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Monday, August 27, 2012

Steven J. Smith-Synthetic Earthquakes

Synthetic EarthquakesDiplomacy by other means by Steven J. Smith
No natural force is more destructive than earthquakes.  The energy released by a magnitude 6.0 earthquake lasting 45 seconds, is several thousand times greater than a nuclear bomb.  Furthermore, according to the USGS (united states geological survey), earthquake forecasting remains little more than an elusive goal.  Sadly, many earthquakes strike locations where the population and government institutions have little or no capability to deal with the aftermath.  Places like southern Iran and rural China.

Looked at from another perspective, an earthquake would make an ideal tool of destruction.  Able to strike without warning, and appearing to be an act of nature, can you imagine any government or military organization that wouldn't want to add such an awesome capability to it's arsenal?  But of course generating synthetic earthquakes is pure science fiction.  Or is it?

The standard model:
If you ask a geologist what causes an earthquake, he/she will tell you it's caused by slippage or abrupt movement between two plates of rock at a location called a fault zone.  They will go on to explain there is a slow but constant differential motion between the plates, and over time this results in deformation and the buildup of stress between the plates.  When this stress exceeds the frictional resistance of the fault zone, slippage occurs causing an earthquake.

There are several problems with the standard model of earthquakes.  First, not all earthquakes are associated with fault zones.  Second, and even more troubling, the origin points for many earthquakes are greater than 100km below the surface of the earth.  At this depth, the rock is either plastic or fully liquefied and therefore no longer able to support the frictional slippage mechanism postulated by geologists as the primary cause of earthquakes.  Another poorly explained phenomena is the tendency of earthquakes to cluster over a brief period of time, lasting from hours to days and sometimes even weeks.  The mechanical slippage paradigm would seem to predict just the opposite should take place, since the initial earthquake lowered the deformation stresses in the plates, making further slippage less likely.

While the standard model of earthquakes is appealing in it's simplicity, it is also clearly insufficient to explain many of the observed phenomena.

Chemical phase change:
When two or more substances are involved in a chemical reaction, the resulting compound will occupy a different volume than that of the original substances.  In other words, the total volume will shrink or expand as a result of chemical reaction.  Furthermore, pressure and/or temperature can cause the internal molecular arrangement of a compound to undergo an abrupt shift or phase change, thereby causing a change in volume of the compound.  In many cases, the reaction or rearrangement is very swift, requiring mere fractions of a second to complete.

Piezoelectric & electrostriction effects:
Under the influence of mechanical stress, dielectric materials exhibit a phenomena known as the piezoelectric effect.  Simply stated, an electric field or potential is generated within the material due to physical deformation created by the applied mechanical stress.  While generally considered to be an exclusive property of crystalline dielectrics, the phenomena is also observed in both amorphous solids and liquids.  Any material that exhibits piezoelectric activity, will also exhibit electrostriction phenomena.  This is the inverse of the piezoelectric effect, whereby the material changes shape and/or volume under the influence of an externally applied electric field.

Acoustic wave guides:
Most people associate acoustic (or sonic) waves with air, however these waves also travel through liquids and solids.  Different materials conduct acoustic waves at different propagation velocities.  In general, propagation velocities in liquids are greater than in gases, and propagation velocities in solids are greater than in liquids, however each unique material has a specific propagation velocity, that is also dependent on environmental variables such as temperature and pressure.

Whenever an acoustic wave undergoes an abrupt change in propagation velocity, the wave is reflected to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the degree of propagation velocity shift.  A large change in propagation velocity will result in nearly total reflection, while a small change in propagation velocity will result in a partial reflection of the acoustic wave.  Changes in acoustic wave propagation velocity are caused by transitions between differing materials, or because of a change in the environmental conditions within a single material.

A related phenomena known as a surface acoustic wave, results from the entrapment of the wave energy by an extreme shift in propagation velocity between differing materials.  In effect the boundary between very dissimilar materials acts as a wave guide, thereby channeling the acoustic wave energy along the surface of the boundary.  Both cathedral whisper galleries, and pressure zone microphones (also known as boundary microphones) make use of the effect.  The fault zone between two plates (1.1.1) is also an excellent acoustic wave guide.

Acoustic energy transformation:
The energy contained in an acoustic wave is the product of both displacement (length of movement) and pressure (force per unit area).  This relationship is shown in Equation 1.

[Eq. 1]    

 = Energy (in Joules).
 = Area (meters squared).
 = Length of displacement (in meters).
 = Force (in Newtons).
 = Pressure in Pascals (Newtons per meter squared).

Eq. 1 Implies that a high pressure small displacement acoustic wave contains the same energy as a low pressure large displacement wave.

Consider an acoustic wave with a 1 millimeter displacement, generated over a 1 meter square area, 5 kilometers below the surface of earth.  The pressure at this depth will be over 100 million Pascals, and therefore this small (1 millimeter) displacement represents an enormous quantity of energy.

Next consider what happens as this acoustic wave travels upward to the surface of the planet.  At the surface, atmospheric pressure is approximately 100,000 Pascals.  Conservation requires the energy contained in the wave to be constant.  Therefore as the pressure drops, the displacement must increase.  If the wave remained focused, and the pressure at a depth of 5 kilometers was exactly 100 million Pascals, the displacement at the planet surface would be 1 kilometer!  The acoustic wave energy would have to be spread over a surface area of 1 square kilometer to retain a 1 millimeter displacement.  As this example clearly demonstrates, small displacements within the earth will create very large movements at the surface of the planet.

The alternant model:
Suppose a one cubic kilometer volume of mineral such as perovskite undergoes an abrupt chemical phase change, caused by a small alteration in pressure and/or temperature, thereby creating a change in volume of just 0.0001%.  A volumetric change of 0.0001% in one cubic kilometer represents a change of 1,000 cubic meters, or approximately 0.17 millimeters of displacement on all sides of the cubic kilometer volume.  Furthermore, suppose this reaction takes place at a depth of just 10 kilometers.  The pressure at any depth can be calculated by:

[Eq. 2]    

 = Pressure (in Pascals).
 = Acceleration of gravity (in meters per second squared).
 = Mass (in kilograms).
 = Volume of mass (in cubic meters).
 = Depth (in meters).

Using granite, the mass is 2691 kilograms per cubic meter, and earth standard gravity at 9.8 meters per second2, gives a value of 2.637 x 107 Pascals.  A displacement of 0.17 millimeters at this pressure, over a surface area of just 1 square meter represents an energy (1.1.5 Eq. 1) of 4.48 x 103 Joules per meter2, and when multiplied by the surface area of our 1 cubic kilometer of perovskite mineral (6 million meters2) equals a staggering 2.69 x 1010 Joules, or over two hundred billion Joules of energy!  Spread this energy over one hundred square kilometers of planetary surface, and you still have 2,690 Joules of energy per square meter.  More than enough energy to transform a home into a smoking pile rubble...

Synthetic earthquakes:
On May 26, 1998 United States patent number 5,757,177 was issued to one David F. Farnsworth (inventor) located in Forest Grove, Oregon and assigned to a company called OTW LLC located in Paradise Valley, Arizona.  The seemingly innocuous title of this patent is: "Infrasonic frequency resonant circuit and method for use thereof".  However, a careful reading of the section entitled "Background of the Invention" reveals something far more intriguing.  The following are three direct quotes from the patent (bold emphasis added).  [Note: ISF = Infrasonic frequency]

Quote 1:
One emerging, particularly valuable application for receiving and evaluating ISF signals is to identify electromagnetic energy produced by tectonic activity which has been found to precede the occurrence of earthquakes.

Quote 2:
Receiving and identifying ISF electromagnetic signals has been found to be valuable in studying and evaluating various naturally occurring electromagnetic phenomena, as well as man made signals.

Quote 3:
It has now been recognized by the inventor herein that ISF electromagnetic energy produced by tectonic activity preceding earthquakes induces ISF signals on the power line and that an electric power distribution system, of which a power line is a part, makes an especially good ISF antenna.

Quote number 3 when coupled with quote number 2, begs the question:  Receiving OR transmitting antenna?  Remember ANY material that produces electro-magnetic energy under the influence of mechanical deformation, ALSOproduces mechanical deformation under the influence of electro-magnetic energy.  The piezoelectric and electrostriction effects are completely complimentary AND reversible (1.1.3).  In other words, an antenna that will intercept the electro-magnetic energy preceding an earthquake, can also be used to transmit electro-magnetic energy, thereby producing an earthquake.

Furthermore, under the alternant model (1.2.1) if some deeply buried volume of mineral was at or near the critical pressure/temperature required for chemical phase change, a relatively small mechanical shock (deformation of surrounding material) is all that would be required to trigger a massive earthquake.  By analogy, the transmitted electro-magnetic energy acts in a manner similar to a blasting cap inserted in a stick of dynamite.

Several of the references cited in this patent are also rather disturbing.  In particular:

1.   "The Acoustical Laser", pre-1994, pp. 9-11.
2.   "The Silent Sound that Kills", Science & Mechanics, Dunning, 1968, pp. 31-33, pp. 75-76.
3.   "Silent Sound Can Make You Nervous, Exhausted and Physically Ill", McCrindell, pre-1994, p. 1.

