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Thursday, September 13, 2012

R. W. Bernard-The Hollow Earth

The Hollow Earth
Chapter 2:
The Hollow Earth
By: Dr. R. W. Bernard, B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
Before Columbus discovered America, belief in the existence of a New World across the Atlantic, in the form of a western continent, was considered as the dream of a madman.
Equally strange, in our own time, is the belief in the existence of a New World, a Subterranean World, in the hollow interior of the Earth, and which is as unknown to present humanity as the American continent was to Europeans prior to its discovery by Columbus. Yet there is no reason why it, too, may not be discovered and its existence established as a fact.
Arnoldo de Azevedo, in his "Physical Geography," wrote as follows about the mysterious world below our feet, concerning which scientists know nothing beyond a few miles in profundity, entertaining only theories, hypotheses and conjectures to hide their ignorance:
"We have below, our feet an immense region whose radius is 6,290 kilometers, which is completely unknown, challenging the conceit and competence of scientists."
This statement is absolutely true. Scientists to date have penetrated only a few miles inside the earth, and what lies further down they know nothing about, depending only on conjectures, guesses and suppositions. Many of the commonly accepted theories and beliefs about the Earth's interior do not rest on any scientific basis, and seem to originate in the old ecclesiastical idea of hellfire in the center of the Earth, which is so much like the belief of scientists that the core of the Earth is a mass of fire and molten metal. Yet the scientific belief rests on no more positive evidence than the religious one. Both are merely suppositions without an iota of proof.
The belief in the Earth having a fiery center probably arose from the fact that the deeper one penetrates into the Earth, the warmer it gets. But it is a far-fetched assumption to suppose that this increase of temperature continues until the center of the Earth. There is no evidence to support this view. It is more probable that the increase of temperature continues only until we reach the level where volcanic lava and earthquakes originate, probably due to the existence of much radioactive substances there. But after we pass through this layer of maximum heat, there is no reason why it should not get cooler and cooler as we get nearer and nearer to the Earth's center.
The total surface of the Earth is 197 million square miles and its estimated weight is six sextillion tons. If the Earth was a solid sphere, its weight would be much greater. This is one among other scientific evidences of the fact that the Earth has a hollow interior.
The author believes that the truest conception of the structure of the Earth is based on the idea that when it was in a molten state during its formation, centrifugal force caused the heavier substances to be thrown outward, toward its periphery, in the form of rocks and metals, to form its outer crust, leaving its interior hollow, with openings at the poles, where centrifugal force was less and where there was less tendency to throw materials outward, which was greater at the equator, causing the bulging of the earth in this region. It has been estimated that as a result of the Earth's rotation on its axis during its formative state, polar depressions and openings thus formed would measure about 1,400 miles in diameter.
Also, we shall present below evidence to indicate that some of the original fire and incandescent materials remained in the center of the Earth to form a central sun, much smaller, of course, than our sun, but capable of emitting light and supporting plant growth. We shall also see that the Aurora Borealis or streaming lights that illuminate the Arctic sky at night come from this central sun whose rays shine through the polar opening.
Thus, if the Earth was originally a ball of fire and molten metal, some of this fire remained in its center, while centrifugal force as a result of its rotation on its axis caused its solid matter to be thrown toward the surface, forming a solid crust and leaving its interior hollow, with a fiery ball in its center, forming the central sun, which provides illumination for plant, animal and human life.
The first one to present the theory of the earth being hollow with openings at its poles was an American thinker, William Reed, author of the book, "Phantom of the Poles," published in 1906. This book provides the first compilation of scientific evidence, based on the reports of Arctic explorers, in support of the theory that the Earth is hollow with openings at its poles. Reed estimates that the crust of the Earth has a thickness of 800 miles, while its hollow interior has a diameter of 6,400 miles. Reed summarizes his revolutionary theory as follows:
"The earth is hollow. The Poles, so long sought, are phantoms. There are openings at the northern and southern extremities. In the interior are vast continents, oceans, mountains and rivers. Vegetable and animal life are evident in this New World, and it is probably peopled by races unknown to dwellers on the Earth's surface."
Reed pointed out that the Earth is not a true sphere, but is flattened at the Poles, or rather it begins to flatten out as one approaches the hypothetical North and South Pole, which really do not exist because the openings to its hollow interior occur there. Hence the Poles are really in midair, in the center of the polar openings and are not on its surface as would-be discoverers of the Poles suppose.
Reed claims that the Poles cannot be discovered because the Earth is hollow at its Pole points, which exist in midair, due to the existence there of polar openings leading to its interior. When explorers thought they reached the Pole, they were misled by the eccentric behavior of the compass in high latitudes, north and south. Reed claims that this happened in the case of Peary and Cook, neither of whom really reached the North Pole, as we shall see in later pages.
