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Friday, May 11, 2012


Olympic Games
 Los Angeles
Description of Torch:Constructed of spun aluminum with an antique brass finish. Leather handle has name band for engraving name. Torches were numbered sequentially and inscribed with the Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius. The 22-inch (56-centimeter) torch weighed two pounds, four ounces (one kilogram) and was fueled by hospital-quality propane which could burn up to 50 minutes. The flame was wind resistant up to 40 miles per hour and could also withstand light rain.
Relay operationsThe torch relay began its 15,000 kilometer journey on a rainy morning, 8 May 1984 at the United Nations Plaza in New York City. Olympian Rafer Johnson hosted a short program before Gina Hemphill, granddaughter of 1936 Olympian Jesse Owens, and Bill Thorpe. Jr., grandson of 1912 Olympian Jim Thorpe, became the first of 3,636 torchbearers. About two hours after the relay began, the Soviet Union announced that if would not accept the invitation of the LAOOC to participate in the 1984 Games.
The news stunned the LAOOC staff, and observers wondered what effect the announcement would have on the relay. But the Soviet announcement seemed to have little effect on the large crowds that began to line the streets of their communities to witness the passing of the torch relay.
While enormous crowds turned out to see the torchbearers run, the support caravan and the relay support staff were at full speed putting into effect all the logistical details for the relay.
Back at the LAOOC administrative headquarters, members of the relay staff double-checked information received from each of the YLK runners and gathered new information from runners assigned to kilometers during the latter portion of the run. Approximately one month before each YLK torchbearer was scheduled to run his or her kilometer, the LAOOC sent a letter verifying the kilometer assignment (location), requesting medical information and instructing the runner to report to an assembly area wearing the official uniform. The letter also informed the YLLK participant that a member of the LAOOC would be contacting them within five days of their scheduled run to verify lastminute details and give specifics regarding the assembly point.
Torch:Lenght:           56,5 cm
Weight:       1000    gr
Torches total:4,500
Date of the torch relay:7. May - 28. July 1984
Design by:Newhart, Turner Industries
Manufacturer:Clan Weld, Turner Industries
Numbers of runners:3.636
Distance total:about 15.000 km
Name of last runner:Rafer Johnson


Olympic Games
Soviet Union
The Torch, the Lamp for the Spare Flame, the Ceremonial CupsThe most important feature of the relay was the torch. Work on it was begun in 1978. It was first proposed to use pyrotechnic components as fuel for the torch. However tests had shown that the high burning temperature and the build-up of waste called for great care in the use of the torch. This first proposition was only used in the creation of a variant of the torch which was to be carried around the stadiums (20 of this type were produced). In general it was decided to use liquid gas (a propane-butane mix) as a fuel, for this could guarantee a regular flame and an optimum weight along with complete safety for the runner.
A group of Leningrad engineers under the direction of Boris Tuchin constructed a model torch over a very short period of time. After full testing it was recommended for series production. The torch of the Moscow Olympics, in its construction and its outside appearance, did not resemble its predecessors. Its basic elements comprised a burner section, a ringed cup and protective screen, made from an aluminium alloy, along with the torch handle containing the gas reservoir. (See Fig...) The cup and the screen were golden yellow while the burner section and the handle were of a silvery shade.