Unanswered questions:
A search of Arizona state corporation records shows no company by the name of "OTW LLC".  Obviously the company name listed in the patent is either ruse, or misspelled.  Either way, we are left with a plethora of unanswered questions.  For instance, if it's possible to forecast earthquakes, why does the USGS ignore a technology that could save thousands of lives every year?  And why is this patent entitled "Infrasonic frequency resonant circuit and method for use thereof"?  While accurate in the narrow sense, a far more descriptive title would be "Method and apparatus for detection of earthquake precursors".

Diplomacy by other means:
In the post 9-11 environment, American foreign policy has adopted a new strategy known as the "Bush Doctrine".  This strategy calls for pre-emptive strikes against any nation, group or individual that threatens American national security interests.  As I write this document (in early December 2004), several apparently coincidental events weigh heavy in my mind.  Was the massive earthquake in southern Iran, near the city of Bam a natural occurrence, or was it an example of the Bush Doctrine in action?  Recently the American government has expressed it's displeasure with the Japanese and Chinese governments over their continued technological and financial involvement with Iran.  Both Japan and China have also experienced a sudden rash of earthquake activity.  Coincidence or something more sinister?  Perhaps you should ask George W. Bush.

ALL information contained herein is derived from public sources and/or widely accepted scientific principles.  The author has NO written or verbal agreement with ANY governmental agency forbidding disclosure of the information contained herein.  In disclosing this information, the author is exercising his right to free speech as a private citizen of the United States of America.

Steven J. Smith-Remote Mind Control-Cell Phone towers

"Dr von Peters, who spends a lot of time teaching in various medical schools in Russia, told me unequivocally that he's seen absolutely NO death towers in that country, though everyone has a cellphone."--Don Croft

Remote Mind Control
Reach out and touch someone
Steven J. Smith

Since the dawn of civilization, governments have sought means to manipulate the thoughts and perceptions of its citizens.  For example, every dictator wants to feel safe from, and loved by, those he dictates to.  Even democratic governments use the techniques of public relations, spin doctoring, and press conferences, to shape the perceptions and opinions of their constituency.  These techniques are so widespread that most human languages have a word dedicated to its description.  In English, that word is "propaganda".  The reason for this emphasis on human thought and perceptual management is quite simple.  It takes far less effort to change someone's mind, than to change their living, working, or economic conditions.  Furthermore, since the citizenry always out number those who exercise authority, it is critical that a majority of the people are satisfied with their leadership, or at least believe that no better alternative is available.  Any government that fails to follow this maxim, be it a democracy, republic, monarchy, military junta, or dictatorship, is doomed to a quick and ignominious demise.  It follows that ALL governments have an intense interest in, and are willing to expend vast sums of money on, ANY method or technology that holds the promise of enhancing the manipulation of human thought and/or perception.

With the rise of competitive nation states and international trade, a second application for human perceptual/opinion management has emerged.  The use of propaganda to modify the perceptions and opinions within neighboring nation states, and thereby gain some political, economic, or military advantage, generally to the detriment of those who are manipulated.  In the 20th century, a new and novel avenue for manipulating the human mind made its first appearance.  The use of EM (electromagnetic) energy to directly modify human thought process.  Its first application was electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) also known as electro-shock treatment.  While being a crude, brute force method, it none the less opened the door to more tantalizing and subtle possibilities.

What follows is a detailed exposé on the development, deployment, and ongoing use, of a covert EM mind control technology that spans the entire planet. You already know its name, if not its capabilities.

You call it the Cell Phone Network...

Early developments:
Starting in the 1950s, working under the now infamous MK Ultra project, dozens of government grants were awarded for research into different aspects of human thought and/or perceptual manipulation.  Some of these grants involved the development and testing of psychoactive drugs (LSD for instance).  Other grants involved the physical modification of the human brain via surgery.  Still other grants involved the use of EM energy to alter brain chemistry, with the ultimate goal being covert injection of perceptions or thoughts directly into the human mind.  It is this last category of research that we shall focus upon in this paper.

It is unlikely that we'll ever know the true extent of, or the full results derived from, human mind control research conducted under the auspices of MK Ultra.  However all is not lost, there are non-classified research papers from that era.  Also a body of circumstantial evidence exists, that can be used to gain further insight into the subject.  And of course, we have the fully deployed remote mind control system itself, available for our review and analysis.  All we have to do is connect the dots...

Lets start with a 60 year old piece of circumstantial evidence.

During the development and deployment of Radar (in WWII), there were reports from radar technicians of auditory stimulus (artificial sounds) coincident with exposure to microwave radiation.  It was generally assumed that mechanical movement within the ear or surrounding bone structure, created by rapid changes in temperature from exposure to microwaves, was the most likely cause.  However, when deaf subjects also reported "hearing" microwaves, it became clear that a more subtle mechanism or phenomena must be responsible for the effect.

Allen H. Frey:
Cornell University (Ithaca New York), 1962.  Allen H. Frey publishes a research paper in the Journal of Applied Physiology entitled, "Human auditory system response to Modulated electromagnetic energy".  In his paper Mr. Frey describes the use of EM energy at average power levels measured in microwatts per square centimeter.  I quote directly from his research paper:

The perception of various sounds can be induced in clinically deaf, as well as normal, human subjects at a distance of inches up to thousands of feet from the transmitter.

With somewhat different transmitter parameters, we can induce the perception of severe buffeting of the head, without such apparent vestibular symptoms as dizziness or nausea.  Changing transmitter parameters again, one can induce a "pins-and-needles" sensation.

The transmitter modulation method employed in Mr. Frey's experiments was "pulse modulation", later known as digital modulation (figure 1 in Mr. Frey's paper).  A further observation by Mr. Frey is relevant to this discussion.  The EM frequency spectrum for greatest absorption by the human head, and therefore lowest threshold of auditory perception.  In other words, what part of the EM spectrum is most efficient (requires the least transmitted power) to produce an auditory response?  Referring to Mr. Frey's paper, the graph in Fig. 5 indicates the frequency spectrum from 500 Mhz to 5000 Mhz is most efficient, with peak efficiency near 1000 Mhz.

Click Here to view a full copy of Allen H. Frey's research paper (opens in a new browser window).

Cell Phone frequency spectrums:
The frequency spectrums assigned to the Cell Phone Network fall within 840 to 960 Mhz (low band) and 1710 to 2170 Mhz (high bands).  Figure 1 is a reproduction of Mr. Frey's graph, with the positions of cell phone frequency bands outlined in red.

Figure 1
(reproduction of Mr. Frey's graph with cell phone frequency bands included)

As you can see, the frequency bands assigned by the FCC (federal communications commission) for use by Cell Phone Networks are at or near the peak of Mr. Frey's graph (showing most efficient absorption of EM energy by the human head), a graph taken from a 40+ year old research paper entitled: "Human auditory system response to Modulated electromagnetic energy" (see 1.1.2 above).

What a remarkable coincidence!  Or is it?

As a side note, the frequency assigned for use by microwave ovens (2450 Mhz) is also in this same part of the EM spectrum.

Cell Phone base transceiver stations:
Everybody's seen them and hates them.  They dot the urban landscape like a plague, and they seem to pop up like weeds.  I'm talking about Cell Phone towers (see figure 2 below).  These towers are just the most visible part of a Cell Phone BTS (Base Transceiver Station).  At the bottom of each tower is a small building that houses the actual BTS electronics.

Figure 2, a typical Cell Phone BTS tower 

One might assume that each Cell Phone conversation (channel) has an independent transmitter dedicated (or assigned) for the duration of the call.  In reality three sets of broadband transmitters known as an MCPA (Multi-Carrier Power Amplifier) are used, with each Cell Phone conversation (channel) summed together with other Cell Phone conversations (channels), and the entire group broadcast (transmitted) by a particular MCPA set.  The reason three MCPA sets are used is that most Cell Phone BTS sites divide their coverage area into three 120 degree sectors, with each MCPA set assigned to one particular sector.  These 120 degree coverage sectors are why the Cell Phone BTS tower has that distinctive triangular antenna arrangement (as shown above).

Since each MCPA set handles all the Cell Phone conversations for a 120 degree coverage sector, it follows that although the transmitted power for any particular Cell Phone conversation is specified as 10 watts, the TOTAL power output of an MPCA set ranges from 180 watts to 360 watts.  Furthermore, the antenna configuration shapes (or focuses) the radiated EM pattern such that the total ERP (effective radiated power) ranges from 9,000 watts to 18,000 watts per 120 degree coverage sector (17db or 50x antenna gain).  Therefore the total ERP for a Cell Phone BTS site (360 degree coverage) is on the order of 27,000 to 54,000 watts!  And of course there are multiple Cell Phone companies, each with its own network of BTS sites.  Consequently any particular urban area will be subjected to EM radiation of approximately 81,000 to 216,000 watts (3 to 4 cell phone companies).  To put this in perspective, the average AM radio station transmitter is 50,000 watts.