Starting at 70 to 75 degrees north and south latitude the Earth starts to curve IN. The Pole is simply the outer rim of a magnetic circle around the polar opening. The North Magnetic Pole, once thought to be a point in the Arctic Archipelago, has been lately shown by Soviet Arctic explorers to be a line approximately 1000 miles long. However, as we stated above, instead of being a straight line it is really a circular line constituting the rim of the polar opening. When an explorer reaches this rim, he has reached the North Magnetic Pole; and though the compass will always point to it after one passes it, it is really not the North Pole even if one is deluded into thinking it is, or that he discovered the Pole due to having been misled by his compass. When one reaches this magnetic circle (the rim of the polar opening), the magnetic needle of the compass points straight down. This has been observed by many Arctic explorers who, after reaching high latitudes, near to 90 degrees, were dumbfounded by the inexplicable action of the compass and its tendency to point vertically upward. (They were then inside the polar opening and the compass pointed to the Earth's North Magnetic Pole which was along the rim of this opening.
As the Earth turns on its axis, the motion is gyroscopic, like the spinning of a top. The outer gyroscopic pole is the magnetic circle of the rim of the polar opening. Beyond the rim the Earth flattens and slopes gradually toward its hollow interior. The true Pole is the exact center of the opening at the Poles, which, consequently, do not really exist, and those who claimed to have discovered them did not tell the truth, even if they thought they did, having been misled by the irregular action of the compass at high latitudes. For this reason, neither Cook nor Peary nor any other explorer ever reached the North or South Poles, and never will.
A very interesting article on the above subject appeared in the March 1962 issue of "Flying Saucers" magazine, written by its editor, Ray Palmer, who believes that flying saucers come from the hollow interior of the Earth through its polar openings. The article is entitled, "THE NORTH POLE - RUSSIAN STYLE. " It describes remarkable discoveries made by Russian Arctic explorers, which confirm the theory of a hollow earth and polar openings, as do the observations of Arctic explorers to which we shall refer below. The article bears the following subtitle:
"More Evidence of Mystery Lands at the Poles - Two Hundred Years of Exploration Have Given the Russians a New Concept of the Pole and Render all Previous Geographies Obsolete - Here are Indisputable Geophysical Facts!"
We shall now quote from this article:
"Many readers will remember the articles we have published giving our theories that there is something mysterious about each polar area of the Earth. We have suggested that there is much more "area" at both poles than it is possible to show on a globe map. We have pointed out Admiral Byrd's strange flights `beyond' the poles. We have mentioned the case of missing mountains and different branches of the military discounting the mapping ability of the other. We have even suggested that the Earth is hollow, and that giant 2,100 mile openings exist at the poles, and there is much evidence of the existence of these openings. We have pointed out that there is a great deal of secrecy and double-talk about the Arctic and Antarctic areas. We have even suggested that the flying saucers might come from this mystery area, or from inside the Earth.
"One of the things we have been most insistent about is that no one has yet been to the North Pole, all claims to having done so being false, because the Pole is not a `point,' and cannot be `reached' in the accepted sense of the word.
"We have successfully challenged those military and civilian pilots who have claimed that they fly `daily' over the North Pole. In the case of the military flyer we have pointed out the maneuver which is standard, which automatically makes it impossible for him to fly `beyond' the Pole by flying straight across it. (That is, across the polar opening, instead of going into it - Author.) Because of navigating difficulties stemming from compasses of all kinds"
"A `lost' flier (whose compass doesn't work as it should) regains his bearings by making a turn in any direction, until his compasses again resume function. In the case of commercial airlines, whose advertising boast is that they fly twice daily over the Pole, they are simply stretching the truth by 2,300 miles. (They simply cross over the magnetic rim of the polar opening, where the compass registers the highest degree north, but do not actually reach the North Pole, which is the central point of the polar opening inside this rim - Author.)
"We have available, in the form of records of several hundred years, in Russian archives, a history of Arctic exploration which proves our most important point beyond further question: i.e., that the North Magnetic Pole is not a point, but (deduce the Russians) a `line' approximately 1000 miles long. Before we go further, we might suggest that we think they are wrong in this deduction, and that instead of being a line, it is actually a circle. Because of lack of space to place it on the globe, the Russians have been forced to compress their observations into a two dimensional area. They had to squeeze the circle from two sides and make a line out of it. We'd like to give you now a resume of that single point of Russian exploration, which actually covers much more than just geomagnetism.
"Here is what the Russians say: Navigators in the high latitudes have always been troubled by the odd behavior of their magnetic compasses caused by apparent irregularities and asymmetries in the magnetic field of the Earth. Early magnetic maps have been drawn on this assumption, based on hopeful guesses, that the North Magnetic Pole is virtually a point. Accordingly, it was expected that the compass needle, which dips more steeply as it approaches the Magnetic Pole, would point straight down, or very nearly so, at the Magnetic Pole itself. But data from many Russian and other expeditions showed that the compass needle points straight down, or nearly so, at the Magnetic Pole itself. But data from many Russian and other expeditions showed that the compass needle points straight down for a very long distance across the Arctic Ocean, from a point northwest of the Taimyr Peninsula to another point in the Arctic Archipelago. This discovery first inspired the hypothesis that there is a second North Magnetic Pole, tentatively located at 86 degrees East longitude. More refined observation has disposed of this idea. The map of the magnetic field now shows the magnetic meridians running close together in a thick bunch of lines from the North Magnetic Pole in the Arctic Archipelago to Siberia.
