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Friday, August 10, 2012

CIA, KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation


CIA, KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation


CIA, KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation, July 1963
Part 1 (pp. 1-60) - Part II (pp. 61-112) - Part III (pp. 113-128)
This 127-page report, classified Secret, was drafted in July 1963 as a comprehensive guide for training interrogators in the art of obtaining intelligence from "resistant sources." KUBARK--a CIA codename for itself--describes the qualifications of a successful interrogator, and reviews the theory of non-coercive and coercive techniques for breaking a prisoner. Some recommendations are very specific. The report recommends, for example, that in choosing an interrogation site "the electric current should be known in advance, so that transformers and other modifying devices will be on hand if needed." Of specific relevance to the current scandal in Iraq is section nine,"The Coercive Counterintelligence Interrogation of Resistant Sources," (pp 82-104). Under the subheading, "Threats and Fears," the CIA authors note that "the threat of coercion usually weakens or destroys resistance more effectively than coercion itself. The threat to inflict pain, for example, can trigger fears more damaging than the immediate sensation of pain." Under the subheading "Pain," the guidelines discuss the theories behind various thresholds of pain, and recommend that a subject's "resistance is likelier to be sapped by pain which he seems to inflict upon himself" such rather than by direct torture. The report suggests forcing the detainee to stand at attention for long periods of time. A section on sensory deprivations suggests imprisoning detainees in rooms without sensory stimuli of any kind, "in a cell which has no light," for example. "An environment still more subject to control, such as water-tank or iron lung, is even more effective," the KUBARK manual concludes.
===================================
KUBARK COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
INTERROGATION


July 1963



TABLE OF CONTENTS


I. INTRODUCTION 1-3

A. Explanation of Purpose 1-2
B. Explanation of Organization 3

II . DEFINITIONS 4-5

III. LEGAL AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS 6-9

IV. THE INTERROGATOR 10-14

V. THE INTERROGATEE 15-29

A. Types of Sources: Intelligence Categories 15-19
B. Types of Sources: Personality Categories 19-28
C. Other Clues 28-29

VI. SCREENING AND OTHER PRELIMINARIES 30-37

A. Screening 30-33
B. Other Preliminary Procedures 33-37
C. Summary 37

VII. PLANNING THE COUNTERINTELLIGENCE INTERROGATION 38-51

A. The Nature of Counterintelligence Interrogation 38-42
B. The Interrogation Plan 42-44
C. The Specifics 44-51

VIII. THE NON-COERCIVE COUNTERINTELLIGENCE INTERROGATION 52-81

A. General Remarks 52-53
B. The Structure of the Interrogation 53-65
1. The Opening 53-59
2. The Reconnaissance 59-60
3. The Detailed Questioning 60-64
4. The Conclusion 64-65
C. Techniques of Non-Coercive Interrogation of Resistant Sources 65-81

IX. THE COERCIVE COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
INTERROGATION OF RESISTANT SOURCES
 82-104

A. Restrictions 82
B. The Theory of Coercion 82-85
C. Arrest 85-86
D. Detention 86-87
E. Deprivation of Sensory Stimuli 87-90
F. Threats and Fear 90-92
G. Debility 92-93
H. Pain 93-95
I. Heightened Suggestibility and Hypnosis 95-98
J. Narcosis 98-100
K. The Detection of Malingering 101-102
L. Conclusion 103-104

X. INTERROGATOR'S CHECK LIST 105-109

XI. DESCRIPTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY 110-122
=======================

IX. Coercive Counterintelligence Interrogation of Resistant Sources
A. Restrictions

The purpose of this part of the handbook is to present basic information about coercive techniques available for use in the interrogation situation. It is vital that this discussion not be misconstrued as constituting authorization for the use of coercion at field discretion . As was noted earlier, there is no such blanket authorization.

[approx. 10 lines deleted]

For both ethical and pragmatic reasons no interrogator may take upon himself the unilateral responsibility for using coercive methods. Concealing from the interrogator's superiors an intent to resort to coercion, or its unapproved employment, does not protect them. It places them, and KUBARK, in unconsidered jeopardy.

B. The Theory of Coercion

Coercive procedures are designed not only to exploit the resistant source's internal conflicts and induce him to wrestle with himself but also to bring a superior outside force to bear upon the subject's resistance. Non-coercive methods are not

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likely to succeed if their selection and use is not predicated upon an accurate psychological assessment of the source. In contrast, the same coercive method may succeed against persons who are very unlike each other. The changes of success rise steeply, nevertheless, if the coercive technique is matched to the source's personality. Individuals react differently even to such seemingly non-discriminatory stimuli as drugs. Moreover, it is a waste of time and energy to apply strong pressures on a hit-or-miss basis if a tap on the psychological jugular will produce compliance.

All coercive techniques are designed to induce regression. As Hinkle notes in "The Physiological State of the Interrogation Subject as it Affects Brain Function"(7), the result of external pressures of sufficient intensity is the loss of those defenses most recently acquired by civilized man: "... the capacity to carry out the highest creative activities, to meet new, challenging, and complex situations, to deal with trying interpersonal relations, and to cope with repeated frustrations. Relatively small degrees of homeostatic derangement, fatigue, pain, sleep loss, or anxiety may impair these functions." As a result, "most people who are exposed to coercive procedures will talk and usually reveal some information that they might not have revealed otherwise."

One subjective reaction often evoked by coercion is a feeling of guilt. Meltzer observes, "In some lengthy interrogations, the interrogator may, by virtue of his role as the sole supplier of satisfaction and punishment, assume the stature and importance of a parental figure in the prisoner's feeling and thinking. Although there may be intense hatred for the interrogator, it is not unusual for warm feelings also to develop. This ambivalence is the basis for guilt reactions, and if the interrogator nourishes these feelings, the guilt may be strong enough to influence the prisoner's behavior.... Guilt makes compliance more likely...."(7).

Farber says that the response to coercion typically contains "... at least three important elements: debility, dependency, and dread." Prisoners "... have reduced viability, are helplessly dependent on their captors for the

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satisfaction of their many basic needs, and experience the emotional and motivational reactions of intense fear and anxiety.... Among the [American] POW's pressured by the Chinese Communists, the DDD syndrome in its full-blown form constituted a state of discomfort that was well-nigh intolerable." (11). If the debility-dependency-dread state is unduly prolonged, however, the arrestee may sink into a defensive apathy from which it is hard to arouse him.

Psychologists and others who write about physical or psychological duress frequently object that under sufficient pressure subjects usually yield but that their ability to recall and communicate information accurately is as impaired as the will to resist. This pragmatic objection has somewhat the same validity for a counterintelligence interrogation as for any other. But there is one significant difference. Confession is a necessary prelude to the CI interrogation of a hitherto unresponsive or concealing source. And the use of coercive techniques will rarely or never confuse an interrogatee so completely that he does not know whether his own confession is true or false. He does not need full mastery of all his powers of resistance and discrimination to know whether he is a spy or not. Only subjects who have reached a point where they are under delusions are likely to make false confessions that they believe. Once a true confession is obtained, the classic cautions apply. The pressures are lifted, at least enough so that the subject can provide counterintelligence information as accurately as possible. In fact, the relief granted the subject at this time fits neatly into the interrogation plan. He is told that the changed treatment is a reward for truthfulness and an evidence that friendly handling will continue as long as he cooperates.

The profound moral objection to applying duress past the point of irreversible psychological damage has been stated. Judging the validity of other ethical arguments about coercion exceeds the scope of this paper. What is fully clear, however, is that controlled coercive manipulation of an interrogatee may impair his ability to make fine distinctions but will not alter his ability to answer correctly such gross questions as "Are you a Soviet agent? What is your assignment now? Who is your present case officer?"

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When an interrogator senses that the subject's resistance is wavering, that his desire to yield is growing stronger than his wish to continue his resistance, the time has come to provide him with the acceptable rationalization: a face-saving reason or excuse for compliance. Novice interrogators may be tempted to seize upon the initial yielding triumphantly and to personalize the victory. Such a temptation must be rejected immediately. An interrogation is not a game played by two people, one to become the winner and the other the loser. It is simply a method of obtaining correct and useful information. Therefore the interrogator should intensify the subject's desire to cease struggling by showing him how he can do so without seeming to abandon principle, self-protection, or other initial causes of resistance. If, instead of providing the right rationalization at the right time, the interrogator seizes gloatingly upon the subject's wavering, opposition will stiffen again.

The following are the principal coercive techniques of interrogation: arrest, detention, deprivation of sensory stimuli through solitary confinement or similar methods, threats and fear, debility, pain, heightened suggestibility and hypnosis, narcosis, and induced regression. This section also discusses the detection of malingering by interrogatees and the provision of appropriate rationalizations for capitulating and cooperating.

C. Arrest 

The manner and timing of arrest can contribute substantially to the interrogator's purposes. "What we aim to do is to ensure that the manner of arrest achieves, if possible, surprise, and the maximum amount of mental discomfort in order to catch the suspect off balance and to deprive him of the initiative. One should therefore arrest him at a moment when he least expects it and when his mental and physical resistance is at its lowest. The ideal time at which to arrest a person is in the early hours of the morning because surprise is achieved then, and because a person's resistance physiologically as well as psychologically is at its lowest.... If a person cannot be arrested in the early hours..., then the next best time is in the evening....

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[approx. 10 lines deleted]" (1)

D. Detention

If, through the cooperation of a liaison service or by unilateral means, arrangements have been made for the confinement of a resistant source, the circumstances of detention are arranged to enhance within the subject his feelings of being cut off from the known and the reassuring, and of being plunged into the strange. Usually his own clothes are immediately taken away, because familiar clothing reinforces identity and thus the capacity for resistance. (Prisons give close hair cuts and issue prison garb for the same reason.) If the interrogatee is especially proud or neat, it may be useful to give him an outfit that is one or two sizes too large and to fail to provide a belt, so that he must hold his pants up.

The point is that man's sense of identity depends upon a continuity in his surroundings, habits, appearance, actions, relations with others, etc. Detention permits the interrogator to cut through these links and throw the interrogatee back upon his own unaided internal resources.

Little is gained if confinement merely replaces one routine with another. Prisoners who lead monotonously unvaried lives "... cease to care about their utterances, dress, and cleanliness. They become dulled, apathetic, and depressed."(7) And apathy can be a very effective defense against interrogation. Control of the source's environment permits the interrogator to

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determine his diet, sleep pattern, and other fundamentals. Manipulating these into irregularities, so that the subject becomes disorientated, is very likely to create feelings of fear and helplessness. Hinkle points out, "People who enter prison with attitudes of foreboding, apprehension, and helplessness generally do less well than those who enter with assurance and a conviction that they can deal with anything that they may encounter.... Some people who are afraid of losing sleep, or who do not wish to lose sleep, soon succumb to sleep loss...." (7)

In short, the prisoner should not be provided a routine to which he can adapt and from which he can draw some comfort -- or at least a sense of his own identity. Everyone has read of prisoners who were reluctant to leave their cells after prolonged incarceration. Little is known about the duration of confinement calculated to make a subject shift from anxiety, coupled with a desire for sensory stimuli and human companionship, to a passive, apathetic acceptance of isolation and an ultimate pleasure in this negative state. Undoubtedly the rate of change is determined almost entirely by the psychological characteristics of the individual. In any event, it is advisable to keep the subject upset by constant disruptions of patterns.

For this reason, it is useful to determine whether the interrogattee has been jailed before, how often, under what circumstances, for how long, and whether he was subjected to earlier interrogation. Familiarity with confinement and even with isolation reduces the effect.

E. Deprivation of Sensory Stimuli 

The chief effect of arrest and detention, and particularly of solitary confinement, is to deprive the subject of many or most of the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and tactile sensations to which he has grown accustomed. John C. Lilly examined eighteen autobiographical accounts written by polar explorers and solitary seafarers. He found "... that isolation per se acts on most persons as a powerful stress.... In all cases of survivors of isolation at sea or in the polar night, it was the first exposure which caused

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the greatest fears and hence the greatest danger of giving way to symptoms; previous experience is a powerful aid in going ahead, despite the symptoms. "The symptoms most commonly produced by isolation are superstition, intense love of any other living thing, perceiving inanimate objects as alive, hallucinations, and delusions." (26)

The apparent reason for these effects is that a person cut off from external stimuli turns his awareness inward, upon himself, and then projects the contents of his own unconscious outwards, so that he endows his faceless environment with his own attributes, fears, and forgotten memories. Lilly notes, "It is obvious that inner factors in the mind tend to be projected outward, that some of the mind's activity which is usually reality-bound now becomes free to turn to phantasy and ultimately to hallucination and delusion."

A number of experiments conducted at McGill University, the National Institute of Mental Health, and other sites have attempted to come as close as possible to the elimination of sensory stimuli, or to masking remaining stimuli, chiefly sounds, by a stronger but wholly monotonous overlay. The results of these experiments have little applicability to interrogation because the circumstances are dissimilar. Some of the findings point toward hypotheses that seem relevant to interrogation, but conditions like those of detention for purposes of counterintelligence interrogation have not been duplicated for experimentation.

At the National Institute of Mental Health two subjects were "... suspended with the body and all but the top of the head immersed in a tank containing slowly flowing water at 34.5 [degrees] C (94.5 [degrees] F)...." Both subjects wore black-out masks, which enclosed the whole head but allowed breathing and nothing else. The sound level was extremely low; the subject heard only his own breathing and some faint sounds of water from the piping. Neither subject stayed in the tank longer than three hours. Both passed quickly from normally directed thinking through a tension resulting from unsatisfied hunger for sensory stimuli and concentration upon the few available sensations to private reveries and fantasies and eventually to visual imagery somewhat resembling hallucinations.

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"In our experiments, we notice that after immersion the day apparently is started over, i. e., the subject feels as if he has risen from bed afresh; this effect persists, and the subject finds he is out of step with the clock for the rest of the day."

Drs. Wexler, Mendelson, Leiderman, and Solomon conducted a somewhat similar experiment on seventeen paid volunteers. These subjects were "... placed in a tank-type respirator with a specially built mattress.... The vents of the respirator were left open, so that the subject breathed for himself. His arms and legs were enclosed in comfortable but rigid cylinders to inhibit movement and tactile contact. The subject lay on his back and was unable to see any part of his body. The motor of the respirator was run constantly, producing a dull, repetitive auditory stimulus. The room admitted no natural light, and artificial light was minimal and constant." (42) Although the established time limit was 36 hours and though all physical needs were taken care of, only 6 of the 17 completed the stint. The other eleven soon asked for release. Four of these terminated the experiment because of anxiety and panic; seven did so because of physical discomfort. The results confirmed earlier findings that (1) the deprivation of sensory stimuli induces stress; (2) the stress becomes unbearable for most subjects; (3) the subject has a growing need for physical and social stimuli; and (4) some subjects progressively lose touch with reality, focus inwardly, and produce delusions, hallucinations, and other pathological effects.