Olympic champion Sergei Belov running up to the Bowl
The protective cover carried the official emblem of the Games of the XXII Olympiad while on the burner section was inscribed "Moscow- Olympiad-80".Dimensions of the torch: length- 565 mm, minimum diameter-27 mm, maximum diameter-100 mm. Weight with full gas reservoir-700 g, burning time-8-10 min. Leningrad enterprises provided the relay with 6,200 torches and the same number of gas reservoirs. The torch was registered as an invention at the State Registry of Inventions of the USSR, inventor's certificate No. 729414 was given the group which had created the torch by the USSR State Committee on Inventions and Discoveries.
In order to guarantee the preservation of the flame lit at Olympia, it was kept in the special lamps. The OCOG- 80 decided not to use a miners lamp for this purpose as the organisers of the previous Games had done. The same group of Leningrad scientists worked on a special lamp for the spare flame. By May 1979 the model had undergone the test successfully. The lamp for the spare flame was of a simple design and trouble-free. It could burn without a break for 48 hours. It was fueled either by kerosene or by liquified gas. During the relay the lamp was carried in a special escort vehicle. The technical means which were used to deliver the Olympic flame to Moscow also included the cups for the ceremonial greeting of the flame along the route of the relay. These cups guaranteed a steady burning of the flame over longer periods of time and were also used for the ritual handing over of the Olympic flame for safekeeping to the place where the relay stayed overnight.
Torch:Lenght:         56,5 cm
Weight:        700 gr
Torches total:5,000
Date of the torch relay:19. June - 19. July 1980
Design by:Boris Tutschin
Numbers of runners:6,2000
Distance total:4.915 km
Name of last runner:Sergej Belov
Special torch: Last runner
A group of Moscow engineers under the direction of Alexandre Sergeev worked on two variants of the cup-a Small Cup (diameter 240 mm) and a Large Cup (diameter 750 mm). The fuel for both was a mixture based on dry spirit. The Large Cup was collapsible which allowed it to be assembled or taken apart quickly and to be transported over any distance. Around the burner of the Large Cup the words "Olympia-Athens-Sofia- Bucharest-Moscow" were worked in metal. Twelve of the Large Cups were manufactured by Moscow enterprises. Some of these were sent to the NOCs of Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and to the Olympic cities of Tallinn, Leningrad, Kiev and Minsk. The rest were used during the course of the relay. Fifty of the Small Cups were handed over to the republican and region organising committees on the territory of the USSR. 
The Torch RelayDuring the preparation for the relay various routes which had been suggested were looked at, in particular the proposals by National Olympic committees that the Olympic torch should be carried through many of the countries of Europe or, indeed, on a round the world run. This however demanded a considerable expense and a great deal of time. The OCOG- 80 proposed to organise the relay along the shortest possible route. It was proposed to run the relay of the Olympic flame from Greece, through Bulgaria and Romania and from there across the USSR and the decision was confirmed at the 80th Session of the IOC in May 1978. The overall length of the route was 5,000 km including 1,170 on the territory of Greece, 935 in Bulgaria, 593 in Romania and 2,302 in the USSR.
The whole route was divided into 1,000-m stages (some of the stages that ran through towns were slightly shorter). It was planned to take on average 4-5 minutes to cover each kilometre of the route. On some stages through Bulgaria and Romania the organisers of the festive ceremonies proposed to include cyclists and horsemen in the relay. One hundred and thirty-five ceremonies to meet the Olympic flame were planned along the route including 23 in Greece, 44 in Bulgaria, 27 in Romania and 41 in the USSR. In fact, there were 142 ceremonies. The relay was to be run only in the daytime, except for the lap from Olympia to Athens, which according to tradition did not envisage any stopover.Preparation for the relay called for close cooperation between the OCOG- 80 and the NOCs of Greece, Bulgaria and Romania, with whom relevant agreements were concluded. In 1978-1979, on the initiative of the Organising Committee, local organising committees were formed in the Republics, regions, districts, and towns of the USSR whose territory was crossed by the route of the relay. These committees were to prepare for the relay and assist its passage through their territory. Formed on a voluntary basis through the local Soviets of People's Deputies, these committees were to draw a wide range of enterprises, institutions, collective farms, public organisations and individual citizens into their work. Preparations for the relay were accompanied by publicity about physical culture and sport, which created a new influx of people into sports clubs and groups. New forms of mass competition began to emerge, for example such open athletics matches as "The Olympic Kilometre", "The Olympic Torch",
 "All the family at the start", "Olympians among us". These took place not only in the regions which lay on the route of the relay but in other places too. These competitions were held in Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, as well as in the USSR. It is worth noting that many of these sports programmes, which were begun during the period for preparation for the relay of the Olympic flame, have since become regular events. In August-September 1979 a delegation from the OCOG-80 went on a tour with the aim of clarifying the route of the relay and getting to know the features of the road from Olympia to Moscow. Representatives of the NOCs of Greece, Bulgaria and Romania took part in this tour, as did delegates from the organising committees responsible for the relay on its passage through the USSR. Following on from this tour a plan of measures to prepare the route of the relay of the Olympic torch was worked out and its implementation was concluded in May 1980. The whole length of the route was lined with the Olympic emblems, the stages were marked out and signposts were produced showing the distance from Olympia to Moscow. Parking and service areas were prepared for the accompanying column, and hotels were reserved for the escorting groups.
The torch bearers were handpicked by sports and public organisations. The right to carry the Olympic torch was considered to be a great honour. In choosing the runners the basic criteria were the personal sports achievement of the candidate, the ability to complete the 1,000 m distance in no more than five minutes, the contribution which each candidate had made to sports organisations, and medical approval.


Olympic Games
TorchesKorea Explosive Co., Ltd., which began developing torches in April 1984, introduced creative and excellent torches in the 1986 Seoul Asian Games which was a dress rehearsal for the Olympic Games to come two years later. The SLOOC decided to use the torches made by Korea Explosive for the Olympic torch relay again following some adjustments. The SLOOC had three industrial design specialists produce at least two torch designs each. The three submitted 13 works in total to the SLOOC in July 1987. In August the same year, the SLOOC formed a committee comprising six experts to screen the works. After three rounds of voting, the committee chose "Brazier" submitted by Prof. Lee Woo-song of Sookmyung Women's University as the final design for the torch. The committee also selected two others as candidate designs.
The design of the torch, engraved with two dragons symbolizing the harmony of East and West, featured a total length of 55 centimeters, with a 10 centimeter diameter bowl. The torch weighed 1 kilogram and could burn for up to 10 minutes. The height of the flame was 35 to 40 centimeters with a diameter of 6 centimeters and a brightness of 700cp. The torch, constructed of brass and plastic, had a wind resistance of 72 kilometers per hour. The torch, once lit, would not go out even in sand or water.
A total of 3,300 torches were manufactured - 500 for use in Greece, 2,600 for the relay in Korea, and 200 for use in the Paralympics. Local branches of Korea Explosive delivered the torches to be used in domestic relay. The torches were loaded on designated vehicles one day before the run and distributed to runners 30 minutes before the run.
Mobile cauldronsMobile cauldrons to lay the flame in state overnight during the torch relay were designed by Prof. Boo Soo-in of Seoul National University and manufactured by Rinnai Korea Co., Ltd. The design of the mobile cauldrons, Supported with eight pillars inspired
by ancient octagonal pavilions, called for a total height of 165 centimeters with diameter ranging from 90 to 119 centimeters. The height of the flame was 70 centimeters with a diameter of 36 centimeters.
Constructed of steel plate and wood, the cauldrons used propane gas as fuel and could burn round the clock with a strong resistance to wind and rain. The cauldrons were designed to control the size of the flame depending on the weather conditions.
The cauldron designed to be fixed on ships could keep the flame burning when the ships sailed at a speed of up to 30 knots an hour. The cauldron stands were designed for ease of assembly and to sustain the weight of the cauldron plus two people.
A total of nine such mobile cauldrons were manufactured - four for overnight stays, one for celebrating events to welcome the arrival of the flame at Cheju-do, one each for special events at Pusan's Yongdusan Park and at Seoul's City Hall Plaza, and two for
ships to carry the flame. Auxiliary equipment included two sets of cauldron stand, 25 sets of gas supply system used at overnight stopovers, two maintenance vehicles, and two trucks. A total of 40 tons of propane gas was consumed during the torch relay.
Torch:Lenght:            50,5 cm
Weight:       1,000 gr
Torches total:3,300
Date of the torch relay:23. August - 17. September 1988
Design by:Lee Woo-Sung
Manufacturer:Korea Explosive Co. Ltd
Numbers of runners:1,467 torchbearers;
Total 20,889 with escorting runners
Distance total:about 4.700 km
Name of last runner:Sohn Kee Chung, 
marathon winner Berlin 1936