"The North Magnetic Pole, once thought to be virtually a point in the Arctic Archipelago, has been shown by recent investigations to extend across the polar basin to the Taimyr Penninsula in Siberia.
"The `Pole,' magnetically speaking, is a very extended area that crosses the Polar Basin from one continent to the other. It is at least 1,000 miles long, and more likely can be said to exist as a rather diffused line for 1,000 miles more. (It is really not a point in the far north, but is the rim of the polar opening, since after Admiral Byrd passed it and entered the polar opening leading to the Earth's interior, he left the Arctic ice and snow behind and entered a warmer territory - Author. ) Thus when Admiral Peary (and any other Arctic explorer who used a magnetic compass) claims to have `reached' the Pole, he is making a very vague claim indeed. He can only say that he reached a point, which can be anywhere in a demonstrable 2,000 mile area (the magnetic rim of the polar opening), where his compass pointed straight down. A noteworthy achievement, but not a `discovery of the Pole.'
"Since other types of compass, such as the gyroscopic and the inertial guidance, have equally vague limitations, we make bold to say that nobody ever reached the Pole, and more, there is not a `Pole' to reach.
"Next, having found themselves stumped to account for the strange behavior of the compass in the Polar Basin, the theorists have turned to space and the upper atmosphere and even to the sun for an explanation of what is happening to their instruments. Now the Pole has become `the interaction of the magnetic field with charged particles from the sun.'
"More significant are the unfavorable references to former cartographers whose maps are now `thick clouds congealed in the imagination of cartographers as land masses.' The Navy, as an example, feels a bit put out when the Army says their missing South Pole mountains were never there, because the Army cannot find them by their own confused reckoning based on a magnetic pole which `isn't there at all.' We find now that new land areas are `discovered' and old maps tossed out because the lands they show are not there any more. (This confusion is due to the irregular action of the compass in the far north due to the fact that the North Magnetic Pole is not a point as former cartographers supposed, but a circle around the rim of the polar opening - Author.)
"This brings us to the subject of `mystery lands' of great extent in the polar areas, which cannot possibly be placed on our globe without overlapping seriously in impossible ways...Could it be here where the flying saucers originate?"
It is well known that the North and South Magnetic Poles do not coincide with the geographical poles, as they should were the Earth a solid sphere, convex at its poles. The reason why the magnetic and geographical poles don't coincide is because, while the magnetic pole lies along the rim of the polar opening, the geographical pole lies in its center, in midair and not on solid land. As we shall see below, the true magnetic pole is not on the external rim of the polar opening but the center of the Earth's crust, which should be about 400 miles below the surface, and running around the polar opening. For this reason the needle of the compass still continues to point vertically downward after one passes the rim of the polar opening and penetrates into it. Only after passing its center would the needle of the compass start pointing upward instead of downward, but in either case, after reaching the rim of the polar opening, the compass no longer functions horizontally, as previously, but vertically. This has been observed by all Arctic explorers who reached high latitudes and puzzled them.
The only explanation is provided on the conception of a hollow earth and polar openings, with the magnetic pole and center of gravity in the middle of the Earth's crust, and not in its geometrical center. As a result, ocean water on the inside of the crust adheres to its inner surface just as it does on the outside. We may calculate the Earth's magnetic pole and center of gravity as a circular line around the polar opening, but in its middle, about 400 miles from the Earth's surface.
In support of the above conception regarding the magnetic pole being situated in the rim of the polar opening, Palmer refers to the following facts: Between each magnetic pole around the Earth pass magnetic meridians. In contrast with geographical meridians, which measure longitude, the magnetic meridians move from east to west and back again. The difference between the geographical meridians, or true north and south, and the direction in which a magnetic compass points, or the magnetic meridian of the place, is called the declination. The first observation made was in London in 1580 and showed an easterly declination of 11 degrees. In 1815 the declination reached 24. 3 degrees westerly maximum. This makes a difference of 35. 3 degrees change in 235 years, which is equal to 2,118 miles. Now if we make a circle around the Pole, with a radius of 1,059 miles, so that it is 2,118 miles in diameter, this would represent the rim of the polar opening along which, in this case, the North Magnetic Pole traveled from one point to its diametrically opposite point on the circle, 2,118 miles away, in 235 years.
This is the reason why the magnetic pole and the geographical pole do not coincide. The geographical pole is an extension of the Earth's axis and since this runs through the center of the polar opening, it exists in empty space - hence can never be "discovered" by any explorer, since it is not on solid land.