In summarizing some scientific reporting on sensory and perceptual deprivation, Kubzansky offers the following observations:

"Three studies suggest that the more well-adjusted or 'normal' the subject is, the more he is affected by deprivation of sensory stimuli. Neurotic and psychotic subjects are either comparatively unaffected or show decreases in anxiety, hallucinations, etc." (7)

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These findings suggest - but by no means prove - the following theories about solitary confinement and isolation:

1. The more completely the place of confinement eliminates sensory stimuli, the more rapidly and deeply will the interrogatee be affected. Results produced only after weeks or months of imprisonment in an ordinary cell can be duplicated in hours or days in a cell which has no light (or weak artificial light which never varies), which is sound-proofed, in which odors are eliminated, etc. An environment still more subject to control, such as water-tank or iron lung, is even more effective.

2. An early effect of such an environment is anxiety. How soon it appears and how strong it is depends upon the psychological characteristics of the individual.

3. The interrogator can benefit from the subject's anxiety. As the interrogator becomes linked in the subject's mind with the reward of lessened anxiety, human contact, and meaningful activity, and thus with providing relief for growing discomfort, the questioner assumes a benevolent role. (7)

4. The deprivation of stimuli induces regression by depriving the subject's mind of contact with an outer world and thus forcing it in upon itself. At the same time, the calculated provision of stimuli during interrogation tends to make the regressed subject view the interrogator as a father-figure. The result, normally, is a strengthening of the subject's tendencies toward compliance.

F. Threats and Fear

The threat of coercion usually weakens or destroys resistance more effectively than coercion itself. The threat to inflict pain, for example, can trigger fears more damaging than the immediate sensation of pain. In fact, most people underestimate their capacity to withstand pain. The same principle holds for other fears: sustained long enough, a strong fear of anything vague or unknown induces regression,

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whereas the materialization of the fear, the infliction of some form of punishment, is likely to come as a relief. The subject finds that he can hold out, and his resistances are strengthened. "In general, direct physical brutality creates only resentment, hostility, and further defiance." (18)

The effectiveness of a threat depends not only on what sort of person the interrogatee is and whether he believes that his questioner can and will carry the threat out but also on the interrogator's reasons for threatening. If the interrogator threatens because he is angry, the subject frequently senses the fear of failure underlying the anger and is strengthened in his own resolve to resist. Threats delivered coldly are more effective than those shouted in rage. It is especially important that a threat not be uttered in response to the interrogatee's own expressions of hostility. These, if ignored, can induce feelings of guilt, whereas retorts in kind relieve the subject's feelings.

Another reason why threats induce compliance not evoked by the inflection of duress is that the threat grants the interrogatee time for compliance. It is not enough that a resistant source should placed under the tension of fear; he must also discern an acceptable escape route. Biderman observes, "Not only can the shame or guilt of defeat in the encounter with the interrogator be involved, but also the more fundamental injunction to protect one's self-autonomy or 'will'.... A simple defense against threats to the self from the anticipation of being forced to comply is, of course, to comply 'deliberately' or 'voluntarily'.... To the extent that the foregoing interpretation holds, the more intensely motivated the [interrogatee] is to resist, the more intense is the pressure toward early compliance from such anxieties, for the greater is the threat to self-esteem which is involved in contemplating the possibility of being 'forced to' comply...." (6) In brief, the threat is like all other coercive techniques in being most effective when so used as to foster regression and when joined with a suggested way out of the dilemma, a rationalization acceptable to the interrogatee.

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The threat of death has often been found to be worse than useless. It "has the highest position in law as a defense, but in many interrogation situations it is a highly ineffective threat. Many prisoners, in fact, have refused to yield in the face of such threats who have subsequently been 'broken' by other procedures." (3) The principal reason is that the ultimate threat is likely to induce sheer hopelessness if the interrogatee does not believe that it is a trick; he feels that he is as likely to be condemned after compliance as before. The threat of death is also ineffective when used against hard-headed types who realize that silencing them forever would defeat the interrogator's purpose. If the threat is recognized as a bluff, it will not only fail but also pave the way to failure for later coercive ruses used by the interrogator.

G. Debility

No report of scientific investigation of the effect of debility upon the interrogatee's powers of resistance has been discovered. For centuries interrogators have employed various methods of inducing physical weakness: prolonged constraint; prolonged exertion; extremes of heat, cold, or moisture; and deprivation or drastic reduction of food or sleep. Apparently the assumption is that lowering the source's physiological resistance will lower his psychological capacity for opposition. If this notion were valid, however, it might reasonably be expected that those subjects who are physically weakest at the beginning of an interrogation would be the quickest to capitulate, a concept not supported by experience. The available evidence suggests that resistance is sapped principally by psychological rather than physical pressures. The threat of debility - for example, a brief deprivation of food - may induce much more anxiety than prolonged hunger, which will result after a while in apathy and, perhaps, eventual delusions or hallucinations. In brief, it appears probable that the techniques of inducing debility become counter-productive at an early stage. The discomfort, tension, and restless search for an avenue of escape are

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followed by withdrawal symptoms, a turning away from external stimuli, and a sluggish unresponsiveness.

Another objection to the deliberate inducing of debility is that prolonged exertion, loss of sleep, etc., themselves become patterns to which the subject adjusts through apathy. The interrogator should use his power over the resistant subject's physical environment to disrupt patterns of response, not to create them. Meals and sleep granted irregularly, in more than abundance or less than adequacy, the shifts occuring on no discernible time pattern, will normally disorient an interrogatee and sap his will to resist more effectively than a sustained deprivation leading to debility.

H. Pain

Everyone is aware that people react very differently to pain. The reason, apparently, is not a physical difference in the intensity of the sensation itself. Lawrence E. Hinkle observes, "The sensation of pain seems to be roughly equal in all men, that is to say, all people have approximately the same threshold at which they begin to feel pain, and when carefully graded stimuli are applied to them, their estimates of severity are approximately the same.... Yet... when men are very highly motivated... they have been known to carry out rather complex tasks while enduring the most intense pain." He also states, "In general, it appears that whatever may be the role of the constitutional endowment in determining the reaction to pain, it is a much less important determinant than is the attitude of the man who experiences the pain." (7)

The wide range of individual reactions to pain may be partially explicable in terms of early conditioning. The person whose first encounters with pain were frightening and intense may be more violently affected by its later infliction than one whose original experiences were mild. Or the reverse may be true, and the man whose childhood familiarized him with pain may dread

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it less, and react less, than one whose distress is heightened by fear of the unknown. The individual remains the determinant.

It has been plausibly suggested that, whereas pain inflicted on a person from outside himself may actually focus or intensify his will to resist, his resistance is likelier to be sapped by pain which he seems to inflict upon himself. "In the simple torture situation the contest is one between the individual and his tormentor (.... and he can frequently endure). When the individual is told to stand at attention for long periods, an intervening factor is introduced. The immediate source of pain is not the interrogator but the victim himself. The motivational strength of the individual is likely to exhaust itself in this internal encounter.... As long as the subject remains standing, he is attributing to his captor the power to do something worse to him, but there is actually no showdown of the ability of the interrogator to do so." (4)

Interrogatees who are withholding but who feel qualms of guilt and a secret desire to yield are likely to become intractable if made to endure pain. The reason is that they can then interpret the pain as punishment and hence as expiation. There are also persons who enjoy pain and its anticipation and who will keep back information that they might otherwise divulge if they are given reason to expect that withholding will result in the punishment that they want. Persons of considerable moral or intellectual stature often find in pain inflicted by others a confirmation of the belief that they are in the hands of inferiors, and their resolve not to submit is strengthened.

Intense pain is quite likely to produce false confessions, concocted as a means of escaping from distress. A time-consuming delay results, while investigation is conducted and the admissions are proven untrue. During this respite the interrogatee can pull himself together. He may even use the time to think up new, more complex "admissions" that take still longer to disprove. KUBARK is especially vulnerable to such tactics because the interrogation is conducted for the sake of information and not for police purposes.

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If an interrogatee is caused to suffer pain rather late in the interrogation process and after other tactics have failed, he is almost certain to conclude that the interrogator is becoming desperate. He may then decide that if he can just hold out against this final assault, he will win the struggle and his freedom. And he is likely to be right. Interrogatees who have withstood pain are more difficult to handle by other methods. The effect has been not to repress the subject but to restore his confidence and maturity.


I. Heightened Suggestibility and Hypnosis

In recent years a number of hypotheses about hypnosis have been advanced by psychologists and others in the guise of proven principles. Among these are the flat assertions that a person connot be hypnotized against his will; that while hypnotized he cannot be induced to divulge information that he wants urgently to conceal; and that he will not undertake, in trance or through post-hypnotic suggestion, actions to which he would normally have serious moral or ethical objections. If these and related contentions were proven valid, hypnosis would have scant value for the interrogator.

But despite the fact that hypnosis has been an object of scientific inquiry for a very long time, none of these theories has yet been tested adequately. Each of them is in conflict with some observations of fact. In any event, an interrogation handbook cannot and need not include a lengthy discussion of hypnosis. The case officer or interrogator needs to know enough about the subject to understand the circumstances under which hypnosis can be a useful tool, so that he can request expert assistance appropriately.

Operational personnel, including interrogators, who chance to have some lay experience or skill in hypnotism should not themselves use hypnotic techniques for interrogation or other operational purposes. There are two reasons for this position. The first is that hypnotism used as an operational tool by a practitioner who is not a psychologist, psychiatrist, or M.D. can produce irreversible psychological damage. The

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lay practitioner does not know enough to use the technique safely. The second reason is that an unsuccessful attempt to hypnotize a subject for purposes of interrogation, or a successful attempt not adequately covered by post-hypnotic amnesia or other protection, can easily lead to lurid and embarrassing publicity or legal charges.

Hypnosis is frequently called a state of heightened suggestibility, but the phrase is a description rather than a definition. Merton M. Gill and Margaret Brenman state, "The psychoanalytic theory of hypnosis clearly implies, where it does not explicitly state, that hypnosis is a form of regression." And they add, "...induction [of hypnosis] is the process of bringing about a regression, while the hypnotic state is the established regression." (13) It is suggested that the interrogator will find this definition the most useful. The problem of overcoming the resistance of an uncooperative interrogatee is essentially a problem of inducing regression to a level at which the resistance can no longer be sustained. Hypnosis is one way of regressing people.

Martin T. Orne has written at some length about hypnosis and interrogation. Almost all of his conclusions are tentatively negative. Concerning the role played by the will or attitude of the interrogates, Orne says, "Although the crucial experiment has not yet been done, there is little or no evidence to indicate that trance can be induced against a person's wishes." He adds, "...the actual occurrence of the trance state is related to the wish of the subject to enter hypnosis." And he also observes, "...whether a subject will or will not enter trance depends upon his relationship with the hyponotist rather than upon the technical procedure of trance induction." These views are probably representative of those of many psychologists, but they are not definitive. As Orne himself later points out, the interrogatee "... could be given a hypnotic drug with appropriate verbal suggestions to talk about a given topic. Eventually enough of the drug

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would be given to cause a short period of unconsciousness. When the subject wakes, the interrogator could then read from his 'notes' of the hypnotic interview the information presumably told him." (Orne had previously pointed out that this technique requires that the interrogator possess significant information about the subject without the subject's knowledge.) "It can readily be seen how this... maneuver... would facilitate the elicitation of information in subsequent interviews." (7) Techniques of inducing trance in resistant subjects through preliminary administration of so-called silent drugs (drugs which the subject does not know he has taken) or through other non-routine methods of induction are still under investigation. Until more facts are known, the question of whether a resister can be hypnotized involuntarily must go unanswered.

Orne also holds that even if a resister can be hypnotized, his resistance does not cease. He postulates "... that only in rare interrogation subjects would a sufficiently deep trance be obtainable to even attempt to induce the subject to discuss material which he is unwilling to discuss in the waking state. The kind of information which can be obtained in these rare instances is still an unanswered question." He adds that it is doubtful that a subject in trance could be made to reveal information which he wished to safeguard. But here too Orne seems somewhat too cautious or pessimistic. Once an interrogatee is in a hypnotic trance, his understanding of reality becomes subject to manipulation. For example, a KUBARK interrogator could tell a suspect double agent in trance that the KGB is conducting the questioning, and thus invert the whole frame of reference. In other words, Orne is probably right in holding that most recalcitrant subjects will continue effective resistance as long as the frame of reference is undisturbed. But once the subject is tricked into believing that he is talking to friend rather than foe, or that divulging the truth is the best way to serve his own purposes, his resistance will be replaced by cooperation. The value of hypnotic trance is not that it permits the interrogator to impose his will but rather that it can be used to convince the interrogatee that there is no valid reason not to be forthcoming.

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A third objection raised by Orne and others is that material elicited during trance is not reliable. Orne says, "... it has been shown that the accuracy of such information... would not be guaranteed since subjects in hypnosis are fully capable of lying." Again, the observation is correct; no known manipulative method guarantees veracity. But if hypnosis is employed not as an immediate instrument for digging out the truth but rather as a way of making the subject want to align himself with his interrogators, the objection evaporates.

Hypnosis offers one advantage not inherent in other interrogation techniques or aids: the post-hypnotic suggestion. Under favorable circumstances it should be possible to administer a silent drug to a resistant source, persuade him as the drug takes effect that he is slipping into a hypnotic trance, place him under actual hypnosis as consciousness is returning, shift his frame of reference so that his reasons for resistance become reasons for cooperating, interrogate him, and conclude the session by implanting the suggestion that when he emerges from trance he will not remember anything about what has happened.

This sketchy outline of possible uses of hypnosis in the interrogation of resistant sources has no higher goal than to remind operational personnel that the technique may provide the answer to a problem not otherwise soluble. To repeat: hypnosis is distinctly not a do-it-yourself project. Therefore the interrogator, base, or center that is considering its use must anticipate the timing sufficiently not only to secure the obligatory headquarters permission but also to allow for an expert's travel time and briefing.

J. Narcosis

Just as the threat of pain may more effectively induce compliance than its infliction, so an interrogatee's mistaken belief that he has been drugged may make him a more useful interrogation subject than he would be under narcosis. Louis A. Gottschalk cites a group of studies as indicating "that 30 to 50 per cent of individuals are placebo reactors, that is, respond

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with symptomatic relief to taking an inert substance." (7) In the interrogation situation, moreover, the effectiveness of a placebo may be enhanced because of its ability to placate the conscience. The subject's primary source of resistance to confession or divulgence may be pride, patriotism, personal loyalty to superiors, or fear of retribution if he is returned to their hands. Under such circumstances his natural desire to escape from stress by complying with the interrogator's wishes may become decisive if he is provided an acceptable rationalization for compliance. "I was drugged" is one of the best excuses.