Click Here to view the product specification sheet for a typical MCPA (requires Adobe Acrobat reader - opens in a new window).
Click Here to view the product specification sheet for a typical Cell Phone BTS antenna (requires Adobe Acrobat reader - opens in a new window).

Under normal operation, each Cell Phone company uses a different portion of the Cell Phone Network frequency spectrum.  However the actual frequencies used are determined by computer controlled DSP (digital signal processors) which like any computer controlled device, can be reprogrammed in fractions of a second.  The transmitted signal uses TDMA (time division multiple access) or CDMA (code division multiple access) encoding.  Both encoding methods produce a series of digital (on-off) pulses, just like Mr. Frey's original experiments (see 1.1.2 above).

It would seem the modern Cell Phone BTS is tailor made to reproduce Mr. Frey's experimental results (see 1.1.2, 1.1.3 above).

Steven J. Smith-Can energy be produced without combustion?

Can energy be produced without combustion?
Magneto Thermodynamics
The fine art of demonology,
by Steven J. Smith

Part 1

Can energy be produced without combustion?  A simple question, the answer to which, has profound consequences for the future of mankind (under the term "combustion", I include both nuclear fission and fusion, as well as the more conventional forms of combustion).  Owing to the controversy surrounding this subject, rather than simply diving into the math and physics, I will take the unusual step of prefacing my paper with a discussion of the historical and societal underpinnings of this debate.  In part 2, we shall build a solid scientific foundation for the existence of anti-entropic devices, and in part 3 we shall apply these principals to inductive kickback generators such as the Tesla and Hendershot devices.

The Man:
In the 19th century, James C. Maxwell, a British scientist, formulated his now famous set of 4 equations, the first complete description of electromagnetic interactions.  For this contribution, he is celebrated in physics and history books around the world.  This same gentleman also gave science a daemon.  And since the dawn of the 20th century, scientists the world over have, almost without exception, vehemently denied the very existence of Maxwell's Daemon.  These denials were not based on any experiment intended to discover the existence (or lack) of the daemon.  Instead the scientists relied on circular logic, claiming the daemon could not exist, because it's existence would violate the very law of physics Maxwell hypothesized his daemon could circumvent.

The Daemon:
For those who have little or no knowledge of Maxwell and his daemon, we'll start with a simple explanation of how the daemon works.  Imagine a container filled with air, and divided by a thin partition into two separate compartments (A & B).  There is a small hole in the partition, and an equally small trap door covering the hole.  The hole is just large enough, that when the door is opened, single air molecules can move through the hole, thereby passing from one compartment, into the other.  Now suppose we have a tiny intelligent being (the daemon) who opens and closes the door, based on a simple set of rules:

1.  When an air molecule in compartment A moving faster than average approaches the daemon, it opens the door, allowing the molecule to move from compartment A, into compartment B.
2.  When an air molecule in compartment B moving slower than average approaches the daemon, it opens the door, allowing the molecule to move from compartment B, into compartment A.
3.  At all other times, the daemon keeps the door closed.

Over time, compartment B will accumulate a majority of fast moving air molecules, and compartment A will accumulate a majority of slow moving air molecules.  In thermodynamic terms, compartment B will become hotter, and compartment A will become colder.  In other words, through the actions of the daemon, a temperature difference will arise, where none existed before.  It would seem that Maxwell's daemon has just broken the second law of thermodynamics, which states "In any cyclic process, the entropy (disorder) must either increase or remain the same".

Scientists, Experiments, Laws, and Theories:
Newton's _____ of gravitation.  Einstein's ______ of relativity.  Fill in the blanks please.  According to Google, there are 34,900 web pages listed for "Newton's law" of gravity, and 7,580 web pages listed for "Newton's theory" of gravity.  Again, according to Google, there are 44,300 web pages listed for "Einstein's theory" of relativity, and only 869 web pages listed for "Einstein's law" of relativity.  Why is it "Newton's Law", but "Einstein's Theory"?  Is Newton's law any more valid than Einstein's theory?  Just the opposite is true.  Einstein's theory of relativity is a more accurate description of physical reality, than Newton's so called law of gravity.  The dichotomy arises because humans have a built in bias or predisposition as to what they expect, based on their past experience.  What Newton described is what most humans experience AS reality.  What Einstein described is counter intuitive, and NOT at all what most humans experience AS reality.  Scientists being human, are also subject to predisposition in their outlook.  A classic example is the Michelson-Morley aether drift experiments of the early 20th century.  The experiments were conducted many times, over a number of years, using ever more complex apparatus, always with a negative outcome, until Michelson & Morley were finally forced to the conclusion that aether drift did not exist.  A result in direct contradiction to what they expected, and what was widely believed by most scientists of the time.  In many respects, the controversy surrounding the so called second law of thermodynamics parallels the aether drift, in that a majority of contemporary scientists believe it to be absolute, and therefore unbreakable.  The simple truth is that ALL scientific principals are theories, NOT laws, and therefore subject to revision at any time, based solely on experimental results.

Harnessing the Daemon:
In the 19th century world of James C. Maxwell, a daemon was the only imaginable entity capable of the feats he envisioned.  Today, at the dawn of the 21st century, most people own coffee pots and alarm clocks with more innate intelligence than Maxwell's Daemon.  Further, most industrialized nations have manufacturing facilities capable of fabricating devices on a molecular scale.  Can we of the 21st century build a daemon as Maxwell envisioned?  Unlikely, for a whole host of reasons.  However, this inability does not, in and of it self, invalidate Maxwell's hypothesis.  Lets rephrase the question.  Can we construct a device that will act as a one way trap door accumulator/coherer of heat (thermal energy)?  The answer is a resounding YES.  A laser is just such a device.  A photovoltaic solar cell is another device.  A laser converts incoherent (random) energy into coherent (ordered) energy, and in doing so, raises the effective temperature of the output beam well beyond even the temperature of the Sun.  The mechanism that creates this daemon like energy trap door, is called a population inversion, and will be discussed at length in the second part of this paper.  Next, consider a photovoltaic cell.  It converts Sun light (disordered energy) directly into a flow of electric current (ordered energy).  Again, a daemon like one way energy trap door is involved in the conversion process.  A photovoltaic cell is nothing more than a solid state rectifier (generally made of silicon) that has been optimized to collect light.  ALL solid state rectifiers will, to varying degrees, cohere both light and heat.  In the case of heat, the phenomena is called thermal carrier injection or thermal tunneling, and results in what is known as shot noise.  In most applications, this phenomena is considered detrimental, and is minimized by device design.

The Anti-Daemonic Rebuttal:
Those that would argue against the existence of Maxwell's Daemon will be quick to point out that examples cited in 1.2.1 while appearing to break the second law locally, do indeed obey the law globally.  They will say yes, entropy is lowered locally by the photovoltaic cell, but this is more than offset by the increase of entropy in the Sun, created by nuclear fusion.  In other words, they would redraw the boundary of the experiment to include the Sun, thereby avoiding any paradox between their view point and the experimental result.  In the case of the laser, a similar redrawing of the boundary to include the power plant supplying the laser alleviates the paradox.  All fine and good, however…  Why not adopt the same redefinition of boundary with respect to Maxwell's original daemon hypothesis?  Where did the kinetic (thermal) energy of the air molecules residing in the container (1.1.3) come from in the first place, if not from the Sun?  Is this reluctance to acknowledge the existence of Maxwell's Daemon, another example of scientific predisposition? (1.1.4)

That working examples of anti-entropic devices already exist (1.2.1).  That these devices make use of natural or engineered "trap door" phenomena identical in concept to Maxwell's original daemon hypothesis (1.1.3 & 1.2.1).  That any anti-entropic device may be made fully compliant with the second law (theory) of thermodynamics by the simple expedient of redefining the experiment boundary (1.2.2).  That scientists, being human, are subject to the same predispositions of view point as any other human (1.1.4).  There are NO scientific laws, only theories to which, an experimental counter example, has yet to be discovered (1.1.4).

Magneto Thermodynamics, Part 2

In part 1 one we covered the scientific and societal controversy surrounding Maxwell's daemon, and briefly touched on two devices that exhibit anti-entropic behavior.  In part 2 we shall take an in-depth look at the mechanism responsible for anti-entropic behavior in the laser.  This mechanism is called a population inversion, and until the mid twentieth century, was considered little more than a quaint mathematical curiosity, with no basis in physical reality.  In order to lay a proper foundation for discussion of inverted populations, sections 2.1.2 and 2.1.3 are included as a short review of classical thermodynamics.

Degrees of Freedom:
At it's most basic level, the science of thermodynamics is a statistical study of vibration and movement in populations of atoms or molecules.  In order to numerically quantify a population, it is necessary to understand how many different ways or modes of vibration and/or movement are available to the population.  For instance, a population of molecules that have magnetic properties, when under the influence of a magnetic field, may be constrained to movement in a single direction, and yet in the absence of a magnetic field, this same population may have nearly unlimited directions of movement.  In thermodynamics we use the term "degrees of freedom" to describe the number of available modes of vibration and/or directions of movement.  Alternately, degrees of freedom can be viewed as the set of locations available to a population of atoms or molecules when it moves or vibrates.  This set of available locations is called the population's "phase space".