According to Marshall Gardner, the rim of the polar opening, which is the true magnetic pole, is a large circle 1,400 miles in diameter. It is so large that when explorers pass it, as many did, the slope is so gradual that they never know they are entering the interior of the Earth, but imagine they are on the surface. The magnetic pole can therefore be any point on the circle of the magnetic rim of the polar opening. On this point, Palmer says:
"The focal point, or the actual `pinpoint' of the magnetic pole exists on only one portion of the circumference of that circle at a time, and moves progressively around the circle in a definite `orbit' that takes some 235 years. This would make the magnetic pole travel approximately 18 miles per year.
"Military and civilian flights `over the Pole' can be made daily without producing the slightest evidence of the vast hole in the Earth, whose perimeter they circumscribe, no matter what they ASSUME in their navigational procedure, due to the original error in assumption that what they are passing over is a POINT and not a vast CIRCUMFERENCE which they touch at only one place, and then immediately deviate away from its natural curve because they are traveling in a straight line."
If the Earth was a solid sphere, with two poles at the end of its axis, being a magnet, its magnetic poles would coincide with its geographical poles. The fact that they do not is inexplicable on the basis of the theory that it is a solid sphere. The explanation becomes clear when we assume the existence of polar openings, with magnetic poles along the circular rim of these openings, rather than at a fixed point.
Palmer quotes a significant statement by Russian Arctic explorers who say:
"Exploration and research have shown that an enormous area of the Earth's surface and correspondingly *large realms of the unknown* may be brought within the compass of human understanding in a very few years."
This statement by the Russians sounds remarkably similar to Admiral Byrd's statements about the trans-Arctic region being "the center of the Great Unknown." Could it be that the Russians know about Admiral Byrd's discovery of "a vast new territory" beyond the Pole? Palmer comments on this Russian statement as follows:
"This is truly a stupendous sentence. Contemplate what it actually says. It says that not only exploration, but also `research' have shown that enormous regions of the Earth's surface AND correspondingly (this word is significant) large realms of the UNKNOWN may be brought within the compass of UNDERSTANDING of human beings in a very few years. In plain words, in addition to areas we can understand and investigate by exploration, there are large realms which have to be brought to human understanding by means of research.
"Yes, large UNKNOWN and even BEYOND PRESENT UNDERSTANDABILITY areas do exist, and it `MAY BE' that we will discover and comprehend them in a very few years. In plain words, in addition to areas we can understand and investigate by exploration, there are large realms which have to be brought to human understanding by means of research.
"In the next few sentences (of the Russians) we find that there is much `prospect for development' in a Polar Basin which, by present concepts, is nothing but frozen ocean. What is it that is such a great prospect for development? Ice cubes for our tea? No, there must be very much more interesting possibilities, the kind of possibilities that entail large land masses of an unknown area yet to be explored and developed."
Palmer quotes the Russians as saying:
"As recently as 30 years ago more than half the total area of the Polar Basin was unexplored, and 16 per cent was still terra incognita only 15 years ago. Today, disappointing as this may be to young geographers, the area of blank spots on the map of the Polar Basin has shrunk to almost nothing. At the same time, to the regret of the older explorers and the understandable pleasure of the younger ones, there are still blank spots elsewhere in the Arctic. The ocean, the air and the ionosphere still hold many mysteries."
Palmer comments on this Russian statement:
"We learn that the blank spots on the map of the Polar Basin have shrunk to almost nothing. In the next breath we find that there are still blank spots ELSEWHERE in the Arctic. Where else? The ocean, the air and the ionosphere, they say, still hold many mysteries. Particularly the ocean, in the UNKNOWN extent of which exist vast land masses so far not only beyond our ability to place on our maps, but beyond our ability to understand.
"We might say all this is double talk. We might also say secrets are being kept. But we won't The fact is that neither is true. It is STRAIGHT talk, the only kind of talk we can expect from anyone who is trying to tell something, but cannot because it is, as yet, beyond his understanding. To say definitely that there are large land masses inside an area commonly called a `point' is to be faced with a challenge to demonstrate and prove. Since this cannot be done, the speaker is left rather helpless to do more than hint vaguely at mysteries.
"It is up to the opponents of the `Mystery Land at the Pole' theory to disprove it, or prove their own - and their own has been irrevocably demolished by the scientists and explorers of the two greatest nations on earth. What we have presented is not a theory - but the cumulative result of hundreds of years of exploration, culminated by the geophysical year [1957] which established the information we have given you as the `new concept of geomagnetism in the Polar Basin.'
"The mystery is at last coming to the fore, and the scoffers are at last silenced. Let us all work together to dig out the truth about this mystery that is so engrossing, and so important to mankind. What is it that exists at both Poles of the earth, which opens to us new frontiers so vast in extent and nature as to be beyond present understanding? It may well be that exploration of space is far less important than the exploration of our own mysterious planet, which has now suddenly become a `vast realm' far larger than we ever dreamed it to be."
The theory of a hollow earth with openings at the poles was originated by William Reed in 1906, when he first presented it in his book, "Phantom of the Poles." Fourteen years later, in 1920, another American writer, Marshall B. Gardner, published a book entitled "A Journey to the Earth's Interior or Have The Poles Really Been Discovered?" Apparently he knew nothing about Reed's book, since he did not mention it in his bibliography, which was quite extensive and included most of the important books on Arctic exploration, which he quoted in support of this theory of a hollow earth.