Drugs are no more the answer to the interrogator's prayer than the polygraph, hypnosis, or other aids. Studies and reports "dealing with the validity of material extracted from reluctant informants... indicate that there is no drug which can force every informant to report all the information he has. Not only may the inveterate criminal psychopath lie under the influence of drugs which have been tested, but the relatively normal and well-adjusted individual may also successfully disguise factual data." (3) Gottschalk reinforces the latter observation in mentioning an experiment involving drugs which indicated that "the more normal, well-integrated individuals could lie better than the guilt-ridden, neurotic subjects." (7)

Nevertheless, drugs can be effective in overcoming resistance not dissolved by other techniques. As has already been noted, the so-called silent drug (a pharmacologically potent substance given to a person unaware of its administration) can make possible the induction of hypnotic trance in a previously unwilling subject. Gottschalk says, "The judicious choice of a drug with minimal side effects, its matching to the subject's personality, careful gauging of dosage, and a sense of timing... [make] silent administration a hard-to-equal ally for the hypnotist intent on producing self-fulfilling and inescapable suggestions... the drug effects should prove... compelling to the subject since the perceived sensations originate entirely within himself." (7)

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Particularly important is the reference to matching the drug to the personality of the interrogatee. The effect of most drugs depends more upon the personality of the subject than upon the physical characteristics of the drugs themselves. If the approval of Headquarters has been obtained and if a doctor is at hand for administration, one of the most important of the interrogator's functions is providing the doctor with a full and accurate description of the psychological make-up of the interrogatee, to facilitate the best possible choice of a drug.

Persons burdened with feelings of shame or guilt are likely to unburden themselves when drugged, especially if these feelings have been reinforced by the interrogator. And like the placebo, the drug provides an excellent rationalization of helplessness for the interrogatee who wants to yield but has hitherto been unable to violate his own values or loyalties.

Like other coercive media, drugs may affect the content of what an interrogatee divulges. Gottschalk notes that certain drugs "may give rise to psychotic manifestations such as hallucinations, illusions, delusions, or disorientation", so that "the verbal material obtained cannot always be considered valid." (7) For this reason drugs (and the other aids discussed in this section) should not be used persistently to facilitate the interrogative debriefing that follows capitulation. Their function is to cause capitulation, to aid in the shift from resistance to cooperation. Once this shift has been accomplished, coercive techniques should be abandoned both for moral reasons and because they are unnecessary and even counter-productive.

This discussion does not include a list of drugs that have been employed for interrogation purposes or a discussion of their properties because these are medical considerations within the province of a doctor rather than an interogator.

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K. The Detection of Malingering

The detection of malingering is obviously not an interrogation technique, coercive or otherwise. But the history of interrogation is studded with the stories of persons who have attempted, often successfully, to evade the mounting pressures of interrogation by feigning physical or mental illness. KUBARK interrogators may encounter seemingly sick or irrational interrogatees at times and places which make it difficult or next-to-impossible to summon medical or other professional assistance. Because a few tips may make it possible for the interrogator to distinguish between the malingerer and the person who is genuinely ill, and because both illness and malingering are sometimes produced by coercive interrogation, a brief discussion of the topic has been included here.

Most persons who feign a mental or physical illness do not know enough about it to deceive the well-informed. Malcolm L. Meltzer says, "The detection of malingering depends to a great extent on the simulator's failure to understand adequately the characteristics of the role he is feigning.... Often he presents symptoms which are exceedingly rare, existing mainly in the fancy of the layman. One such symptom is the delusion of misidentification, characterized by the... belief that he is some powerful or historic personage. This symptom is very unusual in true psychosis, but is used by a number of simulators. In schizophrenia, the onset tends to be gradual, delusions do not spring up full-blown over night; in simulated disorders, the onset is usually fast and delusions may be readily available. The feigned psychosis often contains many contradictory and inconsistent symptoms, rarely existing together. The malingerer tends to go to extremes in his portrayal of his symptoms; he exaggerates, overdramatizes, grimaces, shouts, is overly bizarre, and calls attention to himself in other ways....

"Another characteristic of the malingerer is that he will usually seek to evade or postpone examination. A study

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of the behavior of lie-detector subjects, for example, showed that persons later 'proven guilty' showed certain similarities of behavior. The guilty persons were reluctant to take the test, and they tried in various ways to postpone or delay it. They often appeared highly anxious and sometimes took a hostile attitude toward the test and the examiner. Evasive tactics sometimes appeared, such as sighing, yawning, moving about, all of which foil the examiner by obscuring the recording. Before the examination, they felt it necessary to explain why their responses might mislead the examiner into thinking they were lying. Thus the procedure of subjecting a suspected malingerer to a lie-detector test might evoke behavior which would reinforce the suspicion of fraud." (7)

Meltzer also notes that malingerers who are not professional psychologists can usually be exposed through Rorschach tests.

An important element in malingering is the frame of mind of the examiner. A person pretending madness awakens in a professional examiner not only suspicion but also a desire to expose the fraud, whereas a well person who pretends to be concealing mental illness and who permits only a minor symptom or two to peep through is much likelier to create in the expert a desire to expose the hidden sickness.

Meltzer observes that simulated mutism and amnesia can usually be distinguished from the true states by narcoanalysis. The reason, however, is the reverse of the popular misconception. Under the influence of appropriate drugs the malingerer will persist in not speaking or in not remembering, whereas the symptoms of the genuinely afflicted will temporarily disappear. Another technique is to pretend to take the deception seriously, express grave concern, and tell the "patient" that the only remedy for his illness is a series of electric shock treatments or a frontal lobotomy.

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L. Conclusion 

A brief summary of the foregoing may help to pull the major concepts of coercive interrogation together:

1. The principal coercive techniques are arrest, detention, the deprivation of sensory stimuli, threats and fear, debility, pain, heightened suggestibility and hypnosis, and drugs.

2. If a coercive technique is to be used, or if two or more are to be employed jointly, they should be chosen for their effect upon the individual and carefully selected to match his personality.

3. The usual effect of coercion is regression. The interrogatee's mature defenses crumbles as he becomes more childlike. During the process of regression the subject may experience feelings of guilt, and it is usually useful to intensify these.

4. When regression has proceeded far enough so that the subject's desire to yield begins to overbalance his resistance, the interrogator should supply a face-saving rationalization. Like the coercive technique, the rationalization must be carefully chosen to fit the subject's personality.

5. The pressures of duress should be slackened or lifted after compliance has been obtained, so that the interrogatee's voluntary cooperation will not be impeded.

No mention has been made of what is frequently the last step in an interrogation conducted by a Communist service: the attempted conversion. In the Western view the goal of the questioning is information; once a sufficient degree of cooperation has been obtained to permit the

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interrogator access to the information he seeks, he is not ordinarily concerned with the attitudes of the source. Under some circumstances, however, this pragmatic indifference can be short-sighted. If the interrogatee remains semi-hostile or remorseful after a successful interrogation has ended, less time may be required to complete his conversion (and conceivably to create an enduring asset) than might be needed to deal with his antagonism if he is merely squeezed and forgotten.

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The CIA's Secret Manual on Coercive Questioning
by Jon Elliston
ParaScope Dossier Editor
pscpdocs@aol.com

Faced with a FOIA lawsuit, the Central Intelligence Agency recently released an interrogation manual to the Baltimore Sun that details brutal methods of extracting information from resistant sources. The "KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation" manual does more than simply outline various psychological and physical torture tactics: it demonstrates a real-world application of the CIA's mind control research and offers clues on the agency's role in human rights abuses around the world. This report examines the historical context of the interrogation manual, the MKULTRA connection, and the manual itself, presented here verbatim for the first time online.

(c) Copyright 1997 ParaScope, Inc. 




  • 1: The CIA and Torture, On the Record
  • 2: The Coercion Continuum
  • 3: The Mind Control Connection
  • 4: The Terror Trade
  • Document: KUBARK Interrogation Manual Transcript
  • Sources
  • Available Now: ParaScope's Reprint of the KUBARK Manual

==============================
The CIA and Torture,
On the Record


The release of a Central Intelligence Agency guidebook on interrogation would be an important and publicized event in any context, but as it happens, this manual arrives in the public domain at an especially crucial juncture in the long-standing debate over the agency's role and mission. The CIA turns 50 in September of this year, and the circumstances surrounding the January 1997 declassification of this document suggest that the anniversary will be marked by a determined effort by historians, activists, and public officials to reevaluate the conduct of this secretive agency.

This June 1963 document, titled "KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation" (KUBARK is a code-word referring to CIA), should be a key piece of evidence in such attempts to assess the agency's operations. The manual, which explores methods of extracting information from resistant sources and advises torture techniques that were not officially renounced until the mid-1980s, provides a fitting departure point from which to launch an investigation of the CIA's role in advancing the scientific basis for brutal questioning methods and promoting their use throughout the world.

These methods have recently come back to haunt the CIA, as a stream of media and official reports has exposed extensive agency assistance to foreign killers. In several countries where U.S. intelligence maintained working relationships with repressive security forces, victims and victimizers have gone on record with accounts of how the United States, though the CIA, has promoted grave human rights abuses. In two of the more prominent recent cases -- the CIA's involvement in Guatemala and Honduras -- pressure from human rights groups and some members of Congress has risen to the point where the agency has been compelled to conduct internal reviews, submit its conduct to the scrutiny of outside investigators, and shed some notorious criminals from its payroll.

In Guatemala, a country that endured decades of dictatorship following the CIA's 1954 operation to overthrow the government of elected president Jacobo Arbenz Guzman, the agency employed until very recently military officers who were responsible for "serious human rights violations such as assassination, extrajudicial execution, torture, or kidnapping while they were [CIA] assets," according to a 1996 report by President Clinton's Intelligence Oversight Board. (1) A March 1997 report by the Republican-controlled House Intelligence Committee confirmed the IOB's findings. (2)

Increased attention was brought to these matters in March 1995 when it was revealed that CIA Guatemalan assets were involved in the murders of American citizen Michael Devine, who ran a back-country inn, and Efrain Bamaca Velasquez, a guerrilla leader married to an American woman, Jennifer Harbury. (3) Fasts and vigils by Harbury and Sister Diana Ortiz, an American nun who was kidnapped, raped and tortured by Guatemalan security forces in 1989, built interest in the issue and prompted White House assurances that the CIA's involvement in Guatemala would be closely examined and that all relevant government documents on the subject would be made public. None of the materials released to date have identified "Alejandro," an American who, according to Ortiz, advised the Guatemalan military team who brutalized her.(4)

The ordeal of Sister Ortiz, whose body bears the scars of 111 cigarette burns inflicted during her detention, was experienced by thousands of Guatemalans during the 1980s, when a massive program of political torture and murder gripped the country. The military and police agencies responsible received continual assistance from the CIA. In April 1995, investigative journalist Allan Nairn reported that the CIA "has systematic links to Guatemalan Army death squad operations that go far beyond the disclosures" of the previous month. According to current and former officials from the United States and Guatemala interviewed by Nairn, "CIA operatives work inside a Guatemalan Army unit [the G-2] that maintains a network of torture centers and has killed thousands of Guatemalan civilians," and "at least three of the recent G-2 chiefs have been paid by the CIA." A former U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) official in Guatemala told Nairn the involvement was so extensive that "it would be an embarrassing situation if you ever had a roll call of everybody in the Guatemalan Army who ever collected a CIA paycheck." (5)

At least one government official has gone to bat against the CIA's conduct in Guatemala, despite the risks of doing so. In March of 1995 Richard Nuccio, then a White House aide, shared information with Congress about CIA ties to Guatemalan military officers implicated in the murders of Devine and Bamaca. In retaliation, the CIA successfully lobbied to have Nuccio's security clearance revoked, effectively destroying his eligibility for high government office. As the conflict came to a head, Nuccio said he was "being hounded out of government service by the CIA for telling Congress what it had a right to know." (6)

In late February 1997 Nuccio, who had been moved to a low-level position at the State Department, resigned to return to work as a congressional aide. In a letter to President Clinton announcing his decision to quit, Nuccio wrote that the CIA has employed agents guilty of "systematic human rights violations," and warned that "if you do not take decisive steps to bring the agency under control, far graver damage will result to our democracy than the denial of a clearance to one individual." (7)

Nuccio was not the only job casualty of the CIA's Guatemala controversy. In early March of 1997, the Washington Post reported that as a result of the outcry over the CIA's involvement with Guatemalan rights abusers, the agency conducted an "agent scrub" -- a purge of foreign informants on the CIA payroll with criminal backgrounds -- beginning in 1994. Since then, about 100 informants have been dropped for human rights problems. A disproportionately high number -- about 50 -- were involved in the CIA's operations in Latin America. (8)

Though the Post report did not identify the countries where the CIA reformed its ranks, the agency's Honduras station was almost certainly the locus of many of the firings. In the early 1980s, the CIA played an instrumental role in setting up a Honduran military intelligence unit, Battalion 316, that wreaked havoc on the human rights front. In a June 1995 investigative series, Baltimore Sun reporters Gary Cohn and Ginger Thompson described in detail how the CIA, in concert with Argentine military experts fresh from a decade of "dirty war" against dissidents in their country, instructed Battalion 316 in intelligence matters including surveillance and interrogation. Cohn and Thompson uncovered close CIA ties to the Honduran officers who maintained secret prisons, directed torture sessions, and commanded death squads that killed hundreds of suspected "subversives," including many union and student leaders. (9)

The Sun series is heavily documented, drawing on scores of interviews with former U.S. officials and members and surviving victims of Battalion 316. Cohn and Thompson also tracked the U.S. government paper trail on assistance to the unit, and discovered that secret CIA manuals were consulted in training the Hondurans advanced methods of interrogation. In May of 1994, the Sun filed a Freedom of Information Act request with the CIA seeking release of the documents.

Cohn says the CIA responded to the request with "an awful lot of delay," even though the Sun had provided the names and dates of the manuals. Not until more than two years later, when the Sun threatened legal action, did the CIA release the manuals. (10) One of the documents, titled "Human Resources Exploitation Manual - 1983," summarized the CIA interrogation training given to military personnel from several Latin American countries and repeated many of the psychological torture strategies outlined in the 1963 manual. (In the mid-1980s these tactics were scribbled out in the manual in the aftermath of the scandal over another CIA manual, a primer on psychological operations prepared for the Nicaraguan contras).

Reading the disturbing methods detailed in the manuals, its easy to see why the CIA preferred that the documents remain classified. Documentary disclosures about such agency abuses are all too rare, and the Sun's success with the FOIA is a significant reminder of how persistent investigators can take advantage of the law to shed light on hidden government improprieties.

At the same time, the case illustrates the shortcomings of the FOIA when it comes to potentially scandalous documents like the interrogation manuals. The CIA relinquished the materials because the Sun committed to a legal challenge -- an option not readily available to the average FOIA requester. Only when the agency was confronted with the specter of an embarrassing court battle did the FOIA yield results "as it should for any citizen," observes Cohn.

In evaluating this victory for disclosure, another caveat deserves mention: while most of the 1963 manual is now available to the public, significant portions were censored by the CIA prior to release. For example, 8 of the 42 bibliographical entries are completely deleted, as are 4 of the 50 items on the "Interrogator's Check List." On several pages, discussion of the CIA's policy on the use of forcible detention (which the agency has no legal authority for) are deleted (see pp. 6-843-4586). The CIA's public affairs staff also refused this author's request to provide translations of the numerous code-words used in the document, making it difficult to discern the full meaning of passages where these words are used.