Safety lampsSafety lamps to preserve the flame were held in reserve in case of failure to keep the flame burning in the torch relay. The SLOOC placed the manufacturing orders to Fujika-Daewon Electric Co., Ltd. which completed the production in April 1986. The safety lamp design followed that of an ancient Korean astronomical observatory, Chomsongdae, to a scale of one-fortieth of the actual size. They were made of threefold steel plate and special aluminium to resist wind and pressure, particularly to maintain the
surface temperature below 50-fb-C for safety during air flight. The 35-centimeter-tall lamps with a diameter of 15 centimeters could burn up to 140 hours using kerosene fuel.
Nine safety lamps were produced - one for the HOC, two for the torch relay in Korea, another two for the control center at the SLOOC, one for the yacht marina in Pusan, two others for Cheju-do, and another one in reserve. Equipment accompanying the
lamps included one lamp stand for use on cars, nine ignition torches, and one lamp box for air transportation.
Torch RelayThe Olympic flame lit up the world for 16 days at the 24th Seoul Olympic Games and all the activities surrounding the flame were carried out flawlessly by the SLOOC with the great cooperation of the Hellenic Olympic Committee (HOC).
The lighting of the flame at the Temple of Hera in Olympia and the torch relay in Greece were conducted under an agreement signed between the SLOOC and the HOC.
The Olympic flame was flown from the Greek capital of Athens to Korea`s southernmost point, Cheju Island, aboard a special Korean Air flight on an air route between the two cities that included a stopover at Bangkok, Thailand.
The torch relay, originating from Cheju, took a 4,167.8 kilometer route to Seoul, passing through 21 major cities. The torch relay route, divided into a total of 1,595 running sections, was covered by 1,467 torchbearers, 2,782 assistant torchbearers and 16,640 escort runners over 21 nights and 22 days.
During the 22-day odyssey, the torch was relayed in various ways on foot,m on horseback, aboard ships, cars, bicycles, and motorcycles. The torchbearers were from all walks of life, including politicians, artists, clergymen, athletes, handicapped people, children and the elderly, as well as overseas Korean residents, journalists from various countries and representatives of NOC`s. Each took their turn to make the torch relay an event truly symbolic of harmony and progress.
The torches and other equipment used in the relay such as safety lamps and mobile cauldrons were all developed domestically with unique designs.
In each city through which the torch relay passed, art troupes from Korea and abroad celebrated by performing their traditional folklore as a tribute to the success of the Games.

Timetable of the torch relay- Aug. 23-25: From Olympia to Athens (374 kilometers)
- Aug. 25: The flame was handed over to SLOOC at 8:30 p.m. at the Panathenian Stadium, Athens.
- Aug. 25-27: Flight from Athens to Cheju
- Aug. 27: Ceremonies at Cheju International Airport for 90 minutes from 11 a.m. to celebrate the
                  arrival of the flame on Korean soil.
- Aug. 27 - Sept. 17: 22-day and 4,167.8 kilometer torch relay from Cheju to Seoul.
- Sept. 17: Lighting of the flame at the Olympic Stadium in Seoul at 12:41 p.m.


Olympic Games




The Actual Relay Route ProgrammeThe overall Olympic Torch Relay programme fixed by the report of its special committee is as follows:-
The Relay Implements and Apparatus
In July, 1962, it was decided to create a technical sub-committee to be doubly assured of being supplied with proper and adequate relay implements. This sub-committee was called upon to examine all such articles and to consider all factors of technical and practical aspects.
The torches used in the previous Olympic Games at Rome and the past Asian Games were studied in detail. In the initial testing this was done on the assumption that the actual combustion period of each torch would last 14 minutes for the ones to be used within Japan and six minutes for those for use abroad. Other conditions sought were: The torch should be one which could be ignited easily, would be strong in wind and rain resistance, yet one which could be easily disposed of after use. A cylindrical container with a stainless steel coating, filled with priming powder and fumigant, was perfected after a number of trial productions and experiments.