Gardner, in his book, presents the same conception o! the Earth's structure as Reed did, claiming that it is hollow, with openings at its Poles, but he differs from Reed in that he believes in the existence of a central sun which is the source of the aurora borealis. In the diagrams of his book, Gardner depicts the Earth as having circular openings at its poles; and the ocean water, which flows through these openings, adheres to the solid crust, both above and below, since the center of gravity of the Earth, according to his theory, resides in the middle of this solid portion and not in its hollow interior. For this reason, if a ship travels through the polar opening and reaches the Earth's interior, it would continue to sail in a reversed position on the inside of the crust, just as, at night, we are below the Earth's surface held to it by gravity.
Gardner's book, which is now out of print and very rare, seeming to have met the fate of other writings on this subject by being lost and forgotten and its message unknown to the world at present, has many interesting diagrams, some of which we are reproducing. We quote his description of these diagrams:
  1. "Showing the Earth bisected centrally through the polar openings and at right angles to the Equator, giving a clear view of the central sun and interior continents and oceans. (Reproduced from a working model, made by the author in 1912.)
  1. "The Earth as it would appear if viewed from space, showing the north polar opening to the Earth's interior, which is hollow and contains a central sun instead of an ocean of liquid lava."
  1. "Diagram showing the Earth as a hollow sphere with its polar openings and central sun. The letters at the top and bottom of the diagram indicate the various steps of an imaginary journey through the planet's interior. At the point marked `D' we catch our first glimpse of the corona of the central sun. At the point marked `E' we can see the central sun in its entirety."
Gravitational pull is strongest around the curve from the exterior to the interior of the Earth. A 150 pound man would probably weigh 300 pounds while sailing through the polar opening and around the curve from the outside to the inside of the Earth. When he reached the inside he would weigh only 75 pounds. This is because less force is needed to hold a body to the inside of a hollow ball in rotation than to hold it to the outside, due to centrifugal force.
William Reed says that gravitational pull is strongest about half way around the curve leading to the interior of the Earth, where is the center of gravity, being so strong there that the salt water and fresh water of icebergs (which, as we shall see below, come from the Earth's interior) do not mix. The salt water remains a few feet below the fresh water. This enables one to obtain fresh drinking water from the Arctic Ocean. But how can fresh water be found in the extreme north, where there is only salty ocean water, and how can icebergs be formed of fresh water, not salt water? The only explanation, as both Reed and Gardner point out, and as we shall see below, is that this fresh water comes from rivers that arose in the Earth's warmer interior, which, after they reach the colder surface, suddenly freeze and turn into icebergs, which break off and fall into the sea, producing the strange tidal waves that Arctic explorers have observed in the far north, and which puzzled them.
Both Reed and Gardner claim that the temperature in the inside of the Earth is much more uniform than on the outside, being warmer in winter and cooler in summer. There is adequate rainfall, more than on the surface, but it is never cold enough to snow. It is an ideal subtropical climate, which is free from the oppressive heat of the tropics, as well as from the cold weather of the temperate zone. They also claim that the north polar opening is larger than the south. They say that there exists a Land of Paradise on the other side of the Mammoth Ice Barrier, which must be passed before one reaches a warmer climate in the land that lies beyond the Pole, over which Admiral Byrd flew.
Around the curve at the polar opening is another ring of ice, called the Great Massive Fresh Water Ice Pack or Ice Barrier. Here is where icebergs originate. Each winter, this ring of ice is formed from fresh water which flows out from the inside of the Earth. During the winter months, billions of tons of free-flowing fresh water, coming from rivers inside the Earth and flowing toward the outside through the polar openings, freeze at their mouth and form mountains of fresh water ice, whose presence in this region would be inexplicable if the Earth was a solid sphere. In summer time, huge icebergs, miles long, break off and float to the outside of the Earth. They are composed of fresh water, when there could exist only salt water at the poles. Since this is the case and since all water on the outside of the Earth in these regions is salty, the fresh water of which these icebergs are composed must come from its interior.
Inside the icebergs, the mammoth and other huge tropical animals, believed to be of prehistoric origin because never seen on the Earth's surface, have been found in a perfect state of preservation. Some of them have been found to have green vegetation in their mouths and stomachs at the time they were suddenly frozen. The usual explanation is that these are prehistoric animals which lived in the Arctic region at the time when it had a tropical climate, and that the coming of the Ice Age, suddenly converted the Arctic from a tropical to a frigid zone and froze them before they had time to flee southward. The great ivory deposits from elephants, found in Siberia and islands of the north, are also explained in this way. Gardner, however, holds to an entirely different theory, which was supported by the observations of Admiral Byrd of a huge mammoth-like creature in the "land beyond the Pole," which he discovered.
Gardner claims that mammoths are really animals now inhabiting the interior of the Earth, which have been carried to the surface by rivers and frozen inside of the ice that formed when the rivers reached the surface, forming glaciers and icebergs.