Despite these omissions, "KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation" contains valuable information on several secret CIA endeavors, including the agency's mind control research. Like the recent media reports on the CIA's ties to murderous security forces, the manual fills significant gaps in the history of U.S. foreign policy. As no previously released document has done, this manual places the CIA's hostile interrogation strategies on the record. The manual was designed to root out the secrets of interogatees, but now that its contents can be widely read, it is the CIA who has many questions to answer.
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The Mind Control Connection

Though certainly this is a remarkable document, its science-based approach to interrogation demonstrates a perspective common among national security officials when the manual was written. The manual was one of thousands of government efforts to apply behavioral science expertise to military and intelligence objectives deemed crucial in the early years of the Cold War.

In her survey of "the career of Cold War psychology," Ellen Herman reports that "between 1945 and the mid-1960s, the U.S. military was by far the country's major institutional sponsor of psychological research," spending at least $15.7 million on psychological studies in fiscal year 1961 alone. (13) The research explored topics ranging from the psychological traits of insurgents to the mental defenses against interrogation. The government made a similarly massive effort to enlist the field of communication studies to perfect U.S. propaganda and counterinsurgency programs. (14)

By 1963, when the manual was authored, the CIA counterintelligence staff had a sizable foundation of government-funded psychological research on which to base their guidebook. The manual's introduction states that "a principal source of aid [to interrogators] today is scientific findings. The intelligence service which is able to bring pertinent, modern knowledge to bear upon its problems enjoys huge advantages over a service which conducts its clandestine business in eighteenth century fashion." In fact, the manual argued, this knowledge "is of sufficient importance and relevance that it is no longer possible to discuss interrogation significantly without reference to the psychological research conducted in the past decade" (p. 2).

Accordingly, the manual explains, "a major purpose of this document is to focus relevant scientific findings upon CI [counterintelligence] interrogation." The manual does not explain that many of the "relevant scientific findings" that had become so useful for interrogators were the product of covert funding from the CIA. The bibliography of source materials for the manual is laced with the names of scientists involved with Project MKULTRA, the agency's secretive, multi-million dollar program of experiments in mind and behavior control. At this time it is impossible to state definitively how many of the authors in this bibliography were recipients of MKULTRA funds, as the CIA has destroyed and withheld many of their records on the program. (15) Other specialists listed in the bibliography received Pentagon grants for similar mind control research.

The published works of some of the CIA's most experienced and relied upon scientific contacts were put to use in the interrogation manual. Among this group were two noted Cornell University medical researchers, Harold Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle, who authored the CIA's first major study on the indoctrination of prisoners of war. During the 1950s, "the team of Wolff and Hinkle became the chief brainwashing studiers for the U.S. government," according to John Marks, author of the definitive account of the CIA's mind control program. (16) Two of the most enthusiastic academic participants in MKULTRA, Wolff and Hinkle were the president and vice-president, respectively, of the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, a CIA front organization.

Posing as a non-governmental scientific foundation, between 1955 and 1965 Human Ecology channeled CIA funds into dozens of MKULTRA studies. One researcher financed by Human Ecology, Harvard's Martin Orne, examined potential applications of hypnosis in interrogation. (17) A chapter summarizing his research forms the basis of the CIA manual's discussion of the uses of hypnosis (see pp. 96-98). Another Human Ecology grant went to Air Force researcher Albert Biderman to fund his study of "Social Psychological Needs and 'Involuntary' Behavior as Illustrated by Compliance in Interrogation" -- another article referred to in the manual. (18)

In another effort to improve its interrogation methods, the CIA sought help from John Lilly, a prominent researcher of the effects of sensory deprivation. (19) Lilly declined the offer of an MKULTRA contract, but one of his studies is cited in the interrogation manual nonetheless (see pp. 87-88).

Further evidence of the CIA's leading role in applying modern psychological research to interrogation is found in the manual's list of "other bibliographies" (p. 121). A 1960 report used to prepare the manual, "Brainwashing: A Guide to the Literature," was published by none other than the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology.

A prized product of the CIA's mind control research was the agency's Personality Assessment System (PAS), a means of measuring and classifying the mental makeup of individuals of interest to U.S. intelligence. Developed by CIA psychologist John Gittinger, the PAS was used to assess the intentions of foreign leaders and in selecting personnel for U.S.-backed security forces in countries including South Korea, Vietnam and Uruguay. (20)

An oblique reference in the interrogation manual suggests that the PAS, or a variant of the system, also had a role in the CIA's efforts to match interrogation methods with the particular psychological traits of interrogatees. The index of the manual lists a reference to an "Independent Assessment Program" on p. 30, but on that page all references to the program are deleted. The paragraph following the deleted portion begins with the words "Other psychological testing aids" -- suggesting that a PAS-like system is discussed in the text directly above. Given the manual's repeated instructions to probe and exploit the individual mindframe of the subject -- to place "a tap on the psychological jugular" -- it would not be surprising to find that yet another MKULTRA project, the PAS, was incorporated into CIA interrogation strategies.

================================



The Terror Trade 

The CIA was loath to release its manuals to the American public, but the agency has readily shared its expert opinions on interrogation with military and intelligence forces around the world. In numerous cases both the CIA and the Defense Department have been implicated in the international dissemination of torture and other political terror tactics. The tricks of the trade were often exported to governments who turned the brutal methods against their own civilians. There are too many cases on record to recount them all here, but a review of some frequently cited examples suggests that U.S. involvement in this terror trade has been so widespread that its effects can accurately be described as global in scope.

Most recently the CIA has come under scrutiny for its training of abusive officers in Guatemala and Honduras. These cases are but a sampling of the agency's experience in promoting the use of political terror in Central America. During the 1980s one of the agency's major covert operations, the contra war against Nicaragua, was repeatedly plunged into scandal due to its reliance on tactics that blatantly contradicted President Reagan's public praise of the contra guerrillas, whom he described as a force of "freedom fighters." A CIA-produced manual, Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare, schooled the contras on the use of "implicit terror," kidnapping and assassinations. (21)

U.S. Army instruction programs that spread similar methods in the region are also attracting criticism. According to declassified documents and recently issued Defense Department reports, the Army's "Project X," a set of intelligence courses taught since the 1960s in countries throughout Central and South America, included instruction on how to surveil, infiltrate, and undermine dissident groups. The training covered the use of kidnapping, blackmail, and executions. The materials were later consulted in the preparation of manuals used at the Army's School of the Americas (SOA), a Ft. Benning, Georgia, facility that trains Latin American military officers. Among the objectionable tactics later found in the SOA manuals were instructions on the use of hypnotism and "truth serum" drugs in interrogation. (22)

Representative Joseph Kennedy, a longtime congressional critic of the SOA, remarked that the manuals "taught tactics that come right out of a Soviet gulag and have no place in civilized society -- they certainly have no place in any course taught with taxpayer dollars on U.S. soil by the members of our own military." (23) Amnesty International issued a statement calling for full disclosure of the history of Project X and commenting that "it seems highly unlikely that it is merely a coincidence that some of the most widespread and systematic human rights violations have taken place in precisely those countries, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru, where these materials were most widely used." (24)

By virtue of their proximity to the United States, these countries bore the brunt of the abuses that accompanied U.S. counterinsurgency aid -- but the manuals and lesson plans that shared such tactics were extensively distributed outside this hemisphere as well. In March 1997 the Washington Post reported that according to Army documents and former Pentagon officials, the Project X materials "were used much more widely, by U.S. personnel working in a variety of countries," including Vietnam, Japan and Iran. (25)

CIA ties to torturers have likewise reached to every corner of the globe. The agency created and guided oppressive security programs in several Southeast Asian countries, most notably Vietnam, where the United States ran its most intensive counterinsurgency campaign. During the late 1960s, in South Vietnam the CIA set up the infamous Phoenix Program, an effort to eradicate the Viet Cong infrastructure. Phoenix is largely remembered as an assassination program (at least 20,000 suspects were murdered), but the operation also established a network of "Provincial Interrogation Centers" that often served as torture chambers. (26)

In the years that followed, the advanced counterinsurgency tactics of Phoenix were shared with thousands of foreign police officers trained by CIA instructors in various programs run by the State Department's Agency for International Development, including the Office of Public Safety and the International Police Academy. (27)

The CIA has also been directly linked to torture training in the Middle East, where the agency for two and a half decades reinforced the repressive state of Shah Mohammed Pahlevi, the dictator of Iran. Shortly before the Shah's overthrow in 1979, New York Times journalist Seymour Hersh reported that "a senior CIA official was involved in instructing officials in the Savak [the Iranian secret police] on torture techniques." Jesse J. Leaf, a former head Iran analyst for the CIA, told Hersh, "I do remember seeing and being told of [CIA personnel] who were there seeing the rooms and being told of torture. And I know that the torture rooms were toured and it was all paid for by the U.S.A." (28)

The human rights abuses promoted by the Pentagon and CIA are compounded by the abuses of government secrecy that continue to conceal many important records on these operations from public scrutiny. In the case of the Project X program, the Defense Department says it has destroyed almost all of the original documentation, purportedly to prevent further dissemination of such unacceptable tactics.

When such crucial records are wiped out of existence, our ability to document the history of U.S. military assistance and training programs is seriously impaired. Fragmentary media reports based on the recollections of former Pentagon officials are no substitute for a complete accounting of Project X. Likewise, neither the CIA's declassification of a couple incriminating manuals nor its "scrub" of its motley band of foreign assets is a substitute for a comprehensive congressional investigation of CIA cooperation with regimes that regularly employed terror tactics.

Currently there is little determination on Capitol Hill to unearth this disturbing history. For the time being, if the facts on the U.S. role in developing and exporting these tactics are to be established, they will be extracted from documents such as this interrogation manual. The document joins the steadily growing stack of declassified records that offer clues on the nature and extent of the CIA's complicity with state terror in other countries. Though much of the documentary evidence on the terror trade remains shielded by official secrecy, a close reading of this manual reveals the value of the pieces of the paper trail that we can currently examine.
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Torture was taught by CIA; Declassified manual details the methods used in Honduras; Agency denials refuted


Torture was taught by CIA; Declassified manual details the methods used in Honduras; Agency denials refuted

By Gary Cohn, Ginger Thompson, and mark Matthews, The Baltimore Sun,
Monday 27 January 1997, Final Edition

WASHINGTON -- A newly declassified CIA training manual details torture methods used against suspected subversives in Central America during the 1980s, refuting claims by the agency that no such methods were taught there.
"Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual -- 1983" was released Friday in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request filed by The Sun on May 26, 1994.
The CIA also declassified a Vietnam-era training manual called "KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation [SEE NEXT POST]-- July 1963," which also taught torture and is believed by intelligence sources to have been a basis for the 1983 manual.
Torture methods taught in the 1983 manual include stripping suspects naked and keeping them blindfolded. Interrogation rooms should be windowless, dark and soundproof, with no toilet.
"The 'questioning' room is the battlefield upon which the 'questioner' and the subject meet," the 1983 manual states. "However, the 'questioner' has the advantage in that he has total control over the subject and his environment."
The 1983 manual was altered between 1984 and early 1985 to discourage torture after a furor was raised in Congress and the press about CIA training techniques being used in Central America. Those alterations and new instructions appear in the documents obtained by The Sun, support the conclusion that methods taught in the earlier version were illegal.
A cover sheet placed in the manual in March 1985 cautions: "The use of force, mental torture, threats, insults or exposure to inhumane treatment of any kind as an aid to interrogation is prohibited by law, both international and domestic; it is neither authorized nor condoned."
The Sun's 1994 request for the manuals was made in connection with the newspaper's investigation of kidnapping, torture and murder committed by a CIA-trained Honduran military unit during the 1980s. The CIA turned over the documents -- with passages deleted -- only after The Sun threatened to sue the agency to obtain the documents.
Human rights abuses by the Honduran unit known as Battalion 316 were most intense in the early 1980s at the height of the Reagan administration's war against communism in Central America. They were documented by The Sun in a four-part series published from June 11 to 18, 1995.

Unmistakable similarities

The methods taught in the 1983 manual and those used by Battalion 316 in the early 1980s show unmistakable similarities.
The manual advises an interrogator to "manipulate the subject's environment, to create unpleasant or intolerable situations."
In The Sun's series, Florencio Caballero, a former member of Battalion 316, said CIA instructors taught him to discover what his prisoners loved and what they hated.
"If a person did not like cockroaches, then that person might be more cooperative if there were cockroaches running around the room," Caballero said.
In 1983, Caballero attended a CIA "human resources exploitation or interrogation course," according to declassified testimony by Richard Stolz, then-deputy director for operations, before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in June 1988.
The "Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual -- 1983" suggests that the interrogator show the prisoner letters from home to convey the impression that the prisoner's relatives are suffering or in danger.
In The Sun's series, Jose Barrera, a former member of Battalion 316 who said he was taught interrogation methods by U.S. instructors in 1983, recalled using the technique:
"The first thing we would say is that we know your mother, your younger brother. And better you cooperate, because if you don't, we're going to bring them in and rape them and torture them and kill them," Barrera said.
The manual suggests that prisoners be deprived of food and sleep, and made to maintain rigid positions, such as standing at attention for long periods.
Ines Consuelo Murillo, who spent 78 days in Battalion 316's secret jails in 1983, told The Sun that she was given no food or water for days, and that to keep her from sleeping, one of her captors entered her room every 10 minutes and poured water over her head.
Mark Mansfield, a CIA spokesman, declined to comment on the manuals. However, asked about agency policy on the use of force and torture, he referred to Stolz's 1988 testimony before the Senate intelligence committee.
In testimony declassified at The Sun's request, Stolz confirmed that the CIA trained Hondurans.
"The course consisted of three weeks of classroom instruction followed by two weeks of practical exercises, which included the questioning of actual prisoners by the students.
"Physical abuse or other degrading treatment was rejected, not only because it is wrong, but because it has historically proven to be ineffective," he said.
Beyond that reference, Mansfield said only: "There are still aspects of the review process that need to be completed. For that reason, it would not be appropriate to comment."
He was referring to an internal CIA investigation ordered in 1995, after publication of The Sun series on Battalion 316, to determine whether CIA officials acted improperly in Honduras during the 1980s.
The Clinton administration promised more than a year ago that CIA, State Department and Defense Department documents relevant to the time of Battalion 316's abuses would be turned over to Honduran government human rights investigators. To date, no CIA documents have been sent to the Hondurans.

