The Hollow Earth
William Reed's Book, "Phantom of the Poles"
By: Dr. R. W. Bernard, B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
Presenting Scientific Evidence, Based on Arctic Exploration, to Prove for the First Time that the Earth is Hollow With Openings at the Poles.
In 1906 appeared the first book to offer scientific proof that old geographical conceptions about the earth's structure are false and that the earth, instead of being a solid sphere, as commonly assumed, is really hollow, with openings at the poles. Were this a book created from the author's imagination, it might be disregarded as a work of science fiction - but since the book is based on an extensive bibliography representing the reports of Arctic explorers, it must be taken more seriously.
This book was published in New York and written by William Reed. Its title was "The Phantom of the Poles," and claimed the Poles were never discovered because they do not exist. Where the North and South Poles are supposed to be located, Reed claims are huge polar openings in which the Poles are in the center, for which reason they can never be reached by any explorer.
Reed's book was written fourteen years before that of Marshall Gardner, who claimed that not only was the earth hollow but that there was a central sun at its center. Reed, however, did not include this central sun in his theory, but believed that the higher temperature in the region of the Poles is due to burning volcanoes at the polar openings, which are the origin of the dust that Arctic explorers noticed there. We now quote from Reed's book. On page 282 he says:
"The earth is either hollow or it is not. What proof have we that it is not hollow? None at all that is positive and circumstantial. On the contrary, everything points to its being hollow. If it be so, and if there are burning volcanoes in the interior, would you not see great lights reflected on the icebergs and clouds, just as other great fires reflect the light? Would not great clouds of smoke and dust be seen - the same as from any other burning volcano? That is what all the explorers have witnessed - low dark clouds rising from the ocean, or at the edge of the ice. Nansen (an Arctic explorer) said: `Let us go home: What have we here to stay for? Nothing but dust, dust, dust!'Reed answers the above questions as follows:
"1. Why is the earth flattened at the Poles? As the earth is hollow, it could not be round, is the answer. The opening to the interior would detract from its roundness in proportion to the size of the opening.In support of his theory of a hollow earth, Reed offers the following evidence:
LONG ABSENCE OF SUNLIGHT DURING LONG ARCTIC WINTERS. Reed summarizes the experience of Arctic explorers who very quickly passed from the region of sunshine into the region of long nights, or the opposite. In the far north the sun is absent for abnormally long periods of time, which could not be the case if the earth was round and solid, or even just slightly flattened at the poles. The only explanation is that these explorers entered into the opening at the North Pole; and as they entered, the sun's rays were cut off from them, to reappear only when it was high enough in the sky to shine in.
ABNORMAL WORKlNG OF THE COMPASS IN THE FAR NORTH. This was observed by all explorers who reached very far north. This strange action of the compass is exactly what should be the case if the earth is hollow and if they entered into the polar opening. In his book Reed has a drawing of a cross-section of the polar opening with ships sailing both in and out. When the ship enters the polar opening, the needle of the compass assumes a vertical position, instead of horizontal, as it does on top of the earth's surface. This is due to entering the polar opening. This is exactly what explorers found to occur in the far north. They found that as they approached the pole, the needle of the compass becomes restless, and when one goes far enough north, assumes a vertical position, indicating that one has then entered the polar opening, as occurred with Nansen and others.
PASSING OVER THE RIM OF THE POLAR OPENING INTO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR - Reed says on this subject:
"Whenever the explorers pass into the interior, they meet such different conditions that they are puzzled to account for them. Therefore it is no wonder that they call it a strange land. Everyone who has spent considerable time in the Arctic or Antarctic Circles has met with conditions unexplainable according to the theory that the earth is round and solid - but which find an easy explanation according to the theory that it is hollow with openings at the poles. Greely's description of passing around the curve into the polar opening is exceedingly good and clear. He says:ROCKS IN ICEBERGS, COLORED SNOW, POLLEN AND DUST IN THE FAR NORTH. On this subject Reed says:
"When it can be shown that conditions are such that no Arctic icebergs (composed of fresh water) can be formed in the far north on the earth's outer surface, they must be formed in the interior. If the material that produces colored snow is a vegetable matter (which the analysis shows), and is supposed to be a blossom or the pollen of a plant, when none such grows in the vicinity of the Arctic Ocean, then it must grow in the interior of the earth; for if it grows elsewhere on earth, then the snow would be colored in other locations as well (as it is in the vicinity of the polar opening), which does not seem to be the case.OPEN WATER AT THE FARTHEST POINT NORTH. "It is claimed by many that the Arctic Ocean is a frozen body of water. Although it always contains large bodies of drift-ice and icebergs, it is not frozen over. The student of Arctic travels will invariably find that explorers were turned back by open water, and many instances are cited where they came near being carried out to sea and lost. What I wish to present to the reader, however, is the proof that the Arctic Ocean is an open body of water, abounding with game of all kinds, and the farther one advances, the warmer it will be found. There are many cases of clouds of dust and smoke. Many fogs are reported in winter time. If the earth were solid, and the ocean extended to the Pole, or connected with land surrounding the Pole, there could be nothing to produce that fog. It is caused by the warm air coming from the interior of the earth.