Torch:Lenght:     64,5  cm
Weight:        836 gr
Date of the torch relay:21. August - 10. October 1964
Numbers of runners:Outside Japan : 870
Japan: 4,374
Olympic Torch Relay outside of Japan:Total distance air-relayed 15,508 km
Total distance relayed overland 732 km
Total number of overland relay sections 870
Total number of official runners 870
Olympic Torch Relay from Okinawa to Metropolitan TokyoTotal distance relayed by plane (Okinawa- Kagoshima-Miyazaki- Chitose) 2,692 km
Total distance relayed overland 6,755 km
Total number of overland relay sections 4,374
Total distance of maritime relay (5 places) 378 km
Name of last runner:Yoshinori Sakai
The holder was designed to match with the torch. In selecting its material, its weight and other factors were carefully considered, and resulted in the selection of an alloy with aluminium as its chief ingredient.The Olympic Torch and its carrier:
For the safekeeping of the Olympic Torch at the various stopping places and while being relayed by the plane, an Olympic Torch burner was selected, designed on the principle of the coal-mine safety lamp. The fuel used for this burner was kerosene, and emphasis was laid on the safety factors. Fuel of a high flash point was selected and the appearance of the flame and other technical factors were carefully taken into consideration in perfecting this burner. The burner-carrier was so designed that even while the Olympic Torch was being relayed by the runners, the Torch's counterpart could be kept burning safely in the accompanying automobile, hung by a special air-cushioning device. On the relaying plane, also ample protection factors were incorporated for the Olympic Torch to eliminate any hazards of fire and accident.

The safety lamp for carring the sacred flame

The Olympic Torch Vessel and the igniter:
For the ceremony to be performed upon arrival at and departure from each stopping place, an Olympic Torch Vessel was used. Its design was made to harmonize with the Holder and to as well perform the function of augmenting the stage effects of the Relay Ceremony. Each day during the Olympic Torch Relay, all of these implements were made use of. The igniter required in transferring the Torch from one container to the next, also had to satisfy the requirements of being safe, reliable and simple. Consideration was also given to the following points:
The uniform for the runners:
This was standardized for use both in the foreign countries and in Japan. The mark of the Tokyo Olympic Games was embroidered onto the breast of the all-white running shirt (for men) and T-shirt (for women). Pants and shoes were supplied to all official runners.

The Actual RelayFrom Olympia to Okinawa
On 21st August 1964, H.M., King Constantine II of Greece, together with H.R.H., Princess Irene, as chairman of the Hellenic Olympic Committee, arrived at Olympia. They laid a lourel wreath at the tomb where the heart of Baron Pierre de Coubertin is enshrined. About this same hour, at the ruins of the ancient Temple of Zeus, the Priestesses were igniting the Sacred Olympic Flame in the Bowl from the heat of the rays of the sun. This Olympic Torch in the Bessel, guarded by junior priestesses, was then transferred to the site of the Ancient Olympics, where H.M. the King, H.H. the Princess, President Brundage of the International Olympic Committee, President Yasukawa of the Organizing Committee, Chairman Takashima of the Olympic Torch Relay Dommittee and other officials were waiting. In this impressive ceremony, Chief Priestess, Mrs. Aleca Katselli lit the Torch from the vessel, and handed it to H.M. King Constantine, who in turn handed the Torch to the first relay runner, George Marcellos, the Greek 110-yard hurdle champion.

With the torch held high, Marcellos first stopped at the Coubertin Memorial Park, to light the Olympic Flame Cauldron in front of the shrine. He then proceeded to Pyrgos, the first relay point. Thus was started the Olympic Torch on the relay which was to take it all the way to Tokyo in the Far East, to link the two continents of Europe and Asia.
The Torch was carried northward along the shores of the Ionian Sea. The sun began to set as the Torch reached Patras, at the mouth of the Gulf of Corinth, but the relay runners pressed onward to Athens through the night under the pale light of the full moon. It was on the following evening that the Torch finally reached the marbleconstructed Pan-Athenian Stadium, the first venue of the Modern Olympics. Here the city of Athens turned out to welcome the Sacred Fire.

After the second fire had been set aflame on the mounted cauldron especially set up at the stadium, and amidst the impressive ceremonies of benediction, the relay started again, this time to the Hellinikon Airport. It was here that the Sacred Torch was taken into Japanese custody for the first time, as the Torch was handed over to the President of the Organizing Committee for the XVIII Games, Mr. Yasukawa as representing Japan's Olympic delegation.
The Olympic Torch, kept at rest in the Airport precincts overnight, was carried to the special Olympic Torch Relay Plane, "City of Tokyo" on the following day, 23rd August. At 2.15 p.m., the plane took-off for Istanbul, the first stop-over city, and landed at the Yesilkoy Airport in the suburb of Istanbul at 5.00 p.m. that evening. The Olympic Flame thus spent its first night in Asia in Turkey.

On the 24th the flame was flown to Beirut (Lebanon) and Teheran (Iran); on the 27th to Lahore (Pakistan); the 28th to New Delhi (India) and Rangoon (Burma); the 31st it was in Bangkok (Thailand); 2nd September in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) and the 3rd of September in Manila (the Philippines). At each of these air relay stopover cities, the Olympic Torch received a most enthusiastic reception.
Up to this time, the extra day each scheduled in reserve had been spent in Beirut and Bangkok. At New Delhi, the Torch was apportioned in order to present a flame of the Sacred Fire to the representatives of Nepal who by previous arrangement had been given permission to use it in a relay ceremony at Katmandu. 