A truth confirmed

The Honduran judge overseeing his country's human rights investigation welcomed the release of the CIA training manuals.
"These manuals confirm a truth we in Honduras have known for a long time: that the United States was involved in encouraging the abuses of the Honduran military," said Judge Roy Medina. "They were trying to stop communism. But the methods they used are not acceptable in civilized societies."
In releasing the training manuals, the CIA declined to say whether either document was used in Honduras. However, a declassified 1989 report prepared for the Senate intelligence committee, obtained earlier by The Sun, says the 1983 manual was developed from notes of a CIA interrogation course in Honduras.
The most graphic part of the 1983 manual is a chapter dealing with "coercive techniques."
The manual discourages physical torture, advising interrogators to use more subtle methods to threaten and frighten the suspect.
"While we do not stress the use of coercive techniques, we do want to make you aware of them and the proper way to use them," the manual's introduction states. The manual says such methods are justified when subjects have been trained to resist noncoercive measures.
Forms of coercion explained in the interrogation manual include: Inflicting pain or the threat of pain: "The threat to inflict pain may trigger fears more damaging than the immediate sensation of pain. In fact, most people underestimate their capacity to withstand pain."
A later section states: "The pain which is being inflicted upon him from outside himself may actually intensify his will to resist. On the other hand, pain which he feels he is inflicting upon himself is more likely to sap his resistance.
"For example, if he is required to maintain rigid positions such as standing at attention or sitting on a stool for long periods of time, the immediate source of pain is not the 'questioner' but the subject himself." " After a period of time the subject is likely to exhaust his internal motivational strength."
Inducing dread: The manual says a breakdown in the prisoner's will can be induced by strong fear, but cautions that if this dread is unduly prolonged, "the subject may sink into a defensive apathy from which it is hard to arouse him."
It adds: "It is advisable to have a psychologist available whenever regression is induced."
Getting a confession: Once a confession is obtained, "the pressures are lifted enough so that the subject can provide information as accurately as possible." The subject should be told that "friendly handling will continue as long as he cooperates."
Solitary confinement and other types of sensory deprivation: Depriving a subject of sensory stimulation induces stress and anxiety, the manual says. "The more complete the deprivation, the more rapidly and deeply the subject is affected."
It cites the results of experiments conducted on volunteers who allowed themselves to be suspended in water while wearing blackout masks. They were allowed to hear only their own breathing and faint sounds from the pipes. "The stress and anxiety become almost unbearable for most subjects," the manual says.
Hypnosis and drugs: The 1983 manual suggests creating "hypnotic situations," using concealed machinery, and offers ways of convincing a subject that he has been drugged. Giving him a placebo "may make him want to believe that he has been drugged and that no one could blame him for telling his story now," the manual says.
Arrest: The most effective way to make an arrest is to use the element of surprise, achieving "the maximum amount of mental discomfort."
"The ideal time at which to make an arrest is in the early hours of the morning. When arrested at this time, most subjects experience intense feelings of shock, insecurity and psychological stress and for the most part have difficulty adjusting to the situation."
Cells: Prisoners' cells should have doors of heavy steel. "The slamming of a heavy door impresses upon the subject that he is cut off from the rest of the world."
The manual says "the idea is to prevent the subject from relaxing and recovering from shock."
The 1983 manual suggests that prisoners be blindfolded, stripped and given a thorough medical examination, "including all body cavities."

Substantial revisions

Between 1984 and 1985, after congressional committees began questioning training techniques being used by the CIA in Latin America, "Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual -- 1983" underwent substantial revision.
Passages were crossed out and written over by hand to warn that the methods they described were forbidden. However, in the copy obtained by The Sun, the original wording remained clearly visible beneath the handwritten changes.
Among the changes was this sentence in the section on coercion: "The use of most coercive techniques is improper and violates policy."
In another, the editor crossed out descriptions of solitary confinement experiments and wrote: "To use prolonged solitary confinement for the purpose of extracting information in questioning violates policy."
A third notation says that inducing unbearable stress "is a form of torture. Its use constitutes a serious impropriety and violates policy." And in place of a sentence that says "coercive techniques always require prior [headquarters] approval," an editor has written that they "constitute an impropriety and violate policy."
To an instruction that "heat, air and light" in an interrogation cell should be externally controlled is added "but not to the point of torture."

Disturbing questions

The 1983 interrogation manual was discussed at a closed hearing of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in June 1988. Then-Sen. William S. Cohen said that the interrogation manual raised disturbing questions, even with the revisions. Cohen is now the secretary of defense.
"No. 1, I am not sure why, in 1983, it became necessary to have such a manual," Cohen said, according to a transcript declassified at The Sun's request. "But, No. 2, upon its discovery, why we only sought to revise it in a fashion which says, 'These are some of the techniques we think are abhorrent. We just want you to be aware of them so you'll avoid them.'
" There's a lot in this that troubles me in terms of whether you are sending subliminal signals that say, 'This is improper, but, by the way, you ought to be aware of it.' "

KUBARK manual

A second document obtained by The Sun, the 1963 KUBARK manual, shows that, at least during the 1960s, agents were free to use coercion during interrogation, provided they obtained approval in advance.
It offers a list of interrogation techniques, including threats, fear, "debility, pain, heightened suggestibility and hypnosis, narcosis [use of drugs] and induced regression."
Like the 1983 manual, the KUBARK manual describes the effectiveness of arresting suspects early in the morning, keeping prisoners blindfolded and taking away their clothes.
"Usually his own clothes are taken away," the manual explains, "because familiar clothing reinforces identity and thus the capacity for resistance." The KUBARK manual also cautions against making empty threats, and advises interrogators against directly inflicting pain.
It contains one direct and one oblique reference to electrical shocks.
The introduction warns that approval from headquarters is required if the interrogation is to include bodily harm or "if medical, chemical or electrical methods or materials are to be used to induce acquiescence."
A passage on preparing for an interrogation contains this advice: "If a new safehouse is to be used as the interrogation site, it should be studied carefully to be sure that the total environment can be manipulated as desired. For example, the electric current should be known in advance, so that transformers or other modifying devices will be on hand if needed."
An intelligence source told The Sun: "The CIA has acknowledged privately and informally in the past that this referred to the application of electric shocks to interrogation suspects."
While it remains unclear whether the KUBARK manual was used in Central America, the 1963 manual and the 1983 manual are similar in organization and descriptions of certain interrogation techniques and purposes.
The KUBARK manual is mentioned in a 1989 memorandum prepared by the staff of the Senate intelligence committee on the CIA's role in Honduras, and some members of the intelligence community during that period believe it was used in training the Hondurans. One said that some of the lessons from the manual were recorded almost verbatim in notes by CIA agents who sat in on the classes.

THE BALTIMORE SUN
Pub Date: 1/27/97

OPERATION OPEN EYES MIND CONTROL IN AMERICA


OPERATION OPEN EYESMIND CONTROL IN AMERICA

Five Easy Steps
To Create
A Manchurian Candidate

  • Introduction
  • OPERATION OPEN EYES
  • An Overview of a Government Mind Control Program
  • Five Easy Steps To Create A Manchurian Candidate by Gunther Russbacher From his own Experiences
  • Project Clear Eyes
  • How Sleepers are Produced
  • Additional Information on Project Open Eyes
  • Excerpted from page 4 of The Wilcher Report: Mass Murder at Ranch Apocalypse
  • Jonestown: The Whole Story 


Introduction

Gunther Russbacher sent the original pieces of this article to his wife, Rayelan in 1996. In December of 1996, Rayelan pieced together Gunther’s many letters, and published the original article on "Mind Control in America" in the print edition of Rumor Mill News.

Several days before the Columbine shootings, a man from Austria came to California to meet with Rayelan and clear up some of the hard to understand passages in the original article. The man said he was Gunther’s boss in Austrian Intelligence. Since Rayelan had never met Gunther’s boss, the man provided information that only Rayelan, Gunther and Gunther Austrian Intelligence superior would know.

The Austrian told her he had helped Gunther write the first part of the article on "Operation Open Eyes." The original article was hand written by Gunther and sent to Rayelan in several different letters. The man from Austria said that he had personal knowledge of the 5 Levels of programming, and that was the part of the article he had helped Gunther write. The second part of the original RMNews article was taken from other letters written by Gunther, alone. The man from Austria said he could only correct the part that he had helped write because he had no personal knowledge of Gunther’s own mind control experiences, or how the United States used this method of mind control.

Shortly after the Austrian met with Rayelan, the tragedy at Columbine happened. Rayelan now believes that the Columbine killings were the beginning of the final push to take all guns out of the hands of the American people. One month, to the day, after Columbine, another similar shooting occurred in Georgia. These killings are not random acts of teenage violence. These school killings are a planned, methodical attack on the American Constitution and the freedom which is enjoyed but taken for granted by citizens of the United States of America.

The method of the attack is designed to inflame anger and hysteria in the American public. The media whips up the anger and hysteria and keeps it fresh in America’s mind, with continual graphic, around the clock, "overkill" coverage and commentary of the dead and wounded victims, the pain and suffering of the families, and the traumatic scars left on America’s children. The President uses the hysteria of the moment to blame guns for the problems in Americas schools and with America’s children. In the heat of hysteria, Congress is pressured to pass more guns laws.

The hysteria and anger towards guns, propelled by the President and the media, continues to sweep across America. No one in media or being interviewed by the media, is allowed to speak rationally on the subject of guns. Rational people are shouted down by talk show hosts, as in the infamous Rosie O’Donnell interview with Tom Selleck. Members of Congress who try to point out the fact that existing gun laws don’t work, because the Clinton Administration doesn’t enforce them, are portrayed by the media as being "on the take" from the NRA.

No one is permitted to step back from the hysteria and consider, that no matter how many gun laws are enacted by governments, not even the total ban and destruction of guns could have stopped what happened at Columbine.

If there were no guns available to the two young men and their accomplices at Columbine, the killings would have happened anyway. A gun was not used to blow up the Murrah Building in Oklahoma City. Guns were not used to kill the 800,000 TsuTsis who were killed in Rwanda by the Hutus.

The children at Columbine and at the other schools across America were killed by other children. The "child killers" used guns, but they could just as easily used machetes or bombs. The man who drove his pick up truck through the window of Luby’s restaurant in Killean, Texas used a high powered assault rifle to murder dozens of people. He could just as easily thrown a bomb through the restaurant window. The bomb would have killed more people than the gun, and the killer would have escaped alive. But a bomb would not have accomplished the first step in the planned take-over of America. That first step is the elimination of all guns in the hands of the American public!

Many of the mass murderers in the recent decade have committed suicide at the site of the killings, or they are killed by a law enforcement officer, once the various government agencies arrive. In several cases of school shootings, the "child killers" have been stopped by teachers or principles who had guns. If the adult school officials had not had guns, by the time the law enforcement officers arrive, more victims would have been killed. It is also possible that the "child killers" would have "self destructed" by committing suicide. Dead men and boys, tell no tales.

With the "child killers" dead, there is no way to trace back, to its origin in mind control programming, the true cause of the killing spree. If these children have been programmed using a Manchurian Candidate type of mind control, that has been around since the 1920's, and actively used since the Korean War, a trained psychiatrist can find the mind control tracks! For the psychiatrist to do his job, he needs a live "killer", and he needs the cooperation of the local law enforcement officials.

The only way to stop these shootings is to make the public realize that "Manchurian Candidates" do exist, and the kids who are committing these tragic crimes are victims of government mind control. The purpose of the shootings is to inflame the public against guns so that they force Congress to pass restrictive gun laws.

Once the guns are out of the hands of the American public, another twist in random mayhem will begin. More programmed "Manchurian Candidates" will begin anarchistic attacks on the public using bombs, knives, fires, Molotov cocktails, baseball bats and any other item that can be used as a weapon. Anarchy will sweep the streets of the United States.

The public will be disarmed and unable to protect themselves. Therefore, the government will step in and become everyone’s protector and Big Brother! The government will do this by suspending the last threads of our barely surviving Constitution, declaring martial law, rounding up the dissidents, patrolling our streets with armed United Nations or NATO military, instituting curfew, and shooting anyone who disobeys any of the newly imposed laws. In other words, a totalitarian government will take control, and if you oppose them, you will be sent to the Gulags.

If the school killings escalate as a Rumor Mill News Source said they will, Congress will be bribed, blackmailed or threatened to pass the bills which will take away out guns. If this happens in 1999 or the year 2000, Bill and Hillary Clinton will be the permanent totalitarian rulers of the United States!

Programmed "Manchurian Candidates" as well as political and government leaders whose own personal agendas have been replaced with mind controlled New World Order "overlays", will work in tandem to bring the United States under the iron fisted rule of a One World Government.

There is enough research on mind control to convince any rational person that mind control and programmed assassins exist. Congress will not investigate this. Our Congress is either bribed with money or promises of high positions in the New World Government, or they are blackmailed and/or threatened with death or the death or their loved ones.

The only hope America has of exposing this and stopping it, is for a courageous community to demand that their district attorney look into the mind control aspect of the shootings. This courageous community must stand together as a united front. If only a handful of residents try to force their local government to investigate and expose the mind control behind the killing rampages, then that handful can be broken and defused using simple techniques of "divide and conquer", and "smear and attack" These courageous residents will be painted as mentally unstable, or as criminals and pedophiles. If these simple techniques of "breaking and diffusing the opposition" don’t work, then the heavier guns of bribery, blackmail, threats and murder will be used. Only a well coordinated and informed public, with NO LEADER OR SPOKESPERSON, can expose the horror of what is really happening in America.

Why no leader or spokesperson? Because you can never be sure you are not putting a government infiltrator in charge of the attempt to expose the truth. In other words, the only person whose agenda you can trust is your own. This means, if you want the truth exposed, YOU have to do it.

One of the places where an investigator can begin research is with Satanic cults and children’s mental institutions and in house drug rehabilitation programs. Almost all of the children involved in the school killings had attended a Satanic cult or had been in a mental hospital.. These are the two main ways of programming children without parental knowledge. The local authorities or researchers and investigators need to start there.

There have been many books written about CIA mind control programs, but no document or book has exposed the method used to create a programmed assassin. This article covers the basics of the program. Once you read this, you will understand how and why mass murders such as Columbine, take place. In the case of the mass murders using guns, these mind controlled assassins are being used to sow terrorism in order to force Congress to pass tougher, more draconian gun laws which do not stop terrorism, but take away freedoms Americans take for granted.

In the case of the children being murdered by children. This is a "CIA modified" "Hegelian Dialectic" technique. In other words, if you want society to become something different than it is, you must set up the conditions which will bring about the desired results. The German philosopher, Frederich Hegel called it: Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis. The CIA calls it: Crisis Creation, Crisis Solution, Crisis Control. (Navy Captain Trenton Parker describes how the CIA uses this technique in foreign countries to influence politics. See end of article for information.)

In the case of Columbine and other similar shootings the scenario is as follows:

THESIS:

An armed America

ANTITHESIS:

Horrific violence and mass murders committed by people with guns

SYNTHESIS:

Draconian antigun laws which disarm America

The CIA’s version of Hegel’s Dialectic omits the Thesis, their version starts with the antithesis:

Crisis Creation replaces Antithesis:

Horrific violence and mass murders committed by people with guns, who were either programmed or in the employee of the CIA or other government agencies

Crisis Solution replaces Synthesis:

Draconian gun laws which take the guns away from everyone, including law abiding citizens.

Crisis Control Becomes the New Thesis

In the case of gun violence, the new thesis will resemble a police state, where only the government will have guns

To further illustrate the point. America is a nation full of guns and guaranteed the right to own and bear arms, by the Constitution of the United States.