"Kane (an Arctic explorer) writes: `Some circumstances which he (McGary) reports seems to point to the existence of a north water all the year round; and the frequent water-skies, fogs, etc., that we have seen to the southwest during the winter, go to confirm the fact.'Nansen, who probably went farther north than any other explorer, remarks in his book that it was a strange feeling to be sailing in the dark night to unknown lands, over an open rolling sea, where no ship had ever been before, and remarks how mild the climate was for September. The farther north he went, the less and less ice he saw. He remarked,
"There is always the same dark sky ahead, which means open sea. They little think at home in Norway that we are sailing straight to the Pole in clear water. I shouldn't have believed it myself if anyone should have predicted it two weeks ago, but it is true. Is this not a dream?"Three weeks later he mentions that the water was still open and not frozen. He remarks:
"As far as the eye can see from the crow's nest with the small field glass, there is no end to the open water." Between September 6th and 2lst, he found no ice as he traveled northward in a very high latitude.Reed comments:
"After all the foregoing evidence, is it possible that anyone can believe that the respective oceans (in the far north) are frozen bodies of water? If they do not believe that these oceans are frozen, why do the explorers fail to reach the Poles - if there be such places?"WHY IT IS WARMER NEAR THE POLES.
"One of the principal proofs that the earth is hollow is that it is warmer near the Poles. If it can be shown by quoting those who made the farthest advance toward the supposed Poles, that it is warmer, that vegetation shows more life, that game is more plentiful than farther south, then we have a reasonable right to claim that the heat comes from the interior of the earth, as that seems to be the only place from which it could come.
"In `Captain Hall's Last Trip,' we read: `We find this a much warmer country than we expected, bare of snow and ice. We have found that the country abounds with life, and with seals, game, geese, ducks, musk-cattle, rabbits, wolves, foxes, bears, partridges, lemmings, etc. (He is speaking of the far north.)Reed points out that many animals inhabiting the far north, as the musk-ox, go north in winter in order to reach a warmer climate. He remarks:
"Since it becomes warmer as they go north, instinct tells them not to go south in winter. And if they do not go south, they must go into the interior of the earth."Another animal that goes north in winter is the auk. Schwatka saw a flock of four million auks, which darken the sky, going north as winter approached. Nansen says of the extreme north that a land which teems with bears, auks and black guillemots "must be a Canaan, flowing with milk and honey."
WHAT PRODUCES COLORED SNOW IN THE ARCTIC ?
"Why is the snow colored in the Arctic regions? The snow has been analyzed and the red, green and yellow have been found to contain vegetable matter, presumably a flower, or the pollen of a plant. From where did it come? A flower that produced pollen sufficient to permeate the air with such density that it colored the snow, which require a vast territory - millions of acres - to grow it. Where is that to be found? It must be near the North Pole, for, if it grew elsewhere, colored snow would be found at other locations, and not be confined to the Arctic regions. As no such flowering plant is known on the earth's surface, we must look elsewhere.WHERE AND HOW ARE ICEBERGS FORMED: Since icebergs are formed from fresh water, not salty ocean water, they could not be formed from the Arctic Ocean, but by some fresh body of water. However there is no fresh body of water in the polar region. Reed's theory is that icebergs are formed from rivers coming from the interior of the earth and flowing toward the surface through the polar opening. When they reach the cold exterior they freeze, while more water passes over the frozen part and freezes too, forming mountains of ice. With the coming of summer, these big masses of ice are thawed loose and break off, falling into the sea and producing the mysterious tidal waves observed in the far north. Reed says:
"It is simply out of the question for an iceberg to form in any location yet discovered. On the other hand, the interior of the earth - back from the mouth of rivers or canyons - being warmer, is just suited for the formation of icebergs. The mouth freezes first, and the river, continuing to flow to the ocean, overflows the mouth, and freezes for months, until spring. As the warm weather of summer advances, and, owing to the warmth of the earth, the bergs are thawed loose, and water from the rains in the interior rushes up, and they are shoved into the ocean, and tidal waves started.In support of the theory that icebergs, made from fresh water, cannot be formed on the outside of the earth and must come from fresh water rivers in its interior, Reed quotes Bernacchi who, writing on his observations in the Antarctic, says:
"There was less than two inches of rainfall in eleven and one-half months, and while it snowed quite frequently, it never fell to any great depth. Under such conditions, where would materials be found to produce an iceberg? Yet the greatest one on earth is there - one so large that it is called the Great Ice Barrier, rather than an iceberg - being over four hundred miles long and fifty miles wide. It is grounded in two thousand one hundred feet of water, and extends from eighty to two hundred feet above water." Reed comments:
"Where is that place? There is no rain or melted snow to furnish the water to freeze into an iceberg. Icebergs can come from only one place - the INTERIOR of the earth.TIDAL WAVES. Reed here repeats the description of Arctic tidal waves by various explorers. They lift the ice of the great ice fields to great heights and can be heard for miles in the distance before they reach the ship and for miles after they pass beyond the ship. Arctic explorers describe these tidal waves as follows:
"Giant blocks pitched and rolled as though controlled by invisible hands, and the vast compressing bodies shrieked a shrill and horrible sound that curdled the blood. On came the frozen waves. Seams ran and rattled across them with a thundering boom, while we watched their terrible progress. " Reed says: "These tidal waves are caused by some tremendous agency and I can think of nothing more powerful than the plunging of an iceberg into the ocean. The great frequency of these powerful tidal waves seems to exclude the possibility of their being caused by underwater volcanic eruptions. "
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