                                                                   Route of Torch Relay for Tokyo Olympic Games 1964
                                                                   Cities visited between Olympia and Okinawa
                                                                   1.  Athens                (Greece)
                                                                   2.  Istanbul              (Turkey)
                                                                   3.  Beirut                  (Lebanon)
                                                                   4.  Teheran              (Iran)
                                                                   5.  Lahore                (Pakistan)
                                                                   6.  New Delhi          (India)
                                                                   7.  Rangoon             (Burma)
                                                                   8.  Bangkok             (Thailand)
                                                                   9.  Kuala Lummpur  (Malaisia)
                                                                  10.  Manila                 (Philippines)
                                                                  11.  Hong Kong         (Hong Kong)
                                                                  12. Taipe                     (Republik of China)
This apportioned Torch was then air-relayed back to Calcutta to rejoin the main Torch. Thus was fulfilled the wish of Nepal, a new Asian members of the International Olympic Committee.The special relay plane reached the Kaitak Airport of Hong Kong on 4th September, despite intermittent heavy rain due to an approaching typhoon. The Olympic Torch was handed under the cover of an umbrella to Mr. A. de O. Sales, chairman of the Hong Kong Olympic Committee, and from him to the relay runner. The Torch, relayed through the streets of Kowloon was then ferried from the Kowloon wharf to the island of Hong Kong on the Governor-General's private launch, and the Sacred Flame burned throughout the night at the City Hall. 
At midnight on the fourth, Hong Kong was struck by a Typhoon, and the special plane moored at the airport suffered a damaged wing, which rendered it impossible to be used for flying This incident necessitated the first alteration in the detailed Torch Relay schedule. Japan Air Lines to meet this emergency, rushed a Convair 88DM jet plane from Haneda to Hong Kong, and this enabled the relay flying from the Kaitak Airport only one day behind the schedule. Unfortunately however this substitute plane itself developed engine trouble just after the take-off and the flight was again delayed. To prevent further delay, another plane was made available by switching over a plane of the same type which was in Hong Kong on a regular scheduled flight. This emergency measure made possible the take-off on the same day, and enabled the plane to reach Taipei at 5.00 p.m. that same evening and just one day behind schedule. Tens of thousands were at the Taipei International Airport to welcome the Sacred Torch carrier.


Olympic Games




The choice of the course.The first part of the journey took place completely in Greek territory, namely: -Olympia, Pyrgos, Patras, Corinth, Megara, Eleusis and Athens. From the Panathinoikon Stadium in the Greek capital, the Flame was conveyed to the port of Turkolimano at Phaleros and thence, by sea, was brought to Italy, at Syracuse, a city founded in 734 B.C. which, like Naxos, may be considered the first Greek colony in Sicily. Following the Sicilian and Calabrian Ionic coast and over to the Tyrhennian coast of the Campania and Lazio regions, the route passed through many of the more famous Greek settlements of Sicily and Magna Grecia:-after Syracuse, Lentini (the ancient city of Leontinoi founded in 829 B.C.), Naxos, Messina, the straits between Scilla and Cariddus, Reggio Calabria, the river Halex (which according to legend sheltered Hercules), Locri (which in 660 B.C. gave Greece and its peoples a complete first Code of written Laws), Crotone, Sibari, Siri, Metaponto and Taranto, the major centre of Magna Grecia. From here, through Matera and Potenza, the Olympic Flame made for ancient Poseidonia on the Tyrhennian sea, Pompei, Herculaneum, Naples and the roads via the Acropolis of Cuma and running beside Lake Averno to Minturno, Terracina and Castelgandolfo. Thus, after so many centuries, the participation of ancient cities in the Olympic Games was ideally renewed, many of which cities had, by their athletes, attained famous victories extolled by poets of ancient times. The last part of the course was chosen amongst historic sites still vibrant with activity today:-the Appian Way, the Forums, the Capitol, and from the Capitol Hill to the Olympic Stadium.

The new model of the Torch, whose conception was inspired by Prof. Maiuri from torches reproduced on ancient monuments, was made in bronzed aluminium by the Curtisa Firm of Bologna. The Torch weighs 580 grams and measures 40 cms. in height. During the relay from Syracuse to Rome it was lit with capsules containing special resinous substances produced by the firm of G. Belardini & Figli of Rome.
Torch:Lenght:          40 cm
Weight:       580 gr
Torches total: about 1.500
Design by:Prof. Amedeo Maiuri
Manufacturer:Curtisa, Bologna
Date of the torch relay:12. August - 25. August 1960
Numbers of runners:1.529
Distance total:1.863 km
Name of last runner:Giancarlo Peris
Special torch: 1 antique etruscan torch
The new model of the torch.The new model, decidedly classical in line with slim and slightly conical fluting, was built by the firm of Curtisa of Bologna. The torches, placed in appropriate cylindrical boxes, were despatched in rectangular cases containing 6 to 12 models. In December 1959, the Section and the Olympic Torch Committee faced the problem of the emphasis to be placed on all artistic and historical items existing in each area passed by the relay. In January 1960, approval was given to the publication of a treatise which not only summarised and illustrated the technical operations throughout the various sections of the course but also described the intimate significance of the XVII Olympiad. In this respect, direct contact was also established with the Italian Touring Club for the production of a work to be entitled " The Olympic Flame from Greece to Rome ". During this same period, a solution to the problem of transporting the athletes to the various hand-over points of the relay was arrived at and it was decided that the Chairman of the Committee should visit Greece to finalise the arrangements for the Ceremony of handing over the Flame.

