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Thursday, September 13, 2012

William Reed's Book, "Phantom of the Poles"


The Hollow Earth
Chapter 3:
William Reed's Book, "Phantom of the Poles"
By: Dr. R. W. Bernard, B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
Presenting Scientific Evidence, Based on Arctic Exploration, to Prove for the First Time that the Earth is Hollow With Openings at the Poles.
In 1906 appeared the first book to offer scientific proof that old geographical conceptions about the earth's structure are false and that the earth, instead of being a solid sphere, as commonly assumed, is really hollow, with openings at the poles. Were this a book created from the author's imagination, it might be disregarded as a work of science fiction - but since the book is based on an extensive bibliography representing the reports of Arctic explorers, it must be taken more seriously.
This book was published in New York and written by William Reed. Its title was "The Phantom of the Poles," and claimed the Poles were never discovered because they do not exist. Where the North and South Poles are supposed to be located, Reed claims are huge polar openings in which the Poles are in the center, for which reason they can never be reached by any explorer.
Reed's book was written fourteen years before that of Marshall Gardner, who claimed that not only was the earth hollow but that there was a central sun at its center. Reed, however, did not include this central sun in his theory, but believed that the higher temperature in the region of the Poles is due to burning volcanoes at the polar openings, which are the origin of the dust that Arctic explorers noticed there. We now quote from Reed's book. On page 282 he says:
"The earth is either hollow or it is not. What proof have we that it is not hollow? None at all that is positive and circumstantial. On the contrary, everything points to its being hollow. If it be so, and if there are burning volcanoes in the interior, would you not see great lights reflected on the icebergs and clouds, just as other great fires reflect the light? Would not great clouds of smoke and dust be seen - the same as from any other burning volcano? That is what all the explorers have witnessed - low dark clouds rising from the ocean, or at the edge of the ice. Nansen (an Arctic explorer) said: `Let us go home: What have we here to stay for? Nothing but dust, dust, dust!'
"Where could such dust come from - so bad that it was one of the great annoyances in the heart of the Arctic Ocean, if it did not come from an exploding, burning volcano (in the polar opening) ?
"If the earth be hollow, would it not be warmer in winter and cooler in summer (as we enter the polar opening)? Arctic explorers say that a north wind in winter raises the temperature, while a south wind lowers it. As an opposite fact, in summer a south wind raises the temperature, while north wind lowers it. That is just what would occur if the winds come from the interior of the earth. Again, if the earth is hollow, it could not be round, in as much as the opening would take from its roundness in proportion to the size of the opening. All now agree that the earth flattens at the poles. Also it is warmer the further one goes north or south. Why is this the case?
"There is but one answer, and that is that the earth is hollow, and is warmer in the interior than on the exterior. As the wind passes out in the winter, it warms the atmosphere. If the earth is solid, neither science nor reason can furnish any rational theory why it should be warmer as one passes north. Every known theory is against such a conclusion. As soon as you adopt the belief that the earth is hollow, perplexing questions will be easily solved, the mind will be satisfied, and the triumph of sensible reasoning will come as a delight never to be forgotten.
"This volume is not written to entertain those who read for amusement, but to establish and prove, as far as proof can be established and proved, certain mighty truths hitherto not comprehended. One key will unlock all these mysteries. The problems to be solved are the following:
" 1. Why is the earth flattened at the poles?
" 2. Why have the poles never been reached?
" 3. Why is the sun invisible so long in winter near the farthest points north or south?
" 4. What causes the Aurora Borealis?
" 5. Where are the icebergs formed and how?
" 6. What produces the many tidal waves in the Arctic?
" 7. Why do meteors fall more frequently near the Poles and from where do they come?
" 8. What causes the great ice pressure in the Arctic Ocean during still tide and calm weather?
" 9. Why is there colored snow in the Arctic region?
"10. Why is it warmer near the Poles than 600 to 1,000 miles away from them?