Temperature, energy, and entropy:
The concept of temperature arose from a need to quantify the human perception of hot and cold.  However at the beginning of the 19th century, no scientist was sure what temperature was really measuring.  It was well known that expending energy (doing work), such as drilling a hole, or bending sheet metal caused the material to get hot, so heat was related to energy in some manner.  But what was heat?  Some believed it was a discrete substance, separate from matter (they called it caloric), while others believed it was an inherent property of matter, like mass or volume.  In 1877, the debate was settled by the mathematician Ludwig Boltzmann.  He showed that heat is a property of matter, directly related to the energy stored in it's vibration and/or movement, AND related to the entropy (disorder) of that vibration or movement.  Unfortunately his theories were met with extreme skepticism by the scientific community of that era (Maxwell was an exception).  Despondent, he later committed suicide.  Had he lived just a few more years, Boltzmann would have seen his theories vindicated beyond his wildest dreams.  Scientific luminaries such as Albert Einstein and Max Planck used Boltzmann's theories in their work.  Work that has shaped modern quantum physics as we know it today.

Boltzmann's controversial equation, Eq. 1 relates the entropy of an atomic or molecular population to it's phase space (disorder).  As a side note, this equation was engraved on his tombstone...

[Eq. 1]    S = k Log W

 = Entropy (disorder).
 = Boltzmann's constant (1.38 x 10-23 joules per degree Kelvin)
 = Number of occupied locations in phase space.
 = Natural logarithm.

Form our perspective, the utility of Eq. 1 is that it defines entropy (disorder) as the ratio of energy to temperature.  Looked at another way, given a population with a constant energy content, as entropy declines, temperature rises.  In other words, as the degrees of freedom available to a population diminish, those few degrees of freedom still available, MUST contain the entire energy content of the population, and this causes the temperature of the population to rise.

Thanks to the genius of Boltzmann, we can define the relationships between temperature, energy, and entropy

[Eq. 2a]
[Eq. 2b]
[Eq. 2c]

 = Entropy (disorder).
 = Energy in Joules.
 = Absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin

One last observation is relevant before moving on.  Eq. 2b implies that for any population with a non-zero energy content, as entropy approaches zero (one degree of freedom), the temperature of the population approaches infinity.

Maximum disorder:
Is there an upper limit to disorder?  The answer to this question depends on the degrees of freedom available to a population of atoms or molecules.  For most populations, and in the most general sense of the question, the answer is "no".  This answer has a practical consequence.  It implies there is no upper limit to temperature, since there will always be another dimension in phase space (degree of freedom), to which we can add another increment of energy, and thereby raise the temperature of the population.

However, if a population has a limited set of dimensions in phase space (limited degrees of freedom), there is a definite upper limit to disorder.  Surprisingly, the limit will be reached when exactly half of the dimensions in phase space are occupied by the population.  It is obvious that when a population of atoms or molecules contain no energy, they do not vibrate or move, and therefore all members of the population occupy a single point in phase space (no disorder).  Now consider the opposite condition.  I.E. Every member of the population is vibrating or moving in every available degree of freedom (all dimensions of phase space are occupied).  Again, all members of the population are exactly alike, and again there is no disorder.  Therefore maximum disorder (and entropy) is achieved when exactly 50% of the dimensions in phase space are occupied.  As a consequence of this remarkable situation Eq. 2b implies the temperature of a population at maximum disorder is infinite, and the temperature of any population where more than 50% of phase space is occupied is negative AND hotter than infinity.  Figure 1 shows the relationship between temperature and phase space occupancy for a population with limited degrees of freedom.

Figure 1 - Temperature versus phase space occupancy

Quantum populations:
While classical physics allows populations of atoms or molecules to have nearly unlimited modes of vibration and movement (with corresponding degrees of freedom), quantum electrodynamics is a different story altogether.  Consider the electron orbits of a Hydrogen atom.  The allowed orbital values are discreet, and defined by Eq. 3.  Therefore electron orbits represent a population with very limited degrees of freedom (dimensions in phase

[Eq. 3]    

 = Electron Mass.
 = Orbital velocity.
 = Orbital radius.
 = Quantum number. (1,2,3,…)
 = Plank's constant.

As a consequence of Eq. 3, an atom will only absorb (or emit) electromagnetic energy at those frequencies corresponding to the difference in energy between allowed orbits.  In a population of Hydrogen atoms at room temperature, the vast majority of electrons are in the orbit N = 1, and the effective temperature of the orbital population is very close to zero.  Now suppose we pass a controlled electric current through the Hydrogen atoms, thereby raising the majority of electrons into the orbit N = 2.  We now have a population with only 2 degrees of freedom (two dimensional phase space) N = 1, and N = 2.  Further, since the majority of electrons (greater than 50%) are in the orbit N = 2, the population of electron orbits is at a negative temperature (see figure 1 above), and therefore hotter than infinity.  In thermodynamics terms, this is known as a population inversion, and under the rules of classical thermodynamics, was considered a physical impossibility...

The Laser:
In 1960, based on the thermodynamic principal of population inversion, Theodore Maiman invented the laser (U.S. Pat 3,353,115).  An intense source of light or electric current is used to excite electron orbits into a population inversion.  The only way these electrons can cool down is to emit a beam of electromagnetic energy (photons) at a single wavelength, equal to the energy difference between electron orbits (2.2.1).  Since the population of photons in the laser beam is of one wavelength (monochromatic), they have exactly one degree of freedom, and as shown in (2.1.3), for any non-zero energy, when S = 0 (W = 1 in Eq. 1), T is infinite.

The laser uses the population inversion of electron orbits as a "daemon-like, trap door" to convert low temperature energy into a coherent beam of light, hot enough to burn a hole through the Sun

The second law:
The second law of thermodynamics states that:

"In any cyclic process, the entropy must either increase or remain the same".

Consider a steam engine.  Steam engines can not convert all of the energy contained in the boiler to useful work.  Some of the energy must be dumped into a condenser.  The reason for this prerequisite is that extracting energy from a boiler lowers the entropy of the boiler, however dumping a smaller quantity of energy into a condenser (at a lower temperature) raises the entropy of the condenser more than entropy was lowered by extracting the larger quantity of energy from the boiler (2.1.3, Eq. 2a).  In other words, a condenser is needed to meet the requirements of the second law of thermodynamics.

For steam engines, or any other engine that operates on the principal of heat extraction, the second law of thermodynamics IS absolute (much to the benefit of OPEC).  If steam engines could break the second law of thermodynamics, then a steam engine could convert all of the energy from a boiler operating at room temperature, without needing a lower temperature condenser to dump waste energy.

Inverted populations:
Consider an engine extracting energy from a boiler containing an inverted population of atoms or molecules.  Since the act of energy extraction, raises the entropy of the boiler (2.1.4, 2.2.1), this engine DOES NOT require a condenser, and this engine will convert ALL of the extracted energy into useful work.  In other words, ANY boiler operating on the right hand side of figure 1 (beyond 50% phase space occupancy), is also operating beyond the point of maximum entropy (disorder), and unlike a conventional boiler, entropy increases as energy is extracted from an inverted population boiler.  Therefore no other step is required to meet the condition imposed by the second law.

We have just uncovered a loop hole in the second law of thermodynamics.  This loop hole does NOT allow us to break the second law of thermodynamics.  Rather, the loop hole allows us to neatly "side step" the consequences of the second law, as it's traditionally understood to apply, with respect to heat driven engines.  In other words, an inverted population exhibits anti-entropic behavior.

Or in more poetic terms, when operating on an inverted population, the spirit of Maxwell's daemon LIVES!

That inverted populations can be created (2.1.4, 2.2.1, 2.2.2).  That inverted populations exhibit anti-entropic behavior (2.2.4).  That inverted populations can be used to side step certain consequences of the second law of thermodynamics as it applies to heat driven engines (2.1.3, 2.1.4, 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 2.2.3, 2.2.4).  That when operating on an inverted population, the second law of thermodynamics DOES NOT preclude the existence of daemon-like "trap door" structures, as first envisioned by Maxwell (2.1.4, 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 2.2.4).  In summary, some scientists will claim that while my arguments are theoretically correct, they have no basis in physical reality.  I would invite these scientists to aim a high power laser at their head, then carefully examine the "theoretical hole" in their head.

Magneto Thermodynamics, Part 3
In part 3 of this paper, we shall examine population inversions as they apply to electromagnets.  In particular, we shall discover that when viewed from the perspective of inverted populations, many devices reported as exhibiting phenomena or behavior, inconsistent with the second law of thermodynamics, are in fact, fully compliant with the second law of thermodynamics.

Paramagnetic materials:
Any material with un-paired electron spins will exhibit magnetic properties to a greater or lesser extent.  These un-paired electrons will spin align with the applied magnetic field.  In paramagnetic materials, the spin alignment disappears when the magnetic field is removed.  Materials that are easily polarized produce a greater paramagnetic response.  In thermodynamic terms, the paramagnetic properties of un-paired electrons represent separate degrees of freedom (dimensions in phase space) in addition to the normal degrees of freedom (vibration and movement) possessed by all materials.