America cannot be taken over by the New World Order and their socialist/communist agenda, if Americans are armed, (this is the Thesis, an armed citizenry), therefore conditions must be created that will cause the American public to demand that their Constitutional right to bear arms be rescinded.

These created conditions are called "The Antithesis" by Hegel; it is called Crisis Creation by the CIA. In the case of an armed citizenry, the antithesis, or anti-thesis, is random, senseless and horrific murders using guns as the weapon.

When these two conditions, i.e.; an armed citizenry and horrific gun violence, exist simultaneously, public hysteria can be whipped up making the public demand that their Congressional representatives outlaw all guns. This is called "The Synthesis" by Hegel; or Crisis Solution by the CIA..

The "synthesis" then becomes the new "Thesis" for a new triad in Hegel’s Dialectic. In the CIA’s version of Hegel’s Dialectic, the synthesis i.e.; the Crisis Solution brings about the new Thesis which is called: Crisis Control.

When Hitler wanted to wipe Jewish DNA from all of Europe, he created similar "antithesis" conditions which allowed the passage of similar anti gun laws. If all Jews in Germany had been armed, how easy would it have been for Hitler to send them to concentration camps? An armed citizenry can protect itself from its government.

Hitler’s plan to eliminate all gun from German citizens was so successful that Connecticut Senator Thomas J. Dodd, father of today’s Connecticut Senator Chris Dodd, used Hitler’s model to frame the Gun Control Act of 1968. (More information at end of article.)

The Government’s Diabolic Plan Must Be Exposed

If this horrendous, diabolic plan to disarm America is not exposed, we can expect to see many more killings like the ones at Columbine. Each subsequent episode will be 100 times worse than the others. In Columbine, the real people behind the killings were sending a subtle message to anyone who can decipher it: The bombs that were found were not intended to go off. They were merely there to let "key people" in Congress know what will happen the next time. In other words, instead of 15 people being killed, hundreds, maybe even thousands will be killed.

More than likely, there was a "Control Officer" handling these boys. If an honest police unit uncovers him, he will be sacrificed, just like Tim McVeigh. He will be portrayed in the exact way the Tim McVeigh has been portrayed. In other words, he will be part of "The Vast Right Wing Conspiracy", he will be a "gun nut", he will belong to an Aryan Christian group.

Once you read how "Manchurian Candidates" are created, you will fully understand what is behind the incidents like the school killings, the crash of Ron Brown’s plane, The North Hollywood bank robbery, the massacre at Luby’s, and the killings at the Capitol, (Tom DeLay was the intended target at the Capitol. Maybe he would be interested in how his would be assassin was created.)

* * * * *

OPERATION OPEN EYES

Government insiders reveal

How the United States Government
Finds, Chooses and Creates
"Sleepers"

Mind-controlled, programmed zombies, also known as:

Manchurian Candidates

An Overview of a Government Mind Control Program

How the Subjects are Chosen

A preset group of our people (from the intelligence community) canvasses the county hospitals and immigration centers in order to find viable candidates. We locate and select people who have no close family or friends. Once they have been selected, they are put under heavy, Level One hypnosis. At this time a clear and definitive pattern of their usefulness is determined by our psychiatrists and field officers. If the candidate possesses a relatively high IQ, he will be filed in a category file, called "call file. "

Levels One and Two

If the tested applicant has more than 120 IQ, a "recall" command and an accompanying "trigger" word will be written into his personality during the Level One hypnosis session. This "trigger" will activate his recall program when we are ready for him. We then systematically do a background search and create a file for future reference.

If there are no relatives, to speak of, the subject will be "recalled" and taken to a location of our choice. Further tests for vulnerability will be conducted at this location. If he passes these tests, he is then brought to Level 2 hypnosis where specific instructions are "written" (placed through hypnotic commands and suggestions) into his personality and he is given diverse small orders.

If the subject, upon release, shows that he has retained the instructions which were "written" into his personality, and if he carries out the small and unimportant work duties which were assigned under Level 2 hypnosis, he will receive a "recall service notice".

The timing of a "recall service notice" depends on how quickly we can determine that the programming which was "written" into the subject’s personality has enabled him to complete his Level 2 work assignments properly. Once this determination has been made, a "recall service notice" will be given to him by a person, or "handler" to whom we have introduced him.

If the subject was not given a "trigger" word, the "handler" will use a quick and powerful form of hypnosis similar to Neural Linguistic Programming. The subject will be told when and where to report. The subject will have no memory of being given these instructions, he will just report on time to the proper location. IF the subject was given a "trigger" word or symbol. He will report to the designated location upon activation of the "trigger".

Level 3

The next step is Level 3 hypnosis, where the subject will become an "overwrite" upon his own personality. An "overwrite" is a new identity or personality. It is similar to having multiple personalities, except the original personality is repressed or hidden under the "overwrite" and will not surface for a set period of time which is determined by the Programmer.

The "overwrite" is not a complete new identity. There is just enough information written into the subject’s personality for us to determine his viability.

In the case of a Field Operative, Level 3 hypnosis is how the operative is prepared for a covert mission which requires a temporary new identity. Just enough information will be written in for the operative’s alias and story to be believable by everyone, including law enforcement officials. In the case of a field operative who will be using this alias for only one occasion, his normal personality is not repressed, it is made recessive, but left alert.

For the field operative who is being prepared for a deadly covert mission, a Level 3 "overwrite" can eliminate all fear and nervousness, and allow him to function under the nose of his enemies without the added stress of being discovered. All operatives have to go to, and through these 3 Levels before they are fielded! Sometimes they go through Level 3 many times.

During Level 3 programming sessions, the new subject is told that anything his "friends", i.e. programmers, ask him to do, is okay, even though it may be against all laws of the land. At Level 3, the subject is also programmed to believe that he must and can do everything his "friends" i.e., programmers ask him to do.

Once Level 3 Programming has been "overlaid" upon the new subject’s own personality, he/she is once again given a "recall service order" and is then discharged. The subject will be monitored to see how well he functions with his new personality. If everything goes well, he will be recalled for further programming.

The higher the IQ of a given subject, the further the programming goes! If the IQ is high enough we will study his abilities and our needs, and determine how the subject can be further used. Once this determination is made, the subject will be brought to "The Farm" or one of our numerous facilities throughout the U.S. and Canada for further and final programming. (Doctors Hospital in Dallas, TX is one of our main centers!)

Level 4

Once at the facility, we will put the subject into Level 4 hypnosis, a place where he no longer differentiates between right and wrong. The subject will be told he is a "Super Human" and all laws are written for other people. The subject’s moral code, respect for the law, and fear of dying is replaced with new "Super Human" feelings.

This is the Level that turns a subject into a "Clear Eyes", i.e., a fully programmed "sleeper" assassin, who can commit crimes as serious as murder, and afterwards have no shame, guilt, or remorse.

The Level 3 Super Human "overwrite" replaces the subject’s own morality and/or religious ethics with a program that makes him believe he is beyond all human laws. If the intent of the programming is to create a programmed assassin who will kill on cue, all morality, fear, and revulsion of bloody body parts must be eliminated. The Super Human "overwrite" eliminates both. The Super Human "overwrite" also gives the subject the feeling of immortality and invincibility.

If he has to perform a particularly suicidal or important assignment we do our job at Stoney Mountain facilities.

At Level 4, diverse programs can be written/or overwritten into the brain. Any command is accepted at this level. At Level 4 you can give the test subject a completely new personality and history. You are able to make him/her believe anything the program requires for the accomplishment of the desired project. In this case, a completely new person is being created, not just a partial personality as is Level 3.

Once the Level 4 programming is complete, the subject will be a different person with no memory of his former life. He will not be an amnesiac, he will have memories. Ones which we gave him. He/she will be relocated to a new state and town and given a new life. Everything to complete the construction of the new person will be provided. Items such as driver's licence, car, bank accounts, passport, credit cards, and birth certificate will be created or supplied by us and will be valid and legal.

The subject will also be provided with all the small things that ordinary people have in their lives, such as photos of his family. His family won’t really exist, but he won’t know this. He will have all the feelings of love, hurt or anger that normal family members feel for each other.

The photos of family and friends will be of deep cover agency personnel. If ever a mission goes "sour" and the news media starts looking for his family, the "agency created family" will be produced for a news conference or an interview. Agency personnel have been well coached and are trained actors and actresses. They will fill their roles perfectly, usually letting the public know that the "Clear Eyes" subject has always had a deeply troubled and violent past. The media will present the "Clear Eyes" as a nut case who went on a tragic and senseless rampage. Within a month, the public will have forgotten the incident.

Completing the new life and home, will be souvenirs from trips the subject has never taken, but yet remembers. There will also be small mementos of a life he has never lived, yet believes he has. Upon the completion of Level 4 Programming, the subject and patient (one and the same) now has an agenda that he believes is his own.

In other words, if the subject is going to be used to infiltrate a patriot group, religious commune, political campaign or environmental movement, the subject will be given all the knowledge and beliefs that are commonly held by people in his targeted group. The subject will believe that his fervently held opinions are his own. He will be believable to other members of the group.

Many politicians and government officials on a world wide level have been given "new agendas" through the use of Level 4 programming. Their own beliefs are replaced with the agenda of the programmers. They are given super human talents such as a photographic memory, and the ability to lie convincingly.

President Clinton is an example of a world leader who has been programmed with this technique. Senator John McCain and Secretary of State Madeline Albright are two other examples of an "agenda overlay" being "overwritten" onto the subjects own personality. In the cases of these people, their own personalities and memories are still present, to a large extant, although childhood and early adolescent memories are sometimes erased when this technique is used.

Once the future government leader is programmed, he will be recalled on a yearly basis and given hypnotic reinforcement of the original programming, or new programming will be "inserted" to modify the original programs. If no new programming is needed, the reinforcement programming can be done on a mass scale. In other words, "programmed sleepers" who are part of a lecture audience or a "think tank retreat", can have their programming "reinforced" through a lecture or film. The rest of the audience, such as wives and children, will notice nothing out of the ordinary.

Upon completion of Level 4, the subject who has been chosen to become a "programmed sleeper assassin" is fully prepared for Level 5.

Level 5

At Level 5, the "trigger" which activates the program is inserted.

At Level 5, very carefully, a code word, sequence of numbers, or a voice imprint is "etched" into the subject’s brain. This is commonly known and referred to as the "trigger" which will activate the subject into action. At this time, the subject will also be implanted with a coded tracking device so that his location will always be known.

Once Level 5 programming is complete, the subject is released to live a very normal and sometimes useful life. The subject will have no memory of being involved with the intelligence community, and will have no memory of the hypnosis sessions.

The "sleeper" who has been given a complete new identity will have no memory of his "former" life, therefore he will never question who he is. The subject will live a normal life as a doctor, an airline pilot, a politician, an eccentric loner, or a movie star until the subject is required to perform the missions for which he was created.

These missions or programs were implanted/written into Level 4 hypnosis. Once the the Level 5, programmed "sleeper" assassin is finished with the programming , he is referred to as a "Clear Eyes". A "Clear Eyes" is a "sleeper assassin" who is capable of being triggered, i.e. activated.

Once a "Clear Eyes" is "triggered", accidently or on purpose, the subject is beyond recall. A Level 5 "Clear Eyes" can only be approached after he carries out his program or operation.

Because of the programming, the subject will not be able to associate with the crime he has just committed. Such a programmed subject is Sirhan Sirhan, the assassin of Robert Kennedy. To this day Sirhan cannot recall anything about shooting Senator Kennedy.

Only psychiatrists trained in our method of sub mental behavior programming, overwrites and overlays, will be able to find any tracks leading to post Level 1 or 2 mind control. In other words, a regular psychiatrist may discover that the subject has been hypnotized in the past, and may even discover the original personality. But a regular psychiatrist will never be able to discover the location in the brain or memory, where Levels 3, 4 and 5 programs are stored.

Without an activation "key", a normal psychiatrist will never uncover the programming unless by accident.

If the programmed subject is told to walk into an armed camp and assassinate an enemy leader, the subject will carry out his program with no regard to his personal welfare, whether he lives or dies, or how he is supposed to escape. In most cases of programmed "Clear Eyes" who commit murders or assassinations, the subject is killed on the spot, either by an innocent bystander who kills only to end the killing, or by an agency operative who is on site to insure nothing goes wrong, in other words, that the subject "self destructs" or is killed.

In some cases the subject is captured and not killed. Due to the type of programming used in "Operation Open Eyes", the subject will not be able to divulge any information. Even if the subject is brutally tortured, he will not be able to remember the actual killing or terrorist act, let alone why he did it. This is because all programming is buried deep within long forgotten childhood memories which were recalled under Level 3 hypnosis. (This is the level where real childhood memories are accidently destroyed in politicians and other officials who have agendas "overwritten" on their own personalities.)

Even under the ‘truth serum" drugs, the subject cannot reveal the truth because his conscious mind has no access to it. Using "Operation Open Eyes", the government can create the perfect assassin, saboteur or terrorist. One who will perform on cue, not be able to remember anything, or self destruct before being captured.

OPERATION OPEN EYES

Five Easy Steps To Create A Manchurian Candidate by Gunther Russbacher From his own Experiences

I have personally witnessed Levels 1-5 programming, and was myself a subject of level 3 programming. In Level 3 programming five different sets of primary aliases were created for me. It takes two years to fully create a new personality. All the small gestures, such as grimaces, laughs, smiles and frowns have to be created, as well as an accent, a specific way of walking and carrying himself... his bearing.

If a subject has a high IQ, around 130-140, the subject is very quick to learn anything fed to him/her during the programming sessions. All major patriot groups, government offices and. government contract corporations have at least one or more "sleepers" attached to them.

Project Clear Eyes
This is the placing of a "sleeper" or "sleepers" in radical groups, religious communes, or any other place that a "sleeper" is needed. The the bombing of the Murrah Building was a clear cut case of project "Clear Eyes".

Tom Valentine's radio show as well as the Spotlight newspaper are vehicles we have employed in the past to trigger our subjects. In other words, the "Clear Eyes" subject has been given the suggestion to listen to certain shortwave broadcasts or read certain newspapers. Knowing that the "Clear Eyes" has been programmed to listen, religiously, to a certain radio program, a guest or caller will give the "trigger words" that will activate the "Clear Eyes."

If the subject has been told by his "programmers" to subscribe and read a certain newspaper each day, or week, the "trigger" will be a classified ad or letter to the editor. If the newspaper happens to be an Agency creation or proprietary, the "trigger" word or phrase will be worked into an article. There are some "sleepers" who are kept active by the constant re-enforcement of their programming through key words and phrases that are published in Agency newspapers. These "Agency Papers" are usually publications of new age cults or Christian Identity groups. They usually have a readership of less than five thousand people.

Waco was a "Open Eyes" operation. There were seven "sleepers" in the compound. These seven "sleepers" had been programmed to carry out a specific job. The specific mission was written into their personalities during Level 4 programming. They had not yet received their Level 5 programming, and should not have been capable of being triggered to carry out their the Level 4 programmed mission.