In Siberia, along the Lena River, there lie exposed on the soil and buried within it, the bones and tusks of millions of mammoths and mastadons. The consensus of scientific opinion is that they are prehistoric remains, and that the mammoth existed some 20,000 years ago, but was wiped out in the unknown catastrophe we now call the last Ice Age.
It was Schumachoff, a fisherman living in Tongoose, Siberia, who, in 1799, first discovered a complete mammoth frozen in a clear block of ice. Hacking it free, he removed its huge tusks and left the carcass of fresh meat to be devoured by wolves. Later an expedition was sent to examine it, and today its skeleton may be seen in the Museum of Natural History in Leningrad.
Polar explorers not only mention fauna (animals) but flora (vegetation) in the extreme north. Also many animals, like the musk-ox, strangely migrate northward in winter, which it would do only if it reached a warmer land there. Repeatedly, Arctic explorers have observed bears heading northward into an area where there cannot be food for them if there was no polar opening into a warmer region. Foxes also were found north of the 80th parallel heading north, obviously well fed. Without exception, Arctic explorers agree that, strangely, the further north one goes, after a certain latitude, the warmer it gets.
Invariably, a north wind brings warmer weather. Coniferous trees were found drifting ashore, coming from the far north. Butterflies and bees were found in the far north, and even mosquitoes, but they are not found hundreds of miles to the south and not until Canadian and Alaskan climate areas conducive to such insect life are reached.
Unknown varieties of flowers were also found in the extreme north. Birds resembling snipe, but unlike any known species of bird, were seen to come from the north, and to return there. Hare are plentiful in a far northern area where no vegetation grows but where vegetable matter is found in drifting debris from the more northern open waters.
Eskimo tribes have left unmistakable traces of their migration by their temporary camps, always advancing northward Southern Eskimos speak of tribes that live in the far north. They hold the belief that their ancestors came from a land of paradise in the extreme north.
In New Zealand and lower South America are found identical fauna and flora which could not have migrated from one of these places to the other. The only explanation is that they came from a common motherland - the Antarctic continent. Yet how could they come from there if it is a frozen waste where only penguins seem able to survive? "Only Admiral Byrd's 'mystery land' can account for these inexplicable facts and migrations," concludes Palmer.
Many Arctic explorers, after passing the ring of ice around the curve leading to the Earth's interior, continued straight north until they crossed this ice barrier. Many entered the opening leading to the interior but did not know it and thought they were still on the outer surface. The reason for this is that the opening is so large that one cannot know the difference except that the sun rises later and sets sooner, its rays being cut off by the rim of the polar opening after one enters it. This has been observed by all Arctic explorers who went sufficiently north. The polar opening is believed by Gardner to be 1,400 miles in diameter.
Once they were inside the Earth, explorers entered a New World where they found things opposite to what they expected. The needle of the compass pointed vertically instead of horizontally as it did before, due to the fact that the true magnetic pole is located in the middle of the curve leading from the outside to the inside of the earth. The further north they went, the warmer it became. The ice of Arctic regions further south disappeared and was replaced by open sea (Admiral Byrd found a total absence of ice and snow in the "land beyond the Pole" over which he passed for 1,700 miles.)
As explorers sailed further north, the north winds became warmer and warmer. The weather was mild and pleasant. Often the dust, carried by the wind, was unbearable. Some explorers, like Nansen, had to turn back due to the dust. Where could this dust come from in the extreme north, a land of ice and ocean? Reed and Gardner explain the origin of this dust, often noticed by Arctic explorers, to volcanoes inside the polar opening leading to the interior of the Earth. It would be impossible to expect volcanoes in the Arctic, except if they were inside the polar opening.
On August 3, 1894, Dr. Fritjof-Nansen, an Arctic explorer, in the far north, was surprised at the warm weather there and the fox tracks he found. He was probably inside the polar opening then. His compass utterly failed to work, so that he did not know where he was. The further into the opening he went, the warmer it became. It he went still further he would have seen tropical birds, as other explorers did, as well as other animals not seen on the Earth's surface, as the mammoth that Admiral Byrd observed when he looked down from his plane, during his 1,700 mile flight over this mysterious ice-free Arctic area.
Ray Palmer writes:
"The musk-ox, contrary to expectations, migrates north in the wintertime. Repeatedly, Arctic explorers have observed bears heading north into an area where there cannot be food for them. Foxes also are found north of the 80th parallel, heading north, obviously well fed. Without exception, Arctic explorers agree that the further north one goes, the warmer it gets. Invariably a north wind brings warmer weather. Coniferous trees drift ashore from out of the north. Butterflies and bees are found in the far north, but never hundreds of miles further south; not until Canadian and Alaskan climate areas conducive to such insect life are reached.