Further, unlike atomic or molecular vibration/movement which exhibit strong coupling between dimensions in phase space (degrees of freedom), electron spin alignment is (in most cases) only weakly coupled to other dimensions of phase space.  For this reason, it is appropriate to consider paramagnetic materials as consisting of two separate populations (electron spins, and bulk vibration/movement) interconnected through a large thermal resistance.  Therefore, in many situations, each population will posses separate numerical values for entropy, energy, and temperature.

In the presence of a magnetic field, the rules of quantum electrodynamics require the un-paired electron spins be either aligned, or anti-aligned to the magnetic field vector (two dimensions in phase space).  Therefore, un-paired electron spins in paramagnetic materials represent an excellent material for constructing an inverted population boiler (2.1.4, 2.2.1, 2.2.4).

Paramagnetic temperature dependence:
In 1880's, Pierre Curie (husband of Madam Curie), discovered the effect of temperature on paramagnetic materials, known as Curie's law Eq. 4.

[Eq. 4]    

It was later shown that Curie's law is just a special case of the more general Curie-Weiss law Eq 5.

[Eq. 5]    

 = Curie's constant
 = Absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin
 = Magnetic susceptibility (to polarization)
 = Curie transition temperature

Simply stated, above the Curie transition temperature, paramagnetic polarization varies as the inverse of temperature.  However, at the Curie transition temperature, electron spin coupling forces cause the magnetic susceptibility to become infinite.  Below the Curie transition temperature, the material exhibits ferromagnetism.

The inductor:
An inductor consists of an insulated wire, wrapped around a paramagnetic material, generally called the core.  Inductors exhibit the curious behavior of opposing any change in the flow of current through the insulated wire.  This electrical behavior is well understood by most scientists and engineers.  However, it seems that few scientists or engineers have ever bothered to consider the thermodynamic consequences of this behavior as it applies to the paramagnetic material comprising the core of the inductor.  Figure 2a shows an inductor, connected to a battery, through a switch.  When the switch is closed, an electric current starts to flow through the inductor, increasing linearly over time as shown in figure 2b.

Figure 2

Consider the population of un-paired electron spins in the paramagnetic core of the inductor, at the instants just before, and just after the switch is closed.

Before the switch is closed, there is no un-paired electron spin alignment, and therefore the un-paired electron spins have nearly limitless dimensions in phase space (degrees of freedom), AND the un-paired electron spin population is in thermal equilibrium with the bulk population.

After the switch is closed, phase space collapses to just 2 dimensions, because the un-paired electron spins must be either be aligned or anti-aligned to the applied magnetic field (3.1.2), AND since the paramagnetic polarization at this instant is zero (origin point in figure 2b), it follows that 50% are spin aligned, and 50% are anti-spin aligned.  Therefore, the temperature of the un-paired electron spin population is infinite (2.1.4), and obviously no longer in thermal equilibrium with the bulk population (heat flows from spin population into bulk population).

Next, as the current flowing through the inductor to rises, so does the magnetic field, thereby increasing paramagnetic polarization.  Anti-aligned electron spins are flipping into alignment with the magnetic field, and since entropy is declining as energy flows into the magnetic field (the battery is doing work on the inductor), Eq. 2b (part 2) implies the temperature of the electron spin population is now negative (hotter than infinity), AND declining (2.1.4 figure 1).  The situation is analogous to compressing a gas, where heat flows out of the hot gas, and into the container walls, except our "magnetic gas" is an inverted population (2.2.1, 2.2.4).

Inductive collapse:
Referring to figures 2a, and 2b (above), when the switch is opened current flow can not cease instantly.  The energy stored as un-paired electron spin alignments in the paramagnetic core must be removed (or dissipated) from the inductor before current can stop flowing.  The extreme case is represented by opening the switch, thereby causing an interruption of current flow, and results in an electrical arc across the switch contacts.

Consider the population of un-paired electron spins in the paramagnetic core of the inductor at the instants just before and after the switch is opened.

Before the switch was opened, current flow was rising (the battery was doing work on the inductor), un-paired electron spin alignment was increasing, electron spin temperature was negative and declining (inverted population), and heat was flowing out of the electron spin population, and into the bulk population (3.1.3).

After the switch is opened, the inductor must now do work on the rest of the electrical circuit in order to dissipate the energy stored in the magnetic field, supported by the un-paired electron spin alignments in the paramagnetic core.  However the un-paired electron spins can not spontaneously depolarize without gaining back the heat lost during alignment.  And since the energy contained in the inductor is being dissipated very quickly (by the arc), heat lost during alignment must now flow back into the un-paired electron spins very quickly as well.  The ONLY available avenue for the un-paired electron spin population to achieve rapid heat inflow, is for it's temperature to drop BELOW the temperature of the bulk population.  The situation is analogous to the explosive decompression of a gas, except of course our "magnetic gas" is an inverted population.

The magneto-thermodynamic engine cycle:
The magneto-thermodynamic engine cycle consists of three steps:

  Isothermal magnetization.
  Adiabatic demagnetization.
  Thermal equalization

Theory of operation:
The magneto-thermodynamic cycle theory of operation assumes the following two conditions.

Operating Conditions
The use of un-paired paramagnetic electron spins for the working fluid, acting in accordance with the thermodynamic principals governing inverted populations.
Adiabatic demagnetization during step two, causing un-paired electron spin population (working fluid) temperature to momentarily fall below the Curie transition temperature (3.1.3), thereby allowing ferromagnetic spin coupling forces to momentarily dominate.  Since these coupling forces arise as a result of interaction with the so called "zero-point" energy of electrodynamic space (see companion paper entitled Electrodynamic Space, part 1).  It follows that during step two, heat inflow from the bulk population must now overcome BOTH the normal paramagnetic polarization (3.1.5), AND the zero-point driven spin coupling forces.

Step 1 (isothermal magnetization) shifts the un-paired electron spin population of the inductor core into an inverted population state (2.1.4, 2.2.1, 3.1.4).  During this step, as un-paired electron spins align with the applied magnetic field, the entropy of the population declines, and heat flows out of the un-paired electron spin population, and into the bulk material population (3.1.2).

Step 2 (adiabatic demagnetization) causes a rapid decline in the temperature of the un-paired electron spin population (3.1.5).  During this decline in temperature, the un-paired electron spin population momentarily dips below the Curie transition temperature (3.1.3), thereby causing a momentary rise in total magnetic flux as ferromagnetic spin coupling forces contribute to overall un-paired electron spin alignment.  This momentary flux increase represents an additional increment of electromagnetic energy (beyond the energy stored in the inductor during step 1), available to the driven circuit.  Therefore the electromagnetic energy derived from the inductor during step 2, is greater than the electromagnetic energy stored in the inductor during step 1.

Step 3 (thermal equalization) Allows sufficient time for the heat deficient (caused by step 2), to be replenished from the ambient environment.

As a practical consequence of the two conditions (listed above), the magneto-thermodynamic heat engine will operate from ambient heat sources, without requiring a lower temperature condenser to dump waste heat.  In other words, the magneto-thermodynamic heat engine is a "perpetuam mobile of the second type", and satisfies ALL requirements of James C. Maxwell's Daemon, as he envisioned it.

Next, we shall cover each step in detail.

Step 1, Isothermal magnetization:
In figure 2a (above) the rate of change in current flow is set by the ratio of electric potential (voltage) to inductance as shown in Eq. 6.

[Eq. 6]    

 = Current in Amps.
 = Time in seconds
 = Potential in Volts
 = Inductance in Henneries.

The rate of change in current flow can be made arbitrarily small, by making the ratio of electric potential to inductance small as well.

Since the degree of un-paired electron spin polarization is directly dependent on the magnitude of current flow through the inductor.  It follows that a small rate of change in current flow will yield an equally small rate of change in un-paired electron spin polarization, and this will result in a small rate of heat outflow (into the bulk material population), and therefore a small temperature rise across the thermal resistance separating the un-paired electron spin population from the bulk material population (3.1.2, 3.1.4), thereby causing the smallest possible decline in magnetic susceptibility of the paramagnetic core of the inductor (3.1.3).

Strictly speaking step one is NOT isothermal.  However by proper circuit design and choice of paramagnetic core material, the decline of magnetic susceptibility in the core of the inductor can be minimized, which is the ideal condition for this step.

This step represents the compression stroke of our engine.

Step 2, Adiabatic demagnetization:
The time required for inductive collapse is set by the ratio of inductance to driven circuit impedance as shown by Eq 7.

[Eq. 7]    

 = Time in seconds.
 = Inductance in Henneries.
 = Driven circuit impedance in Ohms.

The length of time required for inductive collapse can be made arbitrarily short, by making the driven circuit impedance very large.

The purpose of this step is to force the temperature of the un-paired electron spin population to fall below the Curie transition temperature (3.1.3, 3.1.5, 3.2.2), and thereby cause the magnetic susceptibility of the core to become infinite (onset of ferromagnetic behavior).  The ideal condition is met when the rate of change in the magnetic field of the inductor never drops to zero.  If the un-paired electron spin population temperature become too cold, the core will momentarily "freeze" in the ferromagnetic state, thereby causing the rate of change in the magnetic field to become zero.