"11. Why is ice in the Arctic Ocean frequently filled with rock, gravel, sand, etc. ?
"12. Why does the compass refuse to work near the Poles?

"Should I be able to give reasonable answers to the above questions - answers that will satisfy any intelligent person - the public will admit, I believe, that I have fulfilled my task.
"I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to the brave men who have spent their time, comfort and, in many cases, have given their lives, so that all may know the truth and geography of this wonderful planet Through their reports I am able to prove my theory that the earth is not only hollow, but suitable in its interior to sustain human life with as little discomfort as on its exterior, and can be made accessible to mankind with one-fourth the outlay of money, time and life that it costs to build the subway in New York City. The number of people who can settle in this new world (if not already occupied) will be billions.
"I claim that the earth is not only hollow, but that all, or nearly all, of the explorers who spent much of their time past the rim of the polar opening have had a look into the interior of the earth. When Lieutenant Greely was beholding the mock sun at 120 degrees latitude, he was looking into our sister world in the earth's interior."
Reed answers the above questions as follows:
"1. Why is the earth flattened at the Poles? As the earth is hollow, it could not be round, is the answer. The opening to the interior would detract from its roundness in proportion to the size of the opening.
" 2. Why have the Poles never been reached? Because no Poles exist in the sense usually understood.
" 3. Why does the sun not appear for so long a time in winter near the supposed Poles? Because during the winter the sun strikes the earth obliquely near the Poles. As one passes over the rim of the polar opening and approaches the earth's interior, one sinks inward into the hollow interior. The sun's rays are in this way cut off, and do not appear again until they strike that part of the earth more directly and shine down into the opening. This explains why nights are so long in the far north.
"4. Assuming that the earth is hollow, the interior should be warmer. We will furnish evidence to prove that it is warmer. The ones who have explored the furthest north will be the best judges.
"5. Meteors are constantly falling near the supposed poles. Why? If the earth be solid, no one can answer this question. If the earth is hollow, it is easily answered. Some volcano is in eruption in the interior of the earth, and from it rocks are thrown into the air. Vast quantities of dust are constantly found in the Arctic Ocean. What causes this dust? The volcanic eruptions. The dust has been analyzed and found to consist of carbon and iron, which must come from some volcano in the polar opening.
" 6. What produces the aurora borealis? It is a reflection of a fire within the interior of the earth. (According to Marshall B. Gardner, this fire is the central sun, whose rays project through the polar opening on the night sky, and the changing forms and streamers of the aurora borealis are due to passing clouds cutting off its rays.)
" 7. Where are the icebergs formed? And how? The answer is as follows: In the interior of the earth, where it is warm, rivers flow to the surface through the polar opening. When they reach the outside, in the Arctic Circle, where it is very cold, the mouth of the rivers freezes forming icebergs. This continues for months, until, due to the warmer weather in summer and the warmth from the earth, the icebergs are thawed loose and are washed into the ocean. (The fact that icebergs are formed from fresh water, not salty ocean water, proves this theory.)
" 8. What causes tidal waves in the Arctic? They are started by icebergs leaving the place where they are formed, and plunging into the ocean. This answer is given because nothing else can produce even a fraction of the commotion of a monster iceberg when it plunges into the sea.
"9. What causes colored snow in the Arctic region? There are two causes. The red, green and yellow snow are caused by a vegetable matter permeating the air with such density that when it falls with the snow it colors it. This vegetable matter is supposed to be the blossom or pollen of a plant. As it does not grow on earth, one can naturally believe that it grows in the interior and came out through the polar opening. Black snow, often noticed, is caused by black dust, consisting of carbon and iron, and comes from a burning volcano. As no burning volcano is near the Arctic Ocean, it must be in the interior of the earth.
"10. Why is the ice filled with rock, gravel and sand? These substances came from an exploding volcano near where the iceberg is formed.
