarked, however, paradoxically, that the open water exists in greater measure at the points nearest to the Pole, while further south there is more ice. In fact, some explorers found it very hot going at times, and were forced to shed their Arctic clothing. There is even one record of an encounter with naked Eskimos. In fact, the origin of the Eskimo race is believed to be in the extreme north, from where they migrated southward to their present habitat. Their original more northern home was probably warmer than their present more southern one.
It is strange that Reed's and Gardner's books, which presented such an epoch-making geographical theory, which they supported by the evidence of Arctic exploration during the past century - a theory comparable in importance to the theory that the Earth is round, when it was first proposed - should have been so disregarded (or were they suppressed?), so that today they are unavailable and very rare. (It was the author's good fortune to secure a copy of Gardner's book from a bookdealer handling rare books.) Is it possible that these books shared the fate of the news about Admiral Byrd's discoveries, Giannini's book and Palmer's magazine announcing Byrd's confirmation of Reed's and Gardner's theory of a hollow Earth with openings at the poles ? (A correspondent of the author's, living in Washington, D.C., wrote that he happened to look through the books in the library of a high official of the Air Force, with whom he had business, and, much to his surprise, he saw a copy of Gardner's book.)
Evidently Gardner's theory of a hollow Earth is not unknown to government and military leaders in view of Admiral Byrd having confirmed it; but it is hushed up and not openly discussed.
Fitch asks those who do not believe that the Earth is hollow, with openings at its poles, to answer the following questions:
"Can you produce proof that any explorer reached the so-called North or South Pole ?
The Hollow Earth
Was the North Pole Really Discovered?
By: Dr. R. W. Bernard, B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
On April 21, 1808, Dr. Frederick A. Cook announced that he had reached the North Pole. His announcement was followed a few days later by one from Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary, who claimed to reach the North Pole on April 6, 1909. Both men hurled accusations against the other, claiming that they discovered the North Pole and that the other did not. Cook accused Peary, saying that he had appropriated some of his reports on his return from the Pole. But Cook failed to have any written record that he had made of his trip, and this made his reports seem suspicious.
Though Cook claimed to be the first to reach the North Pole, Peary is generally given credit to have been the first to discover it. Cook's claim was discredited because the sun's altitude was only a few degrees above the horizon and was so low at the time that observations of it as proof of his position were worthless. Peary reached, or claimed he reached, the North Pole in April, fifteen days earlier in the season, and hence under more adverse solar conditions. His calculations are therefore more open to suspicion than Cook's.
Also, Cook has no witnesses that he found the North Pole, other than Eskimos. The same is true of Peary, who lacked witnesses through choice, having ordered the men on the expedition to remain behind, while he went on alone with one Eskimo companion to the Pole. While Cook was doubted when he claimed to make 15 miles a day, Peary claimed to have made over 20 miles. The argument whether Cook or Peary, or neither, discovered the North Pole is still not perfectly settled.
There is one factor in Peary's dash to the Pole that casts suspicion on his claim to have reached it. This was the remarkable speed at which he claimed to travel, or would have had to travel to reach the North Pole and return during the time he did. When he neared the 88th parallel north latitude, he decided to attempt a final dash to the Pole in five days. He made 25 miles the first day; 20 miles on the second day; 20 miles on the third day; 25 miles on the fourth; and 40 miles on the fifth. His five-day average was 26 miles a day. Can a man walk that fast under the incredibly difficult conditions of the North Pole area, supposedly an ice-terrain described by the men in the atomic submarine "Skate" as fantastically jumbled and jagged? And yet, further south, with presumably better conditions of travel, he was able to average only 20 miles a day.
From these facts we must conclude that neither Cook nor Peary reached the true North Pole, since, according to the theories presented in this book, it does not exist. What Cook and Peary reached was probably the magnetic rim of the polar opening or depression, where the compass points straight down, but not the Pole itself, which lies in the center of this opening. Peary may have traveled for the distance he calculated as correct to reach the North Pole, but what he really did was to travel this same distance either around or into the depression or opening which exists in this part of the world, into which Admiral Byrd entered; and the further he would travel the deeper he would go into this opening, without ever reaching the true Pole.
Scientific societies that considered Cook's and Peary's claims to reach the North Pole concluded that in neither case could it be said authoritatively that the explorer had reached the Pole.
Cook's claim to have reached the Pole was based on his promise to prove it by field notes and mathematical observations. But he was never able to present any notes. He claimed that Peary caused some of this data to be buried. But in time the faith in Cook turned into skepticism, which was started by Peary's denial of Cook's claim. Peary's denial was supported by Cook's failure to present proper scientific data. Rear Admiral Melville of the United States Navy, an old time Arctic explorer, said in an interview at the time:
"It was the crazy dispatches purporting to have come from Dr. Cook about the conditions he found there, and other things, that caused a doubt in my mind about Cook's having found the Pole."According to Dr. Tittman, Cook and Peary could not have traveled on foot over solid ice to reach the North Pole, because practically all scientists agree that this is not the fact. Some think there is open sea there and others fertile land. All explorers who have gone far enough north found open sea. As for fertile land there, this would only be possible according to our own theory of a polar opening and central sun, since, according to the theory of a solid earth, it should get colder and colder the further north one goes. But Arctic explorers found the opposite to be true. They found it warmer near the, Pole than further south. But even if the cold at the Pole was not enough to freeze the sea, how could it be warm enough to permit fertile land unless our theory is correct? Since all polar explorers agree that there is open sea in this region (the polar orifice), but ice further south, it is clear that Cook did not go as far north as he thought he went.