During this step, the heat inflow to the un-paired electron spin population from the bulk material population is greater than the heat outflow during step 1 (3.2.3).  The reason being that heat inflow must overcome both the electron spin coupling forces caused by passage through Curie transition, as well as the regular paramagnetic polarization.  Conversely, the electrical energy delivered to the driven circuit by the inductor during this step, is larger than the electrical energy stored in the inductor during step 1.

In effect, step two has converted quantity of thermal energy into electrical energy.

Strictly speaking step two is NOT adiabatic.  However, by proper circuit design and choice of paramagnetic core materials, the rise in magnetic susceptibility during this step can be made sufficiently large.

This step represents the power stroke of our engine.

Step 3, Thermal equalization:
As the name implies, the purpose of this step is to allow the electron spin population and the bulk material population to once more, achieve thermal equilibrium with the ambient environment.  While in the strict sense of the magneto-thermodynamic cycle, this step is not required, it's inclusion greatly simplifies circuit design.

This step represents the intake stroke of our engine.

Further, NO exhaust stroke is required, since our engine utilizes an inverted population of un-paired electron spins, as it's "working fluid" (2.2.4).

The fringes of scientific research are literally teeming with reports of inductive kickback devices that exhibit anti-entropic behavior or phenomena.  Most are dismissed as the rantings of crackpots and lunatics.  This paper presents a coherent rational explanation, based on proven scientific principals, in support of these devices, and the phenomena observed.  It is also intended as a "how to" guide for current and future researchers in achieving optimal performance from their devices.  To those free thinking individuals, operating at the boundaries of knowledge, I dedicate this paper.

That un-paired electron spins in paramagnetic materials will exhibit the characteristics of an inverted population (3.1.4).  That a population of un-paired electron spins can be made to interact with the zero point energy of electrodynamic space, thereby capturing thermal energy, and making it available for work (3.1.2, 3.1.3, 3.1.5, 3.2.2, 3.2.4).  That a cyclic heat engine, based on a working fluid, utilizing an inverted population of un-paired electron spins is possible (3.2.1, 3.2.2).  That said engine will exhibit anti-entropic behavior fully consistent with the principals of James C. Maxwell's Daemon (3.2.2, 3.2.4, 3.2.5).  That said engine is in fact, a perpetual motion device of the second type (3.2.2, 3.2.4, 3.2.5).

Steven J. Smith-Brookhaven-Montauk-Shoreham (TWA flight 800)

Brookhaven-Montauk-Shoreham(TWA flight 800Introduction and Overview)A portrait in deception 
Steven J. Smith
What does the Brookhaven national laboratory, Montauk Point state park, the decommissioned Shoreham nuclear power plant, and the mid-air explosion of TWA flight 800 have in common?  The primary purpose of this paper is to delineate the connection between these seemingly unrelated locations and events.  The paper also serves as a practical example of the American covert underground infrastructure, the methods employed by it's architects, and the goals of it's workforce.

Due to the scope of this paper, I have chosen to divide the material into six separate interlinked sections.  Each section covers one particular aspect and/or subject of the analysis, and where appropriate, is linked to other relevant sections.

While the Montauk site is at this point, well documented by many different authors, most fail to fully appreciate it's interrelationship to the other locations covered in this paper.  The central player is the Brookhaven national laboratory.  As we shall see, the other locations and events exist in relationship to the capabilities and geographic location of this laboratory.  I have included an aerial photo of eastern Long Island to show the geographic relationships.  The photo has embedded links to the relevant locations and events. 

Shoreham Nuclear Facility Analysis

by Steven J. Smith
4.1 Aerial Photo Analysis:
The photo on the right is an aerial view of the Shoreham nuclear power generation facility, owned by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA).  According to LIPA, this facility was decommissioned in June,1987 and the nuclear fuel removed.  This photo was taken in August 1994.  Note the parking lot full of cars, in the upper right hand corner of photo.  Also note the cars parked along left hand edges of buildings in lower left corner of photo.

Another unusual feature is the secluded complex of buildings in the upper middle of the photo.  Notice how a strip of forest was left between the complex and the beach for concealment.  Also, notice the concealed low traffic road connecting this complex to the road in center of the photo.  One other interesting feature is the trail leading from the beach, to the right hand edge of the complex.  When taken all together, this complex has the classic signature of a rural underground access point (see companion paper entitled "Underground Infrastructure").

This facility is fully operational, and being used to supply electrical power to the covert particle beam weapon system at Brookhaven national laboratory.

Note: at the time of it's decommissioning Gov. Mario Cuomo, coerced New York's public-utilities commission into the following agreement with LIPA: The power authority could pass the cost of Shoreham along to its customers only if it agreed not to operate the plant.  Another example of how the cost of American underground infrastructure is covertly shifted to an unsuspecting citizenry.


Brookhaven-Montauk-Shoreham Aerial Photo
Aerial Photo Analysis:
The photo below is a composite image, created from USGS (united states geological survey) aerial maps, showing the eastern end of Long Island, New York.  This photo illustrates the geographic relationships between the various facility locations and events.  The red squares are embedded links to the individual analysis pages.


Brookhaven Analysis

Aerial Photo Analysis:
The photo on the right is an aerial view of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL).  One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).  The large circular area in the upper middle of the photo is the 2.4 mile radius RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider).  At the time of this photo (august 1994), the RHIC was still under construction.  Below and slightly to the left, a second smaller ring called the AGS (alternating gradient synchrotron) is also visible.  These devices are collectively known as particle accelerators.  The RHIC uses super conducting magnets cooled by liquid helium, and requires 5 million watts of electrical energy just for refrigeration.  While no figures are available for total RHIC power requirements, a value in the range of 20 to 40 times the refrigeration load is a safe assumption.  This would equal 100 million to 200 million watts of electrical power.  Now we see the true purpose of the Shoreham nuclear power facility.

Shoreham Nuclear Facility Analysis

Although the actual particle accelerators are buried in underground tunnels, many of the support structures are above ground.  Notice that most administrative, and research facilities are laid out in a grid pattern, but some structures are oriented odd angles.  In particular, the purple line connecting the left hand edge of the RHIC ring and the right hand edge of the AGS ring, terminates at a group of structures in the lower middle of the photo.

In the color photo to the right, these structures are located in the lower right hand corner, and appear to be a row of metal sheds, with the first one set at a slightly different angle, as if they just happen to follow the road.  In reality, their location and orientation is no mere accident of convenience.  These building house the support equipment for a first generation particle beam weapon system.  It is also no accident that a line drawn from bottom end of this row of structures intersects the crash site of TWA flight 800.

The RHIC and AGS rings are used to accelerate packets of subatomic particles to velocities near the speed of light.  These packets are then shaped, focused, and launched at the target by equipment located under the row of metal sheds.

The color image on the right shows a close-up view of another installation located along this same particle beam alignment, known as the NSLS (national synchrotron light source) also visible in the previous photo.  This facility uses an electron (ring) accelerator to produce high power ultraviolet laser light.  The laser beam serves two purposes.  At low power, it's used for target acquisition and tracking.  However it's primary (high power) function is to create a partial vacuum "tunnel" through the atmosphere to the target. This allows the particle beam to travel without attenuation or scattering by air molecules.

The facilities listed in this analysis are examples of the "dual use" doctrine.  In other words, these facilities comprise an advanced particle beam weapon system, disguised as legitimate scientific research laboratories.  The majority of scientists and technicians working at this site have no idea their efforts are being used to conceal such a sinister purpose.  To hide this monstrous device behind a facade of innocent scientific pursuit, is typical of the people and organizations that have created the covert underground infrastructure in America.


Brookhaven Particle Beam Energy Calculations
by Steven J. Smith
Particle beam overview:
The following are direct quotes from a public relations document called "RHIC by the Numbers", published by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL).

Quote 1:
RHIC's beam travels at 99.995 percent the speed of light (186,000 miles per second, or more than 300,000,000 meters per second).

Quote 2:
RHIC's beam is not continuous - it's made up of 57 separate "bunches," each containing billions of ions.

Quote 3:
RHIC ions are so small that, even at nearly the speed of light, the force of their impact is about the same as the impact of two mosquitos colliding.

From the BNL website, we discover that gold (Au) atoms are used for the particle beam.