From Olympia to Rome.
At 9.30 on the morning of 12th August 1960 the historic ceremony of the kindling of the sacred Flame took place at Olympia. Operations commenced at 9.30 in the Temple of Jupiter. A Greek woman wearing the clothes of an ancient Priestess held a parabolic reflector over the torch and in a few seconds the torch flared. Before proceeding with the kindling of the flame, the Priestess had said a prayer to Jupiter " that the rays of Phoebus should kindle the sacred torch, whose flame, carried across land and sea to the Stadium of Rome, would enlighten the noble competition of the peaceful Games for all peoples of the earth ". The Priestess and the vestals wore ash-grey tunics similar to those in use at the time of the priestesses of the Goddess Hera.

On board the " Vespucci ".
As soon as the torch was lit, it was placed in a classical Greek vase and carried in procession to the ancient Temple of Hera. Meanwhile, the vestals performed classical dances whilst the Priestess kindled another torch with the flame in the vase and handed it over to the first runner, Penaghoitis Epitropoulos, an athlete who was later to compete in the Decathlon of the Rome Games. The Greek athlete received the torch kneeling and immediately started to run in the direction of Athens. The course of 330 kms was undertaken by a relay organised by the Greek Olympic Committee and passed through Pyrgos, Patras, Corinth, Megara and Eleusis.
At 21.00 hrs on the 13th August, the Flame was handed over by H.R.H. Prince Constantine of Greece in the course of a picturesque ceremony to Mr. Piero Oneglio, Vice-President of the C.O.N.I. and representative of the Organising Committee. He, in turn, handed it over to Mr. Aldo Mairano, President of the Olympic Torch Committee who then passed the symbolic Flame to a cadet of the Italian Navy who boarded a Greek whale-boat and crossed over to the harbour of Zeas near Piraeus and brought it aboard the training-ship " Amerigo Vespucci ". At 20.30 hrs on 18th August, the Flame was disembarked at Syracuse and received by the President of the Sicilian Region not far from Fonte Aretusa. From Syracuse, the Relay followed the same course as that followed by the ancient Greeks during the period when they founded their colonies and through those parts whose former prosperity earned them the name of Magna Grecia.

The itinerary covered 1,532.800 kms in all. The course was divided up into 1,199 fractions, most of them 1,500 metres long, to be covered in a time of 5 mins. 30 secs. Exception was made in the case of uphill stretches where the distance was cut down to 1,000 metres to be run in the same time. (Table No. 3). The torch-bearers were recruited from amongst the members of sports clubs and schools in the fifteen provinces the Relay passed through. The selection was made after strict training on tracks and roads, particular attention being paid to the selection of those who were to run through towns. All the fractions were covered in the established time.
The handing over of the Flame was effected by applying torch to torch, to the accompaniment of great popular enthusiasm which this race aroused. In places where special ceremonies were to be held, namely, Syracuse, Messina (where the Straits were crossed aboard characteristic Messina craft and accompanied by practically the whole of the shipping from that city), Reggio Calabria, Metaponto and Castelgandolfo, use was made of tripods burning fuel lit by the Olympic Torch. Other tripods were used at those points where the Torch remained overnight, i.e. Crotone, Taranto, Potenza, Paestum, S. Maria Capua Vetere, these being closely guarded by young athletes and surrounded by crowds of local townspeople increasing in numbers as day dawned. All the centres along the course witnessed scenes of great enthusiasm on the part of the population as a result of the initiatives taken by the Authorities and sports officials. Colourful spectacular scenes of festivity were the rule at the passage of the Torch. Everywhere flowers, fireworks, the ringing of church bells and thousands of young people wearing the traditional five coloured rings greeted the Flame. Large panels illustrating the various sports, special lighting and a panoply of flags provided exceptional spectacle value doing full justice to the spiritual significance of this event. The organisation for the Province of Rome was encharged to Lt. Col. Francesco Andreotti of the Metropolitan Police Corps.
The Olympic Torch entered into the territory of the province at the 48.34 kilometre mark along the Via Appia Nuova on 24th August at 17.12 hrs and was taken into custody by the Prefect, who then handed it over to the first torch-bearer of the province. The successive hand-overs in front of the Municipalities of the various Communes took place at the following times:-
Velletri, 17.43" hrs; Genzano, 18.32'30" hrs; Ariccia, 18.43'15" hrs; Albano 18.5312 " hrs; Castelgandolfo, 19.03' hrs and Rome (Capitol) at 21.00' hrs.
Upon arrival at the Capitol, the last athlete of the Relay greeted the crowd, raising the Torch in their direction, and then proceeded to light the tripod which was kept alight until the next day. Thus the great relay came to an end to the sound of a fanfare by the Followers of Vitorchiano. Here the people of Rome enjoyed one of the most colourful ceremonies. Within the framework of the Michelangelo Palaces on the Capitol where Rome in the person of Tarquinius the Proud raised the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus, the Sacred Flame burned throughout the night, whilst the Olympic Flag fluttered on the Capitol tower.

The following day, in the presence of the Mayor of the City and numerous representatives from the Government, the Armed Forces and the Organising Committee, the relay took up its course once more and, crossing Rome via the Corso and the Via Flaminia, reached the Olympic Stadium at 17.30 hrs as the Opening Ceremony was taking place.