"Unknown varieties of flowers are found. Birds resembling snipe, but unlike any known species of bird, come out of the north, and return there. Hare are plentiful in an area where no vegetation ever grows, but where vegetation appears as drifting debris from the northern open water. Eskimo tribes, migrating northward, have left unmistakable traces of their migration in their temporary camps, always advancing northward. Southern Eskimos themselves speak of tribes that live in the far north. The Ross gull, common at Point Barrow, migrates in October toward the North. Only Admiral Byrd's 'mystery land' can account for these inexplicable facts and migrations."
The Scandinavian legend of a land of paradise in the far north, known as "Ultima Thule," commonly confused with Greenland, is significant because, centuries before Admiral Byrd's flight, the existence of such an ice-free land in the northern limits of the Earth was anticipated.
Palmer writes:
"The Scandinavian legend of a wonderful land far to the north called "Ultima Thule" (commonly confused with Greenland) is significant when studied in detail, because of its remarkable resemblance to the kind of land seen by Byrd, and its remarkable far north location. To assume that Ultima Thule is Greenland is to come face to lace with the contradiction of the Greenland Ice Cap, which fills the entire Greenland basin to the depth of 10,000 feet. Is Admiral Byrd's land of mystery, the center of the great unknown, the same as the Ultima Thule of the Scandinavian legends?
"There are mysteries concerning the Antarctic also. Perhaps the greatest is the highly technical one of biology itself; for on the New Zealand and South American land masses are identical fauna and flora which could not have migrated from one to the other, but rather are believed to have come from a common motherland. That motherland is believed to be the Antarctic Continent. But on a more popular level is the case of the sailing vessel `Gladys,' captained by F. B. Hatfield in 1893. The ship was completely surrounded by icebergs at 43 degrees south and 33 degrees west. At this latitude an iceberg was observed which bore a large quantity of sand and earth, and which revealed a beaten track, a place of refuge formed in a sheltered nook, and the bodies of five dead men who lay on different parts of the berg. Bad weather prevented any attempts at further investigation.
"An unanimous consensus of opinion among scientists is that one thing peculiar to the Antarctic is that there are no human tribes living upon it. Also investigation showed that no vessel was lost in the Antarctic at the time, so that these men could not be shipwrecked sailors. Could it be that these men who died on the berg came from `that mysterious land beyond the South Pole' discovered by the Byrd expedition? Had they ventured out of their warm, habitable land and lost their way along the ice shelf, finally to be drifted to their deaths at sea on a portion o! it, broken away to become an iceberg while they were on it?"
Another American writer on the subject of the Earth being hollow, named Theodore Fitch, referring to the ice barriers that must be crossed before one can enter the polar openings leading to the Earth's interior, asks: "Why can't we fly over these huge ice barriers or make roads and travel overland over them to the inside of the Earth?" He sees no reason why this cannot be done, even though he, like most other Americans, was in total ignorance of the fact that Admiral Byrd flew over these ice barriers some years before, and had entered this new territory. Fitch believes that once these facts are made public, every large nation would try to establish a foothold in this New World, whose land area is greater than that on the Earth's surface and which is free from radioactive fallout to poison its soil and foods.
This New World could more easily be reached than the moon and is of much more importance to us, since it provides ideal conditions for human life, with a better climate than exists on the surface. Fitch calls it a Land of Paradise, and believes it is the true geographical location of Paradise, a wonderful land referred to in the religious writings of all peoples.
It seems that the Russians are now doing what Fitch suggested by sending fleets of icebreakers, some atomic-powered, to explore the far north The next step will be for the Russians to repeat Admiral Byrd's flight through the polar opening to the "land beyond the Pole."
Fitch's book is entitled "Our Paradise Inside the Earth." He based it on the works of Reed and Gardner. He mentioned that during the last century a sea captain, who traveled due north, curved inward into the interior of the Earth, though he thought he was heading toward the North Pole.
Fitch writes:
"Both William Reed and Marshall Gardner declare that there must be a land of paradise on the other side of the mammoth ice barrier. Both men are of the opinion that a race of little brown people live in the interior of the Earth. It is possible that the Eskimos descended from these people.
"Most explorers have sailed straight north until they went around the 800 mile curve at the polar opening. Not one of them knew they were on the inside of the Earth. These explorers found things exactly opposite from what they expected. As they sailed north, the north winds became warmer and warmer. Except for strong dusty warm winds once in a while, the weather was mild and pleasant. Except for icebergs from the interior, the sea was open and sailing good (Reed and Gardner explain this strange dust found in the very far north and which darkens the snow on which it falls, as we have pointed out above, as coming from active volcanoes inside the polar opening. This seems to be the only possible explanation - Author.)
"They saw countless square miles of good land. The further north they went, the more grass, flowers, bushes, trees and other green vegetation they saw. One explorer wrote that his men gathered eight different kinds of flowers. They also reported that they saw sloping hills covered with green vegetation. (These observations were confirmed by Admiral Byrd, who, during his 1,700 mile flight over this iceless territory, saw trees, vegetation, mountains, lakes and animal life. - Author.)