The Davidian group was created to perform a terrorist acts similar to the sarin gas that was released in the Japanese subway by the Aum Shin Riko cult.

Shortly after the Waco holocaust, attorney Paul Wilcher was briefed on the Waco mind control operation by members of the Delta Force Group that oversaw the programming operation. These men were sent in to neutralize only the 7 "sleepers". Their programming had somehow been prematurely activated, and they were creating a device for mass destruction.

Randy Weaver, of the Ruby Ridge incident, was a control subject that ended up "out of control." (RMNews: Russbacher never gave further information on this.)

Robert Hunt is a sleeper that was put on hold. At some, not too distant date, you will see Bob Hunt performing his true and final role.

(RMNews Editor: Bob Hunt is a Navy SEAL and covert operative who was instrumental in leaking classified documents to Rodney Stich. These documents confirmed that the government operatives who came forward and broke their cover to tell the truth, were indeed who they said they were. Whenever a government covert operative breaks his cover and begins to tell the truth, he/she is either jailed or killed. Robert Hunt is currently in prison. Others, who are listed on the documents he released are either dead, in prison or in hiding. Robert Hunt is quoted on p. 10 of the November issue of RMNews. He is discussing a group of programmed assassins that he personally trained at Camp Perry. When you combine the information he released plus other information on the Pegasus Assassination Unit, you begin to understand that the men and women who make up these units have all been programmed at least up to Level 3.

Some, who are trained for suicide missions, are programmed up to Level 4 and 5. The man who killed all the people in Luby's restaurant in Killean, Texas was probably programmed to Level 5, but he could have been accidentally "triggered". The Tasmanian mass murderer was also programmed to Level 5 and to self destruct, but he didn't. If the governments of the world really were serious about getting to the bottom of random acts of terrorism, they would take apart this man's brain, one engram at a time, until they discovered the "Open Eyes" program. But since the Australian government is using the massacre in Tasmania as an excuse to confiscate all the guns, it is unlikely that they will want to let anyone do a psychological profile of the Tasmanian killer. In fact, if any country tries to press the issue, the killer will probably just commit suicide, or be "suicided".)

Gunther Russbacher continues:

"I hope it is becoming clear to you the various levels that are used by the Intel community to get their job done. Remember Jonestown? It was one of ours that went sour because a "Clear Eyes" was in the group.

"When he, the "Clear Eyes", began firing on the runway, it all self destructed. Congressman Leo Ryan, who was killed, knew it was a government operation. The "Clear Eyes" was accidently, through a lone sequence, activated! There was no way to stop the killings.

All members of the cult were programmed to at least level 3. There were only 3 deaths attributable to cyanide, the rest died of gunfire. Now you know little more about our line of work. I am glad I am out of it."

(RMNews: On p. 14 on the September 1996 issue we printed a letter called: Jonestown: The Whole Story, Project Blue, The Guiana Operation. The letter is attached at the end of this article.)

Russbacher Continues:

How Sleepers are Produced
"The initial stages of hypnosis are derived by subconsciously distracting a person to where he/she does not realize that hypnosis is taking place. If the procedure is done in a doctor's office, or in the emergency room of a hospital, a Level One hypnosis, with a post hypnotic suggestion, to return for another session on a specified day, time and location, can be all be given in less than five minutes.

At an emergency room, the doctors have to be far more cautious because of the others (emergency room workers) who are about him. At any rate, a second and far more detailed appointment is made where Levels Two and Three can be attained within a matter of 2-3 sittings.

At Level Two, a light program is already in place, that makes the subject pliable to the will of the hypnotherapist. At Level 3, the program is expanded to include specific trigger words; i.e. "stepdown".

A Level Four program can only be attained by completely removing the already altered, conscious state of Level three. This procedure is done under drugs! The needle is inserted into one of the veins of the lower legs, sometimes on the back of the leg. The needle is never inserted in an easily visible spot where it can be seen and questions asked as to where such a needle stick came from.

With the IV fluids of the drugs and the 3 levels already attained, brainwashing takes effect. Complete blocks of intact memory are taken out and removed. The "overwrite" is generally placed next to and/or in addition to childhood memories. The area we choose to attach our program to is pre puberty. It can range from age 9-12. That's where the "overwrite" is placed.

A complete set of instructions are then entered into the void space and are assimilated immediately, by the brain as belonging there--and having always been there. At this point the complete instruction package has been set. It is no trouble at all to create an unspace (an emptyness of several days time--time being removed and rewritten into the main brain.) lasting up to several days or a week. The team, performing the "erase", "new program" and "transfer of data"; at random, choose a period of time where there was no event of special interest to the patient.

The Level Four stage permits the team to go back, one day at a time, in the victim’s life. It is an easy accomplishment to find such an ordinary fragment of time where nothing occurred. Remember that the brain assimilates the "rewrite" immediately as its own.

The program entry can be so well covered and truly hidden that if you were to revive the patient-without a level 5 trigger in place to bring the subject to that spot of their lives, the complete program would be lost forever.

Since the brain has continual wave lengths, level 5 is implanted as a trigger command (just like in a computer) to bring that person, instantly (by preplanted hypnotic suggestion) to that moment of their lives where this violent or non-violent program is located. If it is to be a one time mission (with suicide built-in) a complete remake of the victim is made at level 4.

We can take Subject-A, and impose on them all personality traits, customs and beliefs of a person we call subject-B... or reverse them. That means my subject will have to remain in the lab until a complete recycling has been achieved. At that point I can make him believe anything 1 tell him.

Example: If I tell him that he is a construction worker, and feed him all the data required to perform the job, he will believe just that. If I tell him to take another name, change his entire being, leave his family and become someone else in another town, he will follow through on the command, but only if I insert a level 5 trigger command instructing him to do that when he hears certain words; i.e., a nursery rhyme or any trigger word that I implant.

Certain major corporations and Madison Avenue advertising agencies have a long history of working with the government. Nursery rhymes such as "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star" can be worked into the advertisements that are played on television and radio. These ads can be targeted to population areas where programmed "sleepers" or "sleeper" are living, thereby activating only certain sleepers without having to have personal contact in any manner.

The other viable alternative, for most of the case subjects under our control, is to implement a "rider package" that will compel him/her to fulfill the functions of our level four programming, by placing an appropriate trigger in his mind. He or she will continue to lead a perfectly normal life until made active by a command from a command file. Any number of unrelated triggers can be implanted hypnotically--just in case the first one has been lost in the deep fog when you bring the subject back to the Pre-Level One stage (state).

We always have a least 300-400, one way mission, Level 5's running about leading relatively functional lives in the different cities where we have placed them. At times a man will leave his wife (or vice versa) and just move away. We don't take into consideration if these men have children. We use them, because they are tailored to a specific task we see coming up in the foreseeable future.

However, please bear in mind that most of our level 5 cases lead very normal lives until they are activated. At that point, the Level Four program takes precedence in the subject's life, above all else, such as family or job

(RM Editor; One of our Sources told us that the pilot of Ron Brown's airplane was a "sleeper." Up until the moment he was "activated" by a "trigger" word, the program to crash the plane was activated, he was just an average, ordinary person. The "control" who gave him the "trigger" word, was the ground radio operator at the Dubrovnik airport, who was later found shot to death... suicided? " None of the other so-called explanations for the crash make any sense, until someone uncovers the real cause of the Ron Brown crash, RMNews will believe that the pilot was a "sleeper" who was "triggered" and a preset program was activated which made him fly the plane into the hillside.)

Russbacher Continues:

"To fully create a new person; give them a history or something that they can cling to when sad or lonely, it takes a team of lab experts numerous weeks or even months. I don't know the name of the chemicals (several of them) used by the teams but they can hold a subject comatose for a few days to even months. A total transfiguration requires a catheter in the neck, urinary and digestive track, to keep their physical balance. Usually a Level 5, complete transfiguration will require a cover story like a serious automobile accident or something of similar nature. We have never been exposed for any of the Level 5 subjects we created.

Most liable to exposure are level 3 subjects who can remember bits and pieces of their downing after not have been to the "shop" (lab) for a couple of years. (RMNews: Randy Weaver?)

Level 3 Operatives will always know that they have been worked on or modified- -because they sign a document that goes into their personnel file. All case officers and field operatives are Level 3 clan.

The chemical used for Level 4 is not merely a hypnotic drug but also contains proportionate levels of anesthesia. The idea is to keep the subject at the very edge of consciousness during the programming.

One last set of statements about Operation Open Eyes. There are some aspects (areas) of the United States. One, and the first of them, is Project

Fallingrock; Project Behemoth; Project Tinyrock; Project mountainside, just to name a few. All of these projects fall under the auspices of "Operation Open Eyes".

Project and/or Operation Monarch was a completely fictitious series created and released to the public simply to side track serious investigators. You can always judge the authenticity of serious reporters or investigative journals by paying attention to the things they have said about Project/Operation Monarch. This does not mean that the "victims" of Monarch are not real, what it means is that the entire Project was created as a cover story to keep people busy following the Project Monarch leads, while the real work went on in hospitals and doctors' offices around the country.

There are government sponsored investigative journals which are designed to sow misinformation or disinformation. I have been able to spot the newspapers that are putting out bogus information by paying attention to how they treat Operation Monarch.

Afterthoughts From Gunther Russbacher:

The poor guys/gals who are forced to leave family and all behind in order to fulfill their one way program, sadden me. Although they have a completely new set of memories, they are all usually such bad memories, that they gladly jump from area to area to avoid the direct pain of these memories. They seek company in sleazy bars and are usually limited to one night stands. By day, they work, and by night, they usually sit--frustrated as hell-- in front of their TV's. This is why the trigger words presented in television ads are so effective.

More Afterthoughts:

In the event that you have any interest in how my Level 3 programming was done, and how it was found by the therapist here, (in Austria) I'll be glad to give you a run down.

First of all, bear in mind that I went in on my own. I wasn't one of the other cases I have so often made reference to in my letter. They gave me 2-mg. of Valium to calm my nervous system. Then I was hooked up to a polygraph machine, and the hypnotherapist led me to Level One--deep sleep. Then at that stage a color combination pattern was fed to my mind. Then I was dropped to level two. Outside monitors, such as an EEG, were attached to my head. I was fed music or better said, winding jungle rhythms to concentrate upon. (RMNews: Similar colors and rhythms are found in some of the video games our children play.)

"At that state ( Level 2), it was determined that I was patriotic enough to be of use to them. A film, between a good agent and Joe Blow down the street, was played to determine my threshold to cross (under specific orders!) from being a full legal to being an instrument for their causes. All the patriotic nonsense in the world was fed to me at Level 2. Then came the "what if situations."

What if you had to sanction a man because of the good for the country?

(In the October 1996 Issue of RMNews, p. 1, "Black Operations Commander Implicates Presidents in Drug Smuggling," you will find reference to an order to kill Ross Perot. Fortunately for Ross Perot, Chip Tatum, was not a Level 4 or 5 "Sleeper". He was able to overide the command.)

"What if it (the order) meant willfully breaking the law in order to do as your employer asks? After hour upon hour of this play, a recall program--reaching me anywhere' a voice could travel--was pounded into my skull. Always, the wishes of the employer had to come first. Then I was covered with the ability to slip in and out of many aliases, during and after doing my job for them.

The Level 3 program consisted of more loyalty bullshit and a number of specific triggers that would activate my mode which made me believe that I was indestructible. I went back for up-dates on the programming every 2-3 years. I was also polygraphed 3 times in the field office, and annually at the main center. Sodium Ambutal was their drug of choice at that time. I would be pulled out of circulation 2 days at a time, when I went in for my annuals.

The hypno-therapist over here (in Austria,) accidentally hit on the entire program because they subjected me to all these color combinations. I began to talk during the session and they key was found quite by accident. They researched up and down this Level 2 stage until I disclosed, under deep hypnosis, the entire program, inclusive of all parts.

The trigger mechanism was less easy to find because it was cloaked by an Oklahoman Thanksgiving party. (RMNews: Russbacher was raised from age 12 to 17 in Oklahoma) The therapists over here had never heard of such a thing. I talked until they found the mental file that contained all my triggers.

They told me the whole thing, and in a conscious state, I repeated it all to them. They now have a big thick file on what has been done to me, and regretfully, the means to replicate it on others.

I knew a great deal of what had been done to me at the Center. After all, I saw them doing Level 5 work on others. I also know that they had various ways and means to get the job done. I knew all along that I was a Level 3 sleeper. Hell, I signed so that it could be legally done to me. The Agency doesn't employ Level 5 sleepers as Case Officers or Operatives.

Additional Information on Project Open Eyes
Single words are the designation for a single Project. Two words are the way to title an Operation. See: Operation "Open Eyes" or Project "Behemoth". "Clear Eyes" was an exception to the standard rule of title in our coding a project. All phrases that have two words are ongoing Operations. (This is the reason for the apparent misspelling of Project Fallingrock.)

Project Mirror

An Above Top Secret Project

In Mind Control and Assassination

This is a very covert operation. Only 30-40 people know of its existence.

Project name: Mirror (NSA operation number DOM 3416-A-2)

Project priority: To establish/create a force of no more than 30 individuals who are capable of perceiving pre-set, or configured circumstances where certain leaders of nations are rowed according to their specific cause and importance.

Project Order: Liquidate certain individuals according to rowed importance.

Project Assumblage: Seek and find: prediagnosed individuals of various schizophrenic attributes. Gender of individual of no import. Age of subject must range 18-35. Coded for Operation Open Eyes.

Test individuals must meet the criteria as being of good health, and compatible with standard Level (4) preconditioning.

Language--no barrier

Such individual will receive orders to activate upon visually seeing prestated ranged figures on all media accessible to the average citizens of the media country or nationality of the subject.

Subject will follow Level (4) preconditioning, as well as Project Mirror required staunchness of being. Upon such ranged assembly of members of diverse and pre indoctrinated aspects of Project Mirror, "recall" and "discern target" pre-conditioning is "overwritten".

Subject will then be activated to "restore about the 26 tranquility" (or as such described in DOM 3416-A-2) Upon termination of target, subject shall, according to medical advice--return to a rehabilitation center for initial debriefing, or shall in accordance with Level (5) instructions, proceed with self sanction or destruction.

It is imperative that all data retrieved during the case of medical rehabilitation be forwarded, via preordained method to DOM personnel. There shall not be more than 5 prime candidates in waiting, during the course of any fielded operation of stated project.

The remains of self sanctioned personnel are to be cremated upon notification, by local or regional sources

Operations Nu: 6317-ABL-4

Project team leader: DOM 3416-A-2

The Directive to form and proceed with this operation comes out of Ft. Meade, MD. Signatory to the project order was originally Stansfield Turner. Project Mirror is still on the books.