RHIC Tunnel.  Photo Courtesy of BNL
Particle beam energy calculations:
The energy contained in any moving object, be it a car, snow ball, or particle beam composed of gold atoms is calculated as follows:

[Eq. 1]   
The mass of a gold atom is 3.2697-21 grams, and the mass of 2 billion gold atoms is 6.5394-12 grams or 6.5394-15 kilograms.  Thanks to Einstein's relativity, the effective mass of any object traveling near the speed of light increases by:
[Eq. 2]    [------]

At 99.995% of light speed, the effective mass is slightly more than 100 times the rest mass, therefore our 2 billion gold atoms have an effective mass of 6.5394-13 kilograms.  Next, the speed of light is 299,792,458 meters per second in a vacuum, and 99.995% of light speed is 299,777,468 meters per second.  Therefore: 

E = 6.5394-13 * 299,777,4862 * 0.5 = 29383.7 Joules 

And since the RHIC stores 57 "bunches" or packets of particles, the total energy is: 57 * 29383.7 = 1,674,871 Joules.  This is nearly 3 times the energy of a 3500 pound automobile crashing into a wall at 60 miles per hour!  And all of this energy concentrated into 57 packages, each smaller than the period at the end of this sentence, AND traveling at nearly the speed of light. 

It seems quote number 3 (above) tells the truth, but NOT the whole truth... 

It should be mentioned that according to BNL, the RHIC did not produce a particle beam until July, 1999.  However, given the covert nature of DOE, this date is suspect.  Furthermore, as the line drawn on the aerial photo of BNL clearly shows, the AGS ring is also capable of supplying particle beams to the weapons system buildings. 

Montauk Point Analysis
by Steven J. Smith

Photo Courtesy of USGS

Aerial Photo Analysis:
The photo on the right is an aerial view of Montauk Point state park, and Camp Hero military reservation, both located at the eastern tip of Long Island.  The loop highway and large parking lot in the upper right hand corner are adjacent to the Montauk light house (a national monument).  The complex of roads and structures stretching from the left hand edge of the photo, and continuing to the right hand edge comprise the Camp Hero military reservation.  For many years there has been a continuing controversy surrounding the Camp Hero military reservation (CHMR).  According to many accounts, this site has been secretly used for experiments in mind control, advanced weapons research/testing, and as a time machine portal.  These clandestine endeavors are commonly and collectively known by the term "Montauk Project".

At first glance, mind control, particle beam weapons, and time travel may seem to have very little in common.  However, all three tasks make use of high power electro-magnetic energy.  The particle beam accelerators at Brookhaven are used to supply the needed energy (directly in the case of particle beam weapons, and indirectly in the case of mind control, and time travel).

The photo on the right is an enlargement of the bottom center section of the previous photo.  Notice the ring shaped artifact measuring approximately 100 yards in diameter.  A cross check of the USGS topological survey map indicates the artifact does NOT correspond to any natural land feature.  This artifact is the visible surface signature of an underground structure.  Manifestations of this kind are caused by two distinctly different processes.  (1) Disturbance of the natural aquifer by the underground structure.  (2) EM or heat leakage from the underground structure modifying surface vegetation growth.

A 100 yard ring is too small to be a primary particle beam accelerator, however it is just the right size for an electron synchrotron of the type used to create a partial vacuum "tunnel" through the atmosphere to the target (see NSLS, Brookhaven analysis).

Another use for electron synchrotron generated radiation is human behavior modulation (mind control).  While the radiation it self is pure EM, the electron synchrotron generation process allows access to parts of the EM spectrum that are not normally available through the use of conventional RF generators.  These wavelengths are particularly useful since they are of the same scale (size) as certain microstructures within the human brain.  Furthermore, since the wavelengths in question do not occur in the natural environment, the human brain has no innate immunity.  The high power levels that can be achieved with an electron synchrotron allow many subjects to be "treated" simultaneously.

The photo on the right is another enlargement from a section of the first photo.  Again we see a ring shaped artifact (albeit better hidden).  The artifact is more indicative of aquifer disruption than direct vegetation disturbance.  This ring is located above, and slightly to the left of the smaller ring shown in the previous photo.  Also, once you know where to look, the ring is actually more noticeable in the large photo at the top of the page.

With an approximate diameter of 275 yards, the ring is about the same size as the AGS particle accelerator at Brookhaven.  The ring could be a primary particle beam accelerator, but with the Brookhaven facility so close, a better use would be as a secondary storage ring for the primary particle beam accelerator rings at Brookhaven.  This conclusion is supported by the fact that accelerators require considerably more power than storage rings, and a plethora of ancillary equipment that would represent needless duplication of the Brookhaven facilities.  Locating the particle beam weapon launch facility is more problematical.  At Brookhaven the dual use nature of the facilities makes the task relatively easy, however the Montauk underground complex is by definition a covert (secret) base and therefore far less clues are available for analysis.

Assuming the particle beam weapon launch facility isn't completely camouflaged, and assuming the two rings connect to the launch facility via straight beam line, the best choice for the particle beam launch line shown in the photo to the right.  The second photo on the extreme right shows an enlarged view of the suspect particle beam launch point.  It is interesting to note that ALL of these particle beam weapon components are outside the fenced off portion of CHMR.  A classic example of misdirection, and the "hide it in plain sight" doctrine.


An analysis of the time portal systems is beyond the scope of this document.  Suffice it to say that experiments involving time displacement are unbelievably dangerous and therefore an isolated site, located well away from major population centers and valuable infrastructure (such as Brookhaven national laboratory) is advisable.  Yet the nature of these experiments also require access to energy concentrations that can only be achieved by particle accelerators (such as Brookhaven).  Based on this set of requirements, Montauk point (and CHMR) would seem to be the ideal compromise.  However, it is the authors opinion that if an accident does occur, Montauk will prove to be entirely too close for comfort...

Support Facilities:
An operation of this magnitude requires considerable above ground support facilities.  In particular, particle beam components are large and cumbersome, therefore they must be trucked into the site.  A line of trucks, waiting to unload their cargo would be a dead give-away, furthermore truck drivers are notorious gossip mongers.  Therefore a nearby cargo container staging yard is needed.  Located on old Montauk highway, at the junction with the new Montauk highway, the area shown in the photo on the right would make an ideal cargo container staging yard.  The large circular structure near the bottom of the photo does not cast much shadow, and is most likely an "in ground" tank.

The Montauk (and CHMR) site show most of the classic indicators of an underground access point (see companion paper entitled "Underground Infrastructure").  Furthermore, the identified artifacts (above) are commensurate with the alleged facility uses (5.1.1), both in terms of size and shape, and in terms of geographic relationship to each other.  Therefore, it is the authors opinion the Montauk point state park, and CHMR are in fact a covert underground facility, operating under the aegis of the United States government. 
Photo Courtesy of USGS


TWA Flight 800 Analysis
by Steven J. Smith
TWA flight 800 overview:
On July 17, 1996 at 8:31PM (EDT) TWA flight 800, a Boeing 747-100 (registration N93119) experienced an in-flight explosion just 12 minutes, 51 seconds after being cleared for take off from JFK international airport.  The explosion took place over the Atlantic Ocean (Location: 72:37.46N, 40:39.52W), approximately 9 miles south of East Moriches on Long Island, New York.  Of the 18 crew members and 212 passengers on board, none survived.  The ensuing NTSB (national transportation safety board) investigation was the most thorough and comprehensive in American aviation history.  Yet no definitive cause for the explosion was ever discovered.  In it's final report, the NTSB lists the probablecause as an explosion in the center wing fuel tank.

The lack of a definitive cause has led some people to theorize that TWA flight 800 was struck by a surface to air missile.  This speculation is fueled by the reports of several eye witnesses who claim to have seen a bright point of light ascend upward, intersecting the aircraft at the time of the explosion.  However NO physical evidence of a missile strike was ever found in the wreckage...

I believe that TWA flight 800 was the victim of a particle beam weapon attack, launched from the Brookhaven national laboratory in order to test system effectiveness against air born targets.  This would not be the first time an agency of the American government has used unsuspecting citizens as experimental test subjects.  One need look no farther than the Tuskegee syphilis study, or the 1950s nuclear bomb tests on army personnel to discover how little regard the American government has for the lives of it's citizens.

The evidence for this theory falls into two broad categories:
1.  Flaws in the NTSB probable cause, and certain investigative steps that were performed in a superficial manner.
2.  The presence of certain physical and logistical indicators that were completely ignored by the NTSB.

I shall cover each separately, starting with category number one.
Flaws and superficial performance:
Commercial jet fuel (known as JP4) is a refined variant of kerosene, very similar to common diesel fuel used in trucks and buses.  Unlike gasoline, JP4 has a low vapor pressure.  In other words, it does not evaporate quickly.  As anybody who has ever worked around diesel fuel will attest, an open container of diesel does not evaporate, even over time spans measured in days.  While kerosene stoves are no longer common, anybody who has used one will tell you that dropping a lit match into the fire box does not work.  The match is extinguished.  You must use a piece of paper to act as a wick in order to ignite a kerosene fire.

The NTSB claim of an explosion in the center wing fuel tank as the probable cause, while consistent with much of the physical evidence, leaves the question of ignition source completely unanswered.  This is the fatal flaw in the NTSB probable cause.

The following are excerpts from the NTSB Medical/Forensic Group Chairman's Factual Report of the investigation (exhibit 19A).  (Bold emphasis added)

************  Beginning of Excerpts  ************

The first 99 bodies were found floating on the surface of the ocean and were recovered by various civilian, military, and police vessels during the night of July 17, 1996, and throughout the day of July 18, 1996.  The majority of the remaining victims were recovered by U. S. Navy divers and local police divers during the next 96 days.