"Another writer said he saw all kinds of warm weather animals and millions of tropical birds. They were so thick that a blind man could bring down one or more birds with one shot. The lovely scenery of both sky and land was more magnificent than anything ever seen on the exterior of the Earth. Each explorer wrote about the majesty of the aurora borealis or Northern Lights. It is claimed that the Northern Lights really result from the light of the central sun inside the Earth shining through the opening at the North Pole. "
Fitch points out that the hollow interior of the earth has a land area larger than the outer surface because while 75 per cent of the earth's surface is covered with water, leaving only 55 million square miles of land surface, the total surface of the earth is 197 million square miles. Fitch claims that there are no oceans in the interior comparable in size with those on the surface, and that there is three times as much land inside the earth as on the outside, so that in spite of the smaller circumference and less total area of the interior, its land area is greater.
Fitch says that it has a better and healthier climate than we have on the surface, without cold winters, hurricanes, earthquakes, electric storms, cyclones, radioactive fallout, nefarious cosmic rays, radioactive solar radiations, soil erosion from excessive rainfall and other disadvantages. It has an ideal subtropical climate.
Another American writer who was much influenced by the theories of Reed and Gardner is William L. Blessing who published a booklet on the subject in which he reproduced their diagrams of the Earth's structure. Blessing wrote:
"The Earth is not a true sphere. It is flat at the poles, or, I should say, it begins to flatten out at the poles. The pole is simply the outer rim of a magnetic circle, and at this point the magnetic needle of the compass points down. As the earth turns on its axis, the motion is gyroscopic. The outer gyroscopic pole is the magnetic rim of a circle. Beyond the rim the Earth flattens and slopes gradually like a canyon into the interior. The true pole in the exact center of the cone is perpendicular, for this point is the exact center of the opening or hollow into the Earth's interior.
"The old idea that the Earth was once a solid or molten mass and that at the center is composed of molten iron must be discarded. Since the shell of the Earth is about 800 miles thick, that would mean that the molten iron core would be more than 7,OOO miles in diameter and 21,000 miles in circumference. Impossible.
"Likewise, the old idea that the deeper into the Earth the hotter it becomes must also be discarded. It is radium and radioactivity that produce the heat in the earth. All surface rocks contain minute particles of radium."
One of the most puzzling facts of Arctic exploration is that while the area is oceanic, covered with water, which is variously frozen over or partially open, depending on the time of the year, many explorers remarked, however, paradoxically, that the open water exists in greater measure at the points nearest to the Pole, while further south there is more ice. In fact, some explorers found it very hot going at times, and were forced to shed their Arctic clothing. There is even one record of an encounter with naked Eskimos. In fact, the origin of the Eskimo race is believed to be in the extreme north, from where they migrated southward to their present habitat. Their original more northern home was probably warmer than their present more southern one.
It is strange that Reed's and Gardner's books, which presented such an epoch-making geographical theory, which they supported by the evidence of Arctic exploration during the past century - a theory comparable in importance to the theory that the Earth is round, when it was first proposed - should have been so disregarded (or were they suppressed?), so that today they are unavailable and very rare. (It was the author's good fortune to secure a copy of Gardner's book from a bookdealer handling rare books.) Is it possible that these books shared the fate of the news about Admiral Byrd's discoveries, Giannini's book and Palmer's magazine announcing Byrd's confirmation of Reed's and Gardner's theory of a hollow Earth with openings at the poles ? (A correspondent of the author's, living in Washington, D.C., wrote that he happened to look through the books in the library of a high official of the Air Force, with whom he had business, and, much to his surprise, he saw a copy of Gardner's book.)
Evidently Gardner's theory of a hollow Earth is not unknown to government and military leaders in view of Admiral Byrd having confirmed it; but it is hushed up and not openly discussed.
Fitch asks those who do not believe that the Earth is hollow, with openings at its poles, to answer the following questions:
"Can you produce proof that any explorer reached the so-called North or South Pole ?
"If there is no such thing as 83 to 90 degrees latitude ON the Earth, then how can one reach or fly over the North Pole?
"If the Earth is not hollow, then why does the north wind in the Arctic get warmer as one sails north beyond 70 degrees latitude?
"Why are there warm northerly winds and an open sea for hundreds of miles north of 82 degrees latitude ?
"After 82 degrees latitude is reached, why is the needle of a compass always agitated, restless and balky?
"If the Earth is not hollow, then why do the warm northerly winds mentioned above carry more dust than any wind on earth?
"If no rivers are flowing from the inside to the outside, then why are all ice-bergs composed of fresh water?
"Why does one find tropical seeds, plants and trees floating in the fresh water of these icebergs?
"If not all the fresh water icebergs positively do not come from any place ON earth, as would be impossible unless we assume the existence of rivers flowing from the inside to the outside, then where do they come from?
"If the inside of the Earth is not warm, why do millions of tropical birds and animals go further north in the winter time?
"Why does the wind from the north carry more pollen and blossoms than any wind on the exterior?
"If it is not hollow and warm inside the Earth, then why does colored pollen color the snow for thousands of square miles?
"Could it be that pollen from millions of acres and colored flowers causes the snow to be red, pink, yellow, blue, etc.?"
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