End of Russbacher’s Story

* * * * *

Excerpted from page 4 of The Wilcher Report: Mass Murder at Ranch Apocalypse
"Thursday, March 11th, 1993--12 days after the initial BATF raid on Sunday, February 28th-when I received initial information: 
(1)That "cult" leader David Koresh had an extensive CIA background. 
(2) That he was known in CIA circles as a " sleeper" --someone who had been subjected to extensive CIA "mind control" training and programming. 
(3) That it was not just a mere coincidence that all these events were occurring in or near Waco, TX--since Waco is a major center for such CIA "mind control" experimentation and programming-with much of this activity occurring at the CIA's Leadership Management Institute (LMI) in Waco."

RMNews: Paul Wilcher was an attorney living in Washington D.C. As a result of being a victim of Chicago’s crooked bankruptcy courts, Wilcher had moved to the Capitol trying to expose the fraud and corruption in the bankruptcy courts around the nation. He sadly discovered there was nothing he could do, alone. He began researching government crimes, corruptions and cover-ups.

Wilcher made contact with Gunther Russbacher, the ONI and CIA operative who was currently in prison. Russbacher claimed he was in prison because the Bush Administration was trying to silence him regarding the October Surprise. Wilcher was the only person to conduct an exhaustive debriefing of Russbacher, which he recorded on 53 ninety minutes tapes.

Russbacher introduced Wilcher to members of his SEAL team. These men and others are the government employees who gave Paul Wilcher the information he put into the 100 page letter he wrote to Attorney General Janet Reno. In the letter he explained, as well as he could, various government mind control experiments. He felt he had to give Reno the background on mind control operations in the Waco area so she could fully understand what was really going on at the Branch Davidian compound.

Wilcher was told that something had gone wrong at Waco. The "sleepers" were waking up from their programming. Not only were they waking up, one or more of them had been accidentally "triggered". The Waco "Sleepers" were programmed to make and deliver, a biological or chemical device that could kill everyone in a city the size of Oklahoma City or Houston. Information received by their "handlers" stated that the program had been accidently triggered and the 7 "Sleepers" had started building the device.

According to information from a government "plant" inside the compound, the device was only days from completion. A CIA/Delta Force team was fielded to go into the compound and "neutralize" the problems. When the BATF learned that a CIA/Delta Force Group was going into the Branch Davidian compound, the BATF decided to raid the compound first. The BATF had no idea why the CIA/DFG team was going in. The BATF had been carrying on an independent surveillance of the compound.

It would not have been unheard of for the BATF to have discovered the mind control project that was going on at the Davidian Compound. Mind control operations are common near the Waco area. Waco was the first major center for CIA mind control schools. No one has ever known if the BATF knew that Koresh and a few others were mind control subjects, or if they had just been tracking David Koresh because he dealt in guns. The Source who provided this information to RMNews said he had not been able to access the BATF records to discover why the Davidians were under BATF surveillance. Our source commented, "they (the BATF) had no idea what they were walking into."

According to our Source, by the time the FBI got involved, Janet Reno had already been briefed about the device. Her orders to the FBI were to contain and destroy the device. On the day of the Waco inferno, a Delta Group Force was inserted into the compound. Their orders were to kill the seven "sleepers" and disarm the device. The "sleepers" were killed, but the DFG group never had the time to find the device and disarm it.

The compound exploded in flames. The DFG team barely made it out alive. It was their belief that the FBI, the Department of Justice and the Clinton Administration intended to kill them also. This is why they gave their story to Paul Wilcher. In an operation like this, each person is "compartmented" and only told their part of the mission. The DFG team had no idea that Janet Reno knew about the existence of the device. It is not known if she knew about the mind control project or just thought the Davidians were a terrorist group with a device that could wipe out hundreds of thousands of Americans.

When the DFG group briefed Paul Wilcher, they did not tell him Reno knew about the device, because they did not know this. After Wilcher was briefed, he wrote a 100 page letter to Janet Reno. In the letter he described various government mind control projects, and described what had happened at Waco. He made an appointment to hand deliver the letter to Attorney General Reno.

The morning of his meeting with the Attorney General, he was met outside her office by two men who threw him up against the wall and beat him. The 100 page document was taken from him and he was threatened. He disappeared shortly after this incident. His body was found one month later.

Wilcher’s good friend, Sarah McClendon, the senior White House correspondent, was the one who alerted the Washington DC police that Paul had been missing for a long time. When the police broke into his apartment, they discovered his body.

The FBI immediately sealed the apartment and confiscated all of Wilcher’s research. When they finally returned the computer and discs to Wilcher’s family, everything had been wiped from them. There was no record whatsoever of the 100 page document that Paul had tried to deliver to Janet Reno.

Over a year after Paul had been murdered, Sarah McClendon was going through her papers and discovered a bunch of documents Paul had given her. They appeared to be documents he had written when he was helping Gunther Russbacher, the October Surprise pilot. McClendon is a friend of Russbacher’s wife, Rayelan. Sarah called Rayelan and asked her if she wanted Wilcher’s papers. Thinking they were reports he had prepared for the October Surprise Taskforce, Rayelan asked Sarah to send them to her.

When the documents arrived, Rayelan realized immediately what she had. She knew she had the only copy, outside of the FBI, of Wilcher’s 100 page report. When she called Sarah to thank her for the documents, she purposely referred to them as the October Surprise documents. Then she said no more to anyone about them. She didn’t even tell her husband, Gunther, what she had. She believed that her telephone lines were still bugged by the government. Gunther was in prison at the time, and she did not dare put this information in a letter and mail it to him.

She hid the document in a safe place and waited for a chance to make copies of it. During the years that she and her husband were trying to expose George Bush for the October Surprise, Rayelan had been followed everywhere she went. At the time she received the Wilcher Report, she was unsure if she was still being followed. She was also unsure if her home was still bugged.

Her schedule was routine and dull at that time. She went to work at the same time, came home at the same time. The only reason she went out was to shop for groceries. Going to a copy shop to make copies of a hundred page document would have been out of character for her at the time. She figured that if anyone was watching her, they would wonder why she was taking a large document to a copy shop.

She waited until a appropriate opportunity arose. And it did. One of her friends mentioned that her husband had just bought a new copy machine for his office. The friend told Rayelan that she was welcome to use it anytime. One afternoon, after lunch, Rayelan and her friend made many copies of the document. Some were left with her friend, and some were put in pre addressed priority mail envelopes and mailed anonymously to people or groups that would copy and distribute the letter.

Rayelan never told anyone she had the original copy of the Wilcher Report until she was sure that there were many copies in the hands of many different people, and the existence of the Report was well known.

* * * * *

p. 14

Dateline: September 17, 1996

Jonestown: The Whole Story 
Project Blue

Operations Directorate of State Department, Section 6

Project Blue was/is the Guiana operation. Project Searchlight was the cover name for Project Blue: Resettlement of 34 Level 4 subjects. Level 4 refers to the degree of mind control that the subject has been programmed to. Level 4 "sleepers" are programmed assassins, the co-called Manchurian Candidate.

Jim Jones was only one of the project leaders. The actual project was headed by Wessley Baker of the Department of State. He introduced Jim Jones to Gary Monroe in the States. Hallucinogenic drugs, supplied by DOS, were put on the consecrated communion hosts. The doses of Trichloral-trimital was fed, in limited form to the entire church population.

Mass hypnosis and the drug laced communion "hosts" were the primary tools used to determine the candidates for the inner circle. All experiments were produced within the church walls. They used no outside sources or vehicles. The first doctor, flown in, and made a member of the congregation, came from Baltimore, and was a family practitioner of Martin, Delahny and Danvers. The doctor that was sent to be part of the select team was Dr. Danvers.

Danvers was approached by AGENCY personnel in Tran Loc, Viet Nam. (He became one of the first US Army majors to join the Company as a consultant. He was, again approached in 1969 to participate in Operation Strike Back, where he treated RVN soldiers as well as V.C. and sent them back into the field. This too, eventually fell under Operation Open Eyes (the overall name for the government mind control operation) It is still carried on the original Operations page.

Dr. Danvers was a close associate of Jim Jones, and the inner circle of cult members who had arrived, already trained, in part. Each member was assigned a group of three congregation members, whom they put through their paces until complete obedience was achieved. The congregation grew very slowly. The majority of those who went with him to Guiana, came from other church sites.

Programming was only applied to those past the age of eight. The manual that they used to program the children up to age 20 was a book called "Cornflower". It is part of the CIA training manual used in Honduras and Belize. It is still used in San Salvador today.

Project Blue was/is a systematic program used to continue and maintain the level of programming already installed in the small churches, from which the members came, from all over the U.S. and Canada. Then, the DOS sent 65 trained field experts down to oversee the daily programming and training schedule. Leaving the actual number of people on site aside for the moment, there were often 450-500 of our people in the encampment at a time.

Three 10 ml (milliliter) vats of potassium cyanide were delivered from Ft. Meade on a C-123 transport. This amount would have only provided lethal does for 10 men/women.

The actual danger to the camp people, was a self styled chain link fence with shooting platforms. The entire project went sour as some of the "less" programmed began to rebel against Jim. The selection process for membership was faulty, as all congregational members had not received a full dose of Level 3 and 4 programming prior to being brought on site. They rebelled against his "way of life", and wanted to take their young and leave.

No one was permitted to ever leave before they were fully programmed to performed specific tasks. (Ranging from small tasks to tasks of vital importance.) Gun positions were mounted around the entire perimeter to prohibit the flight of any camp member. After two attempts at escape, security was ordered to deal with problems by "fire on sight". Trips out of Jonestown were only permitted by armed escort. No phones were allowed for anyone other than Jim and his closest staff.

The program was monitored closely by DOS. They even sent numerous delegations to "Jonestown", to monitor the process of this mass "type" experiment.

The Project deteriorated from week to week. Soon Jones' own council began to supercede his orders. Jim originally came into our (CIA) hands because of his cocaine and heroin (speed balls) addiction. We didn't clean him up, we merely put a heavy Level 4 program in his head. The Level 5 trigger was to activate programming which would annihilate the entire group through gun fire. Nowhere was potassium cyanide part of his trigger. Task Force 151 supplied the arms, AK-47's and AR 15's with silencers.

The revolt and the massacre took place more than 3 hours before the C-127 touched down in Jonestown. His own council was liquidated the day before--one person at a time-gun shots in the back of the head. The Congressman and his group weren’t fired upon as they deboarded. He saw what took place before he was gunned down, and brought by jeep back to the plane. He was a direct representative from Project Blue.

Jones and 12 of his guards were still alive at that time. An Englishman then took the cargo from the plane. 4 pounds of cyanide in plastic. The cyanide canister bore the usual markings and the name of Union Carbide of India. Parts of the shipment was produced by our company called Shalimar (the chemical weapons and munitions part of Shalimar perfumes). The Englishman waved to the crew to take off before dusk set in. All twelve of the shooters fled the country on an English cutter called the M.S. Dunbar. The cyanide kool aid was then put in the open mouths of many of the dead. Cyanide was not the cause of any death.

Contrary to what has been written, Jim destructed on his own using a .357 Python. At that time Project Blue was canceled. The autopsies were all a big cover-up. That experiment failed, but the data they gathered was integrated into new projects.

The next year Project Phoenix was born. It is the same as today's Contact Operation. It was run by DOS (at the beginning, and funded with AGENCY money.) An operations fund of $400,000 was granted to Project Phoenix by the DIA. That's when it changed hands.

Contact/Phoenix books and newspapers contain subliminal type of programs designed to keep the programmed "sleepers" walking the Company line, years after the programming was put in.

The Jonestown experiment was one that had gone sour and had to be terminated. However, enough was learned from the Jonestown experiment to use on other "cults" around the world. Waco was one that was successful, so successful in fact that they were just about to carry out their programmed "terrorist" act, when the government sent in a Delta Force team to neutralize seven "sleepers" who were part of the Branch Davidian Church and had been accidently "triggered".

Somehow, the NWO part of the FBI and BATF decided that they were going to take over the operation and use it to teach America some lessons. The rest of the Waco story is history now.

The cult in Japan was financed by the same NWO part of the CIA that experimented with Jonestown. The Temple of the Solar Order in Switzerland and Canada were also terrorist sleepers who were programmed to release biological and chemical weapons in targeted cities.

Programmed terrorists are used by the NWO governments around the world to cause the citizens to give up their freedom and demand a police state to keep them safe. Once the police state is in place, the lessons learned from experiments like Jonestown can be used to program and re-educate the population in concentration camps, or as they will be called "Re-education and Training Camps". This is part of the "school to work" legislation that is being rammed through Congress. Those people who have not been indoctrinated in the schools of today, will not be allowed to get a job unless they go back for re-education. The techniques used in Jonestown-like mind control experiments will quickly shape and mold people into good little NWO robots.

If they don't agree to enter one of these re-education camps, they will not be able to get a job, therefore, they will not be able to support themselves or buy food or shelter. If they become homeless they will be forced to enter a homeless camp in which they will be "taught" skills. All the forests and wild lands will have become part of the world's biospheres, there will be no place for dissenting citizens to run.

Those citizens who cannot be reprogrammed will "disappear".

Children will be separated from parents, and husbands from wives. You will be sent to whatever area of the country that your skill is needed. Old and useless people will be sent to "nursing" homes, and will "disappear". Families will be split asunder, and as a result of the programming, no one will even notice that they no longer have their loved ones around them. No one will ever be missed.

Jonestown may have been a failure, but what they learned from it has been incorporated into the plan for the One World Government. 1984 should be must reading for everyone these days, because Big Brother is upon us.

Gunther Russbacher was Source for this information

* * * * *

The February, 1999 Edition of The Liberty Pole ran the following:

Nazi Nexus

The gun control Act of 1968 was mainly framed by Senator Thomas J. Dodd of Connecticut. This is significant, for have managed America’s prosecutors at the Nuremberg trials of Nazi war criminals, Dodd was intimately familiar with Der Fuhrer’s methods of people control.

Adolph Hitler had made effective use of Weimar Republic gun owner registration lists. Senate records from mid-July 1968 reveal that Dodd asked the Library of Congress to translate his own fifty-year-old personal copy of the Third Reich’s gun control law passed 18 March 1938.

Section 25(1): "It is forbidden to manufacture.... and to import: Firearms which fold down, break down, are collapsible, or are speedily dismantled-beyond the common limits of hunting and sporting activities."

One obvious purpose of GCA ‘68 then, was to wench the right to arms from its constitutional moorings and philosophical root.

Repeated evidence of success is revealed every time the president of the United States (whom no one seems inclined to ask what type of weapon the Secret Service uses to defend him and his family) declares unchallenged, "You do not need an Uzi to go deer hunting and you do not need an AK-47 to go skeet shooting." ... as though our illustrious Framers had in mind target shooting or hunting when articulating that most sacred palladium of individual liberty.

Germany’s pre-war citizen disarmament laws also help answer the question of how many Jews with guns walked into Nazi ovens."

The Liberty Pole is the publication of The Lawyer’s Second Amendment Society, Inc.

http://www.thelsas.org

http://www.guntruths.com

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Source http://www.rumormillnews.com/RMN%20FOUNDERS%20GUNTHER%20AND%20RAYELAN.htm