"By treating the earth as hollow, we have the solution of all the great mysteries - such as tidal waves, ice pressures, colored snow, open Arctic Ocean, warmer north, icebergs, flattening of the earth at the Poles, and why the Poles have not been found, the supernatural giving way to the natural, as it always does with understanding and relief comes to mind and body.
"The earth is hollow. The Poles so long sought are but phantoms. There are openings at the northern and southern extremities. In the interior are vast continents, oceans, mountains and rivers. Vegetable and animal life are evident in this new world, and it is probably peopled by races yet unknown to dwellers upon the earth's exterior."
In support of his theory of a hollow earth, Reed offers the following evidence:
LONG ABSENCE OF SUNLIGHT DURING LONG ARCTIC WINTERS. Reed summarizes the experience of Arctic explorers who very quickly passed from the region of sunshine into the region of long nights, or the opposite. In the far north the sun is absent for abnormally long periods of time, which could not be the case if the earth was round and solid, or even just slightly flattened at the poles. The only explanation is that these explorers entered into the opening at the North Pole; and as they entered, the sun's rays were cut off from them, to reappear only when it was high enough in the sky to shine in.
ABNORMAL WORKlNG OF THE COMPASS IN THE FAR NORTH. This was observed by all explorers who reached very far north. This strange action of the compass is exactly what should be the case if the earth is hollow and if they entered into the polar opening. In his book Reed has a drawing of a cross-section of the polar opening with ships sailing both in and out. When the ship enters the polar opening, the needle of the compass assumes a vertical position, instead of horizontal, as it does on top of the earth's surface. This is due to entering the polar opening. This is exactly what explorers found to occur in the far north. They found that as they approached the pole, the needle of the compass becomes restless, and when one goes far enough north, assumes a vertical position, indicating that one has then entered the polar opening, as occurred with Nansen and others.
PASSING OVER THE RIM OF THE POLAR OPENING INTO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR - Reed says on this subject:
"Whenever the explorers pass into the interior, they meet such different conditions that they are puzzled to account for them. Therefore it is no wonder that they call it a strange land. Everyone who has spent considerable time in the Arctic or Antarctic Circles has met with conditions unexplainable according to the theory that the earth is round and solid - but which find an easy explanation according to the theory that it is hollow with openings at the poles. Greely's description of passing around the curve into the polar opening is exceedingly good and clear. He says:
"`The deep interest with which we had hitherto pursued our journey was now greatly intensified. The eye of civilized man had never seen, or his feet trodden, the ground over which we were traveling. A strong, earnest desire to press forward at our best speed seized us all. As we neared each projecting spur of the lands ahead, our eagerness to see what was beyond became so intense at times as to be painful. Each point we reached brought a new landscape in sight, and always in advance was a point which cut off a portion of the horizon and caused a certain disappointment.'
"If Greely and his companions were entering into the interior of the earth, they would certainly find that the earth has a greater curve near the poles than at any other place; and as they passed over and around the farthest point north, each projection reached would be followed by another which always seemed to take in part of the horizon. This is just what happened."
ROCKS IN ICEBERGS, COLORED SNOW, POLLEN AND DUST IN THE FAR NORTH. On this subject Reed says:
"When it can be shown that conditions are such that no Arctic icebergs (composed of fresh water) can be formed in the far north on the earth's outer surface, they must be formed in the interior. If the material that produces colored snow is a vegetable matter (which the analysis shows), and is supposed to be a blossom or the pollen of a plant, when none such grows in the vicinity of the Arctic Ocean, then it must grow in the interior of the earth; for if it grows elsewhere on earth, then the snow would be colored in other locations as well (as it is in the vicinity of the polar opening), which does not seem to be the case.
"The dust, so annoying in the Arctic Ocean, is also produced by volcanic eruptions. Being light, it is carried far away by the wind, and when it falls on ships, it is disagreeable. When it falls on the snow it produces black snow. When analyzed it is found to consist of carbon and iron, supposed to come from a burning volcano. Where is that volcano? No record or account of any near the North Pole is found; and if it be elsewhere, why does the dust fall in the Arctic Ocean?