Olympic Games




The TorchBeing a primary symbol of the Olympic Games, the Flame demands an appropriate setting. With this uppermost in mind, Georges Huel and Michel Dallaire of COJO's Graphics and Design Directorate set out to create the torch that would carry the Flame.
Its design was functional. The torch was made of aluminium, and its weight did not exceed 836 grams, a significant factor as each bearer had to run one kilometre holding it with one hand. The top of the torch was designed to provide the required ventilation for the fuel. Painted black, it offered a contrast that accentuated the Flame's photogenic qualities. In its function and design, this torch was a reminder of the ancient Greek torch, recreated in modern and refined lines.

Protection of the Flame
There were at least three replacement flames per convoy: one burning propane gas (researched and designed by the chief armorer), and two burning a commercial lamp oil. Three replacement flames were also maintained throughout the duration of the Games, at the Olympic Stadium and at the operations centre located at COJO headquarters, so that the urn could be relit with the original Flame if necessary.
The Torch-bearers and Escorts
More than 700 persons were chosen to relay the Flame from Ottawa to Montréal, and from there to Kingston where the yachting competition was held. Those who were not chosen as bearers could be part of the escort that accompanied the torch-bearers from one kilometre to the next.

Normal Torch

Special Torch

Since 1936, the torch-bearers have been chosen from among athletes of the countries along the Flame's route. An innovation for the Montréal Games was the selection of bearers by computer, which took into account the aforementioned criteria.Finally, every bearer and escort in Greece and Canada received, at the end of the relay, a certificate signed by the presidents of COJO and the HOC attesting to their participation in the Flame Relay of the Games of the XXI Olympiad. The uniform, consisting of a T-shirt bearing the COJO emblem and shorts, remained the property of the bearer, together with the torch. Several months before the Games, COJO published a pamphlet entitled Flame Bearer's Guide.

Protection of the Flame
There were at least three replacement flames per convoy: one burning propane gas (researched and designed by the chief armorer), and two burning a commercial lamp oil. Three replacement flames were also maintained throughout the duration of the Games, at the Olympic Stadium and at the operations centre located at COJO headquarters, so that the urn could be relit with the original Flame if necessary.

The Fuel
Investigations on fuel to feed the Flame were entrusted to Dr. Lucien Piché of the University of Montréal Chemistry Department. After study, the researchers chose olive oil because it contained all of the characteristics required, while evoking a tradition that linked it to ancient Greece. But first it had to be produced in a form that could be handled safely by bearers relaying the torch hundreds
of times.

Other criteria governing the composition of the fuel were as follows:a) it had to ensure rapid lighting of one torch from another at each relay;
b) the flame had to burn for a minimum of ten minutes in each torch (the average runner taking about five minutes to cover the kilometre between relays);
c) the flame had to be resistant to wind and rain;
d) the flame had to be a photogenic color for photographers and television cameras;
e) the flame had to leave a white, non-toxic, and non-lacrimatory smoke trail;
f) the Flame had to evoke a symbolic correlation with the sun.
Torch:Lenght:         66,0 cm
Weight:       836  gr
Torches total: 1,250
Date of the torch relay:13. July - 17. July 1976
Design by:Georges Huel,
Michel Daillaire
Manufacturer: Queensway Machine Products
Numbers of runners:about 1.200
Distance total:775 km
Name of last runner:Stéphane Préfontaine and Sandra Henderson
Special torch: Gold Presentation Torch for High Dignitaries


Description of the route:
Program in Greece   -   Olympia-Athens
1  Olympia, Departure July 13, 1976
2  Krestena
3  Zaharo
4  Kyparissia
5  Filiatra
6  Gargalioni
7  Nestor
8  Pylos
9  Messene
10  Kalamata
11  Sparta
12  Tripolis
13  Nauplia  -  Night stop
14  Argos
15  Corinth
16  Megara
17 Eleusis  -  Arrival in Athens

Relay Stages   -   Ottawa-Montréal
1  Ottawa, Departure  -  Parliament Hill
2  Ottawa
3  Masson
4  Thurso
5  Montebello  -  Night stop
6  Hawkesbury 
7   Rigaud
8   Vaudreuil
9   St. Anne de Bellevue
10  Lachine
11  Montréal
      Arrival on Mount Royal

Relay Stages  -  Montréal-Kingston
1  Ile Perrot  -  Automobile
2  Cornwall  -  Night stop  -  Runners
3  Long Sault  -  -Canoeing
4  Upper Canada Village  -  Bicycling
5  Maitland  -  Rowing
6  St. Lawrence  -  Horseback
7  Gananoque  -  Runners
8  Kingston  -  Runners
    Arrival at Olympic
    Yachting Centre,  Kingston



The prototypes have already been likened to a golden cheese-grater, a plutocrat's loofah or even a bling wastepaper basket, but come 2012 the London Olympic torch will be virtually guaranteed the distinction of becoming the hottest item on eBay.

Unveiled yesterday to a predictable chorus of unfavourable comparisons it emerged that all 8,000 bearers taking part in next year's cross-Britain relay will be offered the exclusive opportunity to purchase their own individual copy of the beacon they carry.

Starting at around £250 for a limited edition of Edward Barber and Jay Osgerby's flaming symbol of human sporting achievement, the torch is likely to prove a winner in the resale market even if it didn't go down well on internet message boards yesterday.