When the Swedish Academy of Sciences and University of Copenhagen examined Cook's claims, they decided that he had not proved that he reached the Pole. Peary gave the following report to the Associated Press:
"Cook was not at the North Pole on April 21, 1908, nor at any other time. Cook's story should not be taken too seriously. The two Eskimos who accompanied him say he went no distance north, and not out of sight of land. Other members of the tribe commemorate this story. He has simply handed the public a gold brick."But when Peary returned to civilization his own story sounded as dubious as Cook's. He had taken even fewer observations of his alleged position than Cook had done. The fact that he left his white companions behind and had no witnesses cast doubt on his claims. When Cook was doubted when he said he made fifteen miles a day in sledge traveling, Peary claimed he made over twenty, and even forty. Since it is impossible to make forty miles a day on a dog sledge, which is admitted to be slower travel than on foot, this claim seems impossible. When questioned whether he traveled faster on the dog sledge than on foot, Peary admitted:
"In Arctic expeditions a man is lucky if he is able to walk without pushing the sledge. Usually he must grip the rear and push it ahead. It is like guiding a breaking plow drawn by oxen. You must also expect at any moment that the sledge may strike some pressure ridge that will wrench you off your feet."According to Peary's statement it seems impossible that he could travel at speeds of twenty to forty miles a day over Arctic ice and keep it up for eight days, after doing equally arduous work for months.
For this reason, after examining Cook's and Peary's data, Honorable Mr. Miller concludes:
"The question whether Cook or Peary discovered the North Pole may never be solved. It seems to be one of history's puzzles, and to remain a matter of one man's word against another."When Peary submitted his proofs for investigation, the Congressional Committee that examined them acknowledged in Congress that Peary had not, no more than Cook, proved his claim of reaching the Pole. Peary claimed he traveled a distance of 270 miles from eighty-seven degrees, forty- seven minutes North to the Pole and back to the same latitude in seven days and a few hours. This speed seems impossible in the polar region.
Cook admitted he did not reach the Pole in his book he wrote after he returned from his expedition, in which he wrote:
"Did I actually reach the North Pole?...If I was mistaken in approximately placing my feet upon the pin-point (North Pole) about which this controversy has raged, I maintain it was the inevitable mistake any man must make. To touch that spot would be an accident."This created an international scandal. After foreign kings and universities had congratulated and showered honors on Cook, later it was discovered they had been duped. Now, after one American explorer (Cook) was found to have made a false claim, it would reflect badly the reputation of the United States if another (Peary) was found, after examination, to also make a false claim. This would lead to ridicule in the foreign press. To prevent this, the Congress of the United States appointed a committee of the National Geographical Society, which gave a favorable verdict on Peary's discovery after a cursory examination of his field notes, and it was hoped this would settle the matter, so that the world may consider an American explorer, Peary, to have discovered the North Pole. It was hoped this would settle the matter, and prevent one false claim about the discovery of the North Pole by an American from following the other.
However, a year after the committee of the National Geographical Society made a favorable verdict on Peary's claim, a new Congressional investigation was made and its verdict was that Peary did not prove his claims because his statements were not backed by a single white witness. The committee made the verdict of "not proven."
But Peary never replied to the charges made against him, and wished to end his career by retiring with the rank of Rear Admiral, which carried a pension with it of $6,000 a year. Friends of Peary brought into Congress a bill to retire him. One would think that before he retired an inquiry would be made whether or not he reached the Pole, but no inquiry was made. While the United States government refused to officially endorse Peary's discovery, it could not afford to lower its prestige before the world by announcing that he did not discover the North Pole.
"I am satisfied that Peary did not discover the Pole for two reasons:At a Congressional Hearing, Mr. Tittmann, superintendent of the U.S. Coast Survey, was asked: "What evidence is there that this party consisting of Peary and others, reached the Pole?"
Mr. Tittmann replied: "I have no evidence of that except the soundings recorded under Peary's signature. Peary brought back nothing - no witnesses, no worthwhile scientific proof, nothing but his unsupported word to back up his claim to have discovered the Pole. But, inasmuch as his reputation for veracity has been completely shattered by the fact that every other claim of discovery made by him has proven false, there is nothing that the world can accept as demonstrating that at any time he has been anywhere near the Pole."
Due to the irregular action of the compass in the polar region and the fact that the sun was barely above the horizon when both explorers were there, making it difficult to make measurements, in a region where it is easy for an explorer to get lost due to difficulty in ascertaining his position, it is probable that neither Cook or Peary really found the North Pole, even if they thought they did. This is confirmed by the fact that every previous Arctic explorer found warmer conditions and open sea very far north, while Cook and Peary claimed they traveled over ice. This would indicate that they were in points further south and if they had gone further north they would reach open sea. Commenting on this fact, Marshall B. Gardner, in his book, "A Journey to the Earth's Interior or Were the Poles Really Discovered," writes:
"Had they (Cook and Peary) gone further they would have found open and increasing temperature. Had they then possessed boats they could have launched on that sea and the way to the goal and to the truth would have been clear. They would have seen the earth's central sun shining even in the winter, shining all of the twenty-four hours and all of the year, and they would have discovered new continents and oceans, a new world of land and water and of forms of life some of which have vanished from the outside of the globe.Gardner's claim was confirmed by the two expeditions of Admiral Byrd, which traveled by airplane through the openings at the North and South Poles and came to this warmer land, where they saw a new strange form of animal life, as well as trees, green vegetation, mountains and lakes, though the expeditions did not penetrate the polar openings far enough to reach the tropical land of perpetual sunlight in the earth's interior, about which Gardner speaks. But such a land and such a sun must exist if Admiral Byrd's observations of a warmer territory beyond the Poles are correct.