"Various explorers report large rocks and boulders on and imbedded in the icebergs. These boulders are either cast there by the exploding volcano or they are scraped up as the bergs slide down the rivers in the interior of the earth. The dust in the Arctic is so heavy that it floats in great clouds. It colors the snow black; and it falls on ships in such abundance that it is a source of irritation. Nansen declares that it was one of his principal reasons for wanting to go home. If the earth is solid, there is no answer to this perplexing problem. But if the earth be hollow, the eruptions of volcanos in the interior can easily account for the dust."
OPEN WATER AT THE FARTHEST POINT NORTH. "It is claimed by many that the Arctic Ocean is a frozen body of water. Although it always contains large bodies of drift-ice and icebergs, it is not frozen over. The student of Arctic travels will invariably find that explorers were turned back by open water, and many instances are cited where they came near being carried out to sea and lost. What I wish to present to the reader, however, is the proof that the Arctic Ocean is an open body of water, abounding with game of all kinds, and the farther one advances, the warmer it will be found. There are many cases of clouds of dust and smoke. Many fogs are reported in winter time. If the earth were solid, and the ocean extended to the Pole, or connected with land surrounding the Pole, there could be nothing to produce that fog. It is caused by the warm air coming from the interior of the earth.
"Kane (an Arctic explorer) writes: `Some circumstances which he (McGary) reports seems to point to the existence of a north water all the year round; and the frequent water-skies, fogs, etc., that we have seen to the southwest during the winter, go to confirm the fact.'
"There are many pages of reports (in the writings of Arctic explorers) of this open sea to the far north. Greely speaks of open water the year round. If there be open water the year round at the farthest point north, can any good reason be assigned why all have failed to reach the Pole? The men who spent their time, comfort and, in several cases, their lives, were men more than anxious to succeed, yet, strangely, all failed. Was this because the weather got warmer and they found the game more plentiful? No, it was because there is no such place."
Nansen, who probably went farther north than any other explorer, remarks in his book that it was a strange feeling to be sailing in the dark night to unknown lands, over an open rolling sea, where no ship had ever been before, and remarks how mild the climate was for September. The farther north he went, the less and less ice he saw. He remarked,
"There is always the same dark sky ahead, which means open sea. They little think at home in Norway that we are sailing straight to the Pole in clear water. I shouldn't have believed it myself if anyone should have predicted it two weeks ago, but it is true. Is this not a dream?"
Three weeks later he mentions that the water was still open and not frozen. He remarks:
"As far as the eye can see from the crow's nest with the small field glass, there is no end to the open water." Between September 6th and 2lst, he found no ice as he traveled northward in a very high latitude.
Reed comments:
"After all the foregoing evidence, is it possible that anyone can believe that the respective oceans (in the far north) are frozen bodies of water? If they do not believe that these oceans are frozen, why do the explorers fail to reach the Poles - if there be such places?"
WHY IT IS WARMER NEAR THE POLES.
"One of the principal proofs that the earth is hollow is that it is warmer near the Poles. If it can be shown by quoting those who made the farthest advance toward the supposed Poles, that it is warmer, that vegetation shows more life, that game is more plentiful than farther south, then we have a reasonable right to claim that the heat comes from the interior of the earth, as that seems to be the only place from which it could come.
"In `Captain Hall's Last Trip,' we read: `We find this a much warmer country than we expected, bare of snow and ice. We have found that the country abounds with life, and with seals, game, geese, ducks, musk-cattle, rabbits, wolves, foxes, bears, partridges, lemmings, etc. (He is speaking of the far north.)
"Nansen draws special attention to the warmth and says, `We must almost imagine ourselves at home.' This was at one of the farthest points north reached by anyone, and yet the weather was mild and pleasant.