A torch from the 1948 London Olympics was recently offered for sale for £7,500 while those from other Games command similarly high prices.
While neither of the ultra-fashionable Shoreditch-based design duo were willing to be drawn on a suitable name or price for their torch they said they were honoured to be chosen for the task after beating 500 rivals.
Highlighting the 800mm beacon's hi-tech aluminum casing and laser technology, and its mesh of 8,000 holes – one for each runner and mile of the journey next summer – they said they wanted to take the Olympic symbol to new levels.

"We wanted to make the most of pioneering production technologies and to demonstrate the industrial excellence available in the UK – it's a torch for our time," said Osgerby.

Included in the design brief was creating something portable and safe enough to be held by the many young torchbearers while also allowing the flame to be visible to spectators. The 800g finished product is triangular, reflecting the three times that London has hosted the Games – in 1908, 1948 and 2012 – as well as representing the Olympic values of respect, excellence and friendship, organisers said. But it emerged one ideal originally envisaged by the London hosts has already been snuffed out after Olympic sponsor EDF Energy said its prototype low-carbon fuel made of a miscanthus or elephant grass briquette would not be ready in time.
A mixture of propane and butane gas will now be used to fire the torch. It is an embarrassment for London 2012 which included the boast of an environmentally friendly torch in its claim to stage the greenest ever Olympics. Shaun McCarthy, chairman of the Commission for a Sustainable London 2012, which monitors the green claims of the Games, said the failure to deliver was an embarrassment.

"The promise of a low-carbon torch was made in 2007 and so the excuse of 'We ran out of time' is not acceptable," he said. "The carbon contribution of this initiative may have been relatively small, but the power of the message would have been highly significant."

The torch relay will begin at Land's End next May, arriving at the Olympic Stadium for the opening ceremony on 27 July. It will criss-cross the country for 70 days. Although the name of the final torchbearer is being kept secret, the favourite to complete the last leg is five-times gold medal-winning rower Sir Steve Redgrave.

following text from the official london 2012 press release:

Earlier this year, east london-based designers Edward Barber and Jay Osgerby 
won the competitive tender run by LOCOG and the design council that set the 
brief to design a torch that reflects the celebratory nature of the olympic torch relay 
and the olympic games.

the winning design connects the london 2012 olympic torch relay to each of the 
8,000 torchbearers and their community. the torch's triangular, gold-coloured form is 
perforated by 8,000 circles representing the 8,000 torchbearers and their stories of 
personal achievement and/or contribution to their local community which will be 
celebrated during the london 2012 olympic torch relay.

Sebastian Coe with the 2012 olympic torch prototype 

sebastian coe, chair of LOCOG, said: 'the torch that carries the olympic flame during 
the olympic torch relay is one of the most recognisable and significant symbols of 
an olympic games. members of the public right across the UK are busy nominating 
inspiring people to be torchbearers and i am thrilled we have a beautifully designed, 
engineered and crafted torch for them to carry.

'integral to the design are the 8,000 circles, a lasting representation of the torchbearer 
stories of personal achievement or contribution to their local community that will be 
showcased with every step of the relay.’  

edward barber and jay osgerby explained: 'ever since we were young we have loved 
the olympic games. as designers, this is quite simply the best project going: 
to design an icon for the games. we've wanted to be involved since july 2005 
when we were celebrating winning the bid with the rest of the UK.

'we have worked hard to develop a torch that celebrates the relay, and reflects the 
passion for london and the olympic games. we wanted to make the most of pioneering 
production technologies and to demonstrate the industrial excellence available in the UK 
– it's a torch for our time. this is our opportunity to represent the uk, in design terms, 
and we are incredibly proud to be doing so.'

design: the torch is made up of four key pieces – an inner and an outer aluminium 
alloy skin perforated by 8,000 circles that are held in place by a cast top piece and base.
representing the inspirational stories of the 8,000 torchbearers who will carry 
the olympic flame, the circles which run the length of the body of the torch also 
offer a unique level of transparency – allowing people to see right to the heart 
of the torch and view the burner system which will keep the olympic flame alive.  
the circles also help ensure heat is quickly dissipated without being conducted 
down the handle and providing extra grip. london 2012 partner, BMW, have provided 
the use of their climatic testing facility for the torch to be tested.

shape: the torch stands 800mm high. its triangular form has been inspired 
by the identification of a multiples of three that are found across the vision 
and delivery of the olympic games:

• the three olympic values of respect, excellence and friendship
• the three words that make the olympic motto – faster, higher, stronger
• the fact the UK has hosted the olympic games three times – in 1908, 1948 and 2012
• the vision for the london 2012 olympic games to combine three strands of work – sport, education and culture.

the torch weighs 800g. responding to a call in the brief to recognise the fact that more 
than half of the london 2012 torchbearers are expected to be young people 
aged between 12 and 24, several design features have been implemented to produce 
what will be one of the lighter olympic torches. crafted from an aluminium alloy, 
developed for the aerospace and automotive industry that is lightweight whilst having 
good tensile strength and excellent heat resistance, the 8,000 circles also reduce 
the weight of the final design whilst ensuring strength isn’t compromised.

the gold colour finish embraces the qualities of the olympic flame – the brightness 
and the warmth of the light that it shines. the 8,000 torches will have a gold-coloured 
finish that delivers an aesthetic beauty whilst having the ability to withstand the 
temperature of the olympic flame.