Pertinent data on the location victims were found, when available, and the circumstances of the recoveries of the victims were also recorded.  The remains were then placed in a refrigerated trailer and transported to the Suffolk County Medical Examiner's Office (ME) in Hauppage, NY.

At the Medical Examiner's Office, the remains of the victims were (1) photographed with and without clothing, (2) radiographed, (3) fingerprinted if possible, (4) dentition was photographed and x-rayed, and (5) clothing and other personal effects were cataloged.  All victims were then autopsied by a forensic pathologist from either the ME or a pathologist temporarily assigned to the ME by the State of New York or a neighboring jurisdiction.  The ME had 5 autopsy tables available and during the early recovery efforts, all tables were utilized.

The thoroughness of the forensic post-mortem examinations was highly variable depending primarily upon the pathologist who performed the autopsy and upon case flow.  The primary objective of the ME was to identify all remains, and the ME was under constant and considerable pressure to do so with minimal delay.  Consequently, a high priority was not placed on performing a detailed forensic autopsy directed toward elucidating mechanisms of injury.  An effort was not made to relate damage to clothing with wounds on the body.  Foreign material removed from the bodies was immediately released to an FBI technician, but autopsy reports did not record whether the material was found loosely within the body bag, in open wounds, or whether the foreign body had penetrated the skin and was found lodged in tissue.  Trajectory information was not recorded.  No record of the condition of the tympanic membranes of the victims was made.

************  End of Excerpts  ************

As the above excerpts show, of the 230 passengers and crew, 99 bodies were recovered in the first 36 hours.  The bodies were stored in a refrigerated truck.  The ME had 5 autopsy tables available, AND all 5 were used.

Assume 4 hours per body to perform a comprehensive autopsy, with two shifts working 8 hours each.  With 5 autopsy tables, 20 autopsies per day can be performed, and therefore 99 bodies can be autopsied in just 5 days.  Yet the final excerpt paragraph states the ME was under "considerable pressure" to perform with minimal delay, AND the rest of this paragraph enumerates all of the procedures that were NOT performed during the autopsies.  Perhaps most telling, is the last sentence which states that no record of tympanic membrane (ear drum) condition was made.  Such a record would have been conclusive evidence of cabin over pressure (internal explosion), or abrupt cabin depressurization (external explosion).
To perform autopsies in such a superficial manner, in a situation where the evidence uncovered by those autopsies may help in determining the precise cause of an aircraft explosion, boarders on criminal negligence!  Unless of course the true cause is already known, and thorough autopsy reports would raise questions that could prove even more embarrassing than apparent negligence.

6.1.3 Physical indicators:
The photo on the right shows TWA 800 Engine No. 2 fan hub and blades.  The blades are made from an alloy of 90% Titanium, 5.6% Aluminum, 4.2% Vanadium, and 0.2% Iron.  Because this alloy is both very strong, and extremely brittle, the blades are cast in their final shape to minimize the amount of machining required.  Under normal conditions, they will break rather than bend.  Yet as the photo clearly shows, many of the blades are bent, some by as much as 90 degrees. 

How do I support this conclusion?  Compare this photo to the next photo (below).

The photo on the right shows two views of a typical fan blade failure.  In this case, one of the blades suffered progressive fatigue cracking at the root where it connects to the fan hub.  The failure occurred on January 31, 2001 on a Boeing 777-300 at Melbourne International Airport, during the take-off run, and the flight was safely aborted.  Notice how many of the remaining blades are missing portions of their tips, and one blade (adjacent to the missing blade) broke off at it's mid-section.  However, none of the blades show ANY sign of bending, even though this engine (unlike TWA 800) was operating at full take-off power when the failure occurred.  Clearly, something very odd AND very extreme took place in the final moments of TWA flight 800. 

Furthermore, the TWA 800 photo is intentionally posed in such a manner as to imply the blades were bent by the weight of the hub/blade assembly, thereby removing any remaining doubt of complicity on the part of the NTSB.  The NTSB while creating the illusion of great diligence, was in fact, a willing participant in a cover-up of monumental proportions.

Photo Courtesy of NTSB


Photo Courtesy of ATSB

Logistical indicators:
The following is a partial transcript from the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) of TWA flight 800, during the last 6 minutes before the explosion.  (NTSB exhibit 12A) 

 = Radio transmission from aircraft
 = Boston ARTCC Controller (center)
 = Voice identified as First Officer (right seat)
 = Cockpit Area Microphone sound or source

TWA eight hundred what's your rate of climb?
TWA's eight hundred heavy ah about two thousand feet a minute here until accelerating out of ten thousand.
roger sir climb and maintain flight level one niner zero and expedite through fifteen.
TWA's eight hundred heavy climb and maintain one niner zero and expedite through one five thousand.
TWA eight hundred amend the altitude maintain ah one three thousand thirteen thousand only for now.
TWA's eight hundred heavy okay stop climb at one three thousand.
TWA eight hundred you have traffic at one o'clock and ah seven miles south bound a thousand foot above you he's ah Beech nineteen hundred.
TWA's ah eight hundred heavy ah no contact.
TWA eight hundred climb and maintain one five thousand.
TWA's eight hundred heavy climb and maintain one five thousand leaving one three thousand.
((sounds similar to recording tape damage noise)).
end of recording.

At 2025:41 Boston center instructs TWA 800 to climb to 19 thousand feet, and to expedite the climb through 15 thousand feet.  TWA 800 acknowledges 6 seconds later.

Approximately 37 seconds after acknowledgement, at 2026:24 Boston center amends it's instructions to TWA 800.  Instead instructing TWA 800 to climb and maintain 13 thousand feet.  TWA 800 acknowledges 6 seconds later.

Finally, at 2030:15, less than one minute before the explosion, Boston center instructs TWA 800 to climb to 15 thousand feet.  TWA 800 acknowledges 4 seconds later.

Why did Boston center amend it's climb instruction to TWA 800?  Was there other conflicting traffic in the vicinity?  The nearest traffic was a Beach 1900, 7 miles away, at TWA 800's 1 o'clock position, heading south.  Since TWA 800 was heading east, this puts the Beach 1900 safely past TWA 800's flight path.

By keeping TWA 800 at 13 thousand feet, and issuing the climb instruction just 50 seconds before the particle beam strike, the aircraft would still be climbing, thereby presenting a greater surface area for target acquisition.  Was Boston air traffic control center involved in this hideous test of a covert weapons system?  The evidence seems substantial.


Part of exhibit 13A.  Plot Courtesy of NTSB

The plot on the right shows radar data (the blue dots), obtained by the NTSB from the Islip radar station on Long Island NY.  Each dot shows the position of a an aircraft as the radar beam swept over the aircraft (the solitary, and closely spaced dots are slow moving water craft).  For instance, dot 3 in each series is the position of that aircraft on the third sweep of the radar beam.  The plot shows the last 9 radar sweeps, before the destruction of TWA 800. 

Notice the aircraft labeled "Navy P-3" moving southwest. This is an anti-submarine patrol craft, equipped with highly advanced electronic surveillance systems. The aircraft would make an ideal observation platform to record the results of a covert particle beam weapon test. The P-3 is also a very robust aircraft (a variant is used for hurricane hunting), likely to survive even if it gets a bit too close to the target aircraft (TWA 800).
Coincidently, the P-3 was flying at an altitude of just over 19 thousand feet, approximately the same altitude as TWA 800 was originally instructed to climb and maintain, before amendment by Boston air traffic control (see above).  Obviously someone was worried about the surveillance aircraft being a bit too close to the test.  According to the navy, this aircraft was on a "routine training mission"...
Effects of a particle beam weapon strike:
An aircraft struck by a particle beam weapon will suffer two distinctly different types or classes of damage.  (1) Kinetic damage.  (2) Electro-magnetic damage.  Each class of damage will have a unique signature, neither of which is likely to be recognized by personnel trained in common explosives and/or structural failure mechanisms.

The electro-magnetic damage will be the most unusual aspect of a particle beam weapon strike.  The EMP (electro-magnetic pulse) will be dissipated in the immediate vicinity of the strike point, causing radical rearrangements in the chemical structure of the material.  The material will momentarily soften, as if subjected to intense heat, but without the normal indications of thermal stress (6.1.3).  Strikes on a living organism would result in intense localized cellular disruption, similar to microwave cooking, but again without the normal indicators of elevated temperature.  This effect would be very noticeable during a thorough forensic autopsy, yet completely inconsistent with usual surface style heating produced by a conventional explosion (6.1.2).  If a fuel tank were to suffer a direct strike, ignition would be instantaneous, regardless of vapor pressure and/or combustibility of the fuel (6.1.1, 6.1.2).

The kinetic damage will superficially resemble traditional structural failure.  The primary cause will be violent shockwaves emanating from the strike point(s), and traveling through structural members.  The result will be fracturing at locations where the shockwaves concentrate, either through geometric focusing, or through standing waves created by reflections.  The structure will literally fall apart into thousands of small pieces.  The appearance will closely resemble the recovered fuselage wreckage of TWA flight 800...