"It will be observed that these extremely strong winds from the interior of the earth not only raise the temperature considerably in the vicinity of the Arctic Ocean, but affect it very materially four hundred and fifty miles away. Nothing could raise the temperature in such a manner, except a storm coming from the interior of the earth.
"Greely states: `Surely this presence of birds and flowers and beasts was a greeting on nature's part to our new home.' Does that sound as if he had expected to find these things there, or that their presence was an everyday occurrence? No. It was written in a tone of surprise. From what place had these birds and game come? South of them for miles, the earth was covered with perpetual snow - in many locations thousands of feet deep. They are found in that location in summer; and as it is warmer farther north, they would not be likely to go to a colder climate in winter. They seem to pass into the interior of the earth.
"The mutton-birds of Australia leave that continent in September, and no one has ever been able to find out where they go. My theory is that they pass into the interior of the earth via the South Pole. "
Reed points out that many animals inhabiting the far north, as the musk-ox, go north in winter in order to reach a warmer climate. He remarks:
"Since it becomes warmer as they go north, instinct tells them not to go south in winter. And if they do not go south, they must go into the interior of the earth."
Another animal that goes north in winter is the auk. Schwatka saw a flock of four million auks, which darken the sky, going north as winter approached. Nansen says of the extreme north that a land which teems with bears, auks and black guillemots "must be a Canaan, flowing with milk and honey."
Reed continues:
WHAT PRODUCES COLORED SNOW IN THE ARCTIC ?
"Why is the snow colored in the Arctic regions? The snow has been analyzed and the red, green and yellow have been found to contain vegetable matter, presumably a flower, or the pollen of a plant. From where did it come? A flower that produced pollen sufficient to permeate the air with such density that it colored the snow, which require a vast territory - millions of acres - to grow it. Where is that to be found? It must be near the North Pole, for, if it grew elsewhere, colored snow would be found at other locations, and not be confined to the Arctic regions. As no such flowering plant is known on the earth's surface, we must look elsewhere.
"The interior of the earth is the only spot that will furnish us with an answer to the question. As the colors fall at different seasons, we may presume that the flowers mature at these seasons. It is also easy to find out where the black snow, frequently mentioned by the explorers, comes from. It comes out of an exploding volcano - of the kind that covered Nansen's ship with dust. All unexplained questions could be easily answered if one would believe that the earth is hollow. It is impossible to answer them under any other theory.
"Kane, in his first volume, page 44, says: `We passed the Crimson Cliffs at Sir John Ross in the forenoon of August 5th. The patches of red snow from which they derive their name could be seen clearly at the distance of ten miles from the coast. It had a fine deep rose hue.'
"Kane speaks of the red snow as if it had a regular season in which to appear - as he says, `if the snowy surface were more diffused, as it is no doubt earlier in the season.' In another place he speaks of the red snow being two weeks later than usual. Now taking the fact into account that the material that colors the snow is a vegetable matter, supposed to be the blossom or pollen of a plant, and that no such plant grows on earth, where does it come from? It must grow in the interior of the earth. "
WHERE AND HOW ARE ICEBERGS FORMED: Since icebergs are formed from fresh water, not salty ocean water, they could not be formed from the Arctic Ocean, but by some fresh body of water. However there is no fresh body of water in the polar region. Reed's theory is that icebergs are formed from rivers coming from the interior of the earth and flowing toward the surface through the polar opening. When they reach the cold exterior they freeze, while more water passes over the frozen part and freezes too, forming mountains of ice. With the coming of summer, these big masses of ice are thawed loose and break off, falling into the sea and producing the mysterious tidal waves observed in the far north. Reed says:
"It is simply out of the question for an iceberg to form in any location yet discovered. On the other hand, the interior of the earth - back from the mouth of rivers or canyons - being warmer, is just suited for the formation of icebergs. The mouth freezes first, and the river, continuing to flow to the ocean, overflows the mouth, and freezes for months, until spring. As the warm weather of summer advances, and, owing to the warmth of the earth, the bergs are thawed loose, and water from the rains in the interior rushes up, and they are shoved into the ocean, and tidal waves started.
"Note the difference. On the outside of the earth, the whole length of a stream is frozen, and the farther inland the harder the freezing, while in the interior of the earth (at the polar opening) only the mouth is frozen. In the interior of the earth, there is not only plenty of water to produce icebergs, but plenty to shove them into the ocean.
"For the last three hundred years a fairly steady stream of explorers have been trying to reach the Pole - Arctic and Antarctic - and no one has ever seen an iceberg leaving its original location and plunging into the ocean. Isn't it strange that no one thought of asking about their place of origin?"
In support of the theory that icebergs, made from fresh water, cannot be formed on the outside of the earth and must come from fresh water rivers in its interior, Reed quotes Bernacchi who, writing on his observations in the Antarctic, says:
"There was less than two inches of rainfall in eleven and one-half months, and while it snowed quite frequently, it never fell to any great depth. Under such conditions, where would materials be found to produce an iceberg? Yet the greatest one on earth is there - one so large that it is called the Great Ice Barrier, rather than an iceberg - being over four hundred miles long and fifty miles wide. It is grounded in two thousand one hundred feet of water, and extends from eighty to two hundred feet above water." Reed comments:
"Now it would be impossible for this iceberg to form in a country having practically no rain or snow. As icebergs are made from frozen water, and there is no water to freeze, it evidently was formed at some place other than where it now is. The iceberg itself, being of fresh water, lies in an ocean of salt water. "How do I know that the great ice barrier came from the interior of the earth? Or from the kind of river described? First, it could not come from the exterior of the earth, since icebergs are not formed there. That river must have been 2,500 feet deep, fifty miles across and from four to five hundred miles long, for these are the present dimensions of the iceberg. The river had to be straight or the iceberg could not pass out without breaking. It passed through a comparatively level country because the surface is still flat.
"Another proof that the interior of the earth is level near the Antarctic entrance is that many of the icebergs found in the Antarctic are long and slim. They are called `ice tongues,' which indicates that they came out of rivers running nearly on a level. The icebergs found in the Arctic, on the other hand, are more chunky, indicating that they come from a more mountainous country, where the fall of streams is more abrupt, causing the icebergs to be shorter and thicker.
"When Bernacchi was voyaging in the Autarctic, he wrote: `During the next two days we passed some thousands of icebergs, as many as ninety being counted from the bridge at one time. There was very little variety of form among them, all being very large and bounded by perpendicular cliffs. There was a large quantity of fresh water at the surface, derived from the number of icebergs.'
"How does this account accord with your notions of how icebergs are formed in a country where Bernacchi reports less than two inches of rainfall in the whole year, and but small quantities of snow? Where is the water to come from that will produce such great quantities of icebergs averaging a thousand feet in thickness, and many of them several miles long? Those icebergs were on their way north - never to return - yet the ocean will always be filled with them, as others will come from the place where they came.
"Where is that place? There is no rain or melted snow to furnish the water to freeze into an iceberg. Icebergs can come from only one place - the INTERIOR of the earth.
TIDAL WAVES. Reed here repeats the description of Arctic tidal waves by various explorers. They lift the ice of the great ice fields to great heights and can be heard for miles in the distance before they reach the ship and for miles after they pass beyond the ship. Arctic explorers describe these tidal waves as follows:
"Giant blocks pitched and rolled as though controlled by invisible hands, and the vast compressing bodies shrieked a shrill and horrible sound that curdled the blood. On came the frozen waves. Seams ran and rattled across them with a thundering boom, while we watched their terrible progress. " Reed says: "These tidal waves are caused by some tremendous agency and I can think of nothing more powerful than the plunging of an iceberg into the ocean. The great frequency of these powerful tidal waves seems to exclude the possibility of their being caused by underwater volcanic eruptions. "
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