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Wednesday, April 25, 2012

GENOCIDE of the Ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia 1944-1948 (C)



GENOCIDE
of the Ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia
1944-1948
Genocide

(C)



Chapter 10

Size of the Ethnic German Population in Yugoslavia
as of October 1944

541,000 Germans comprise 508,000 Danube Swabians and 33,000 Germans of Slovenia. For documentary reasons these figures include 13,000 killed soldiers up to that time. Please refer to Table 2Table 3Table 4
The Danube Swabians lived mainly in the Banat, Batschka, Baranja, Syrmia, Slavonia and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia, Bosnia and the capital Belgrade. The Slovenia-Germans consisted predominantly of the Gottscheer and of Lower Styria.



Larger Communities and Dispersed Settlements Up to 1944
At the census of 1931 in the pre-war Yugoslavia more than 1,000 inhabitants in 115 localities stated to be of German ethnicity which corresponds to about 70 percent. The majority lived in entirely German communities, particularly in the Banat and Batschka where most of the Danube Swabians were domiciled. In Slavonia, Croatia and Bosnia the Danube Swabians lived mainly in dispersed settlements.
In October 1944 the remaining 33,000 ethnic Germans in today's independent state Slavonia, whose numbers since World War II were greatly reduced due to political circumstances, lived mainly in dispersed settlements, except in Laibach, Marburg and Gottschee (which were predominantly German).



Disappearance of the Ethnic German Minority in the Former Yugoslavia
More than 90,000 ethnic Germans of the former Yugoslavia did not survive the war and the genocide. Almost all of the survivors of the camps have left Yugoslavia. Counting these to the previously evacuated and escaped, about 450,000 ethnic Germans of Yugoslavia were rescued. Only Germans in mixed ethnic marriages and the few Communists remained in the former Communist Yugoslavia. The realistic figures of the Germans remaining in their homeland are, at the most, 12,000 to 15,000. Of these 10,000 to 12,000 are Danube Swabians.


The New Homelands of the Surviving Ethnic Germans of Yugoslavia
Most Slovenian Germans found their new homeland in Austria. According to reliable figures about 300,000 (or 70%) of the Danube Swabians from Yugoslavia settled in the country of their ancestors, Germany; another 60,000 in Austria, 25,000 in the USA, 10,000 in Canada (also similar numbers of Danube Swabians from Hungary and Romania), 10,000 in Hungary, 4,000 in Brazil, 2,000 in Argentina, 1,000 in Australia and about 3,000 in various other countries.
Today, in the year 2001, about 170,000 (40%) of the 425,000 Danube Swabians who escaped the genocide are still alive. Counting their descendants, the total of Danube Swabians exceeds one million.
-----------------------------


Chapter 11

Documentation of Human Casualties

The previous chapters described the gruesome atrocities committed against the ethnic Germans by the Yugoslav Communist regime, resulting in the genocide of this significant part of the Yugoslav population.
After their flight and expulsion, the survivors of the Danube Swabian genocide organized "home town societies" in their new domiciles, particularly in Germany, Austria and overseas countries. This enabled them to establish reliable documentations of the tragic events and casualties, including names, times and places of their deaths. Over 60,000 names are recorded. This represents about 70% of the 86,000 calculated victims. The following tables detail the numbers and localities of their demise between 1944 and 1948.
Table 2: Banat, BatschkaTable 3: Baranja, Syrmia, Slavonia/Croatia, OthersTable 4: Total Casualties of Danube Swabians
--------------------------------

Chapter 12

Danube Swabian Chronology

Early beginnings up to 1919

 1526
Battle at Mohatsch
1526 - 1918
Turkish victory over Hungary. The Imperial House of Habsburg also became Hereditary Kings of Hungary and Croatia.
1526 - 1686
Most of Hungary under Turkish rule.
1683
Imperial and royal Polish forces defeat the Turks at Vienna.
1684 - 1699
Hungary liberated from Turkish rule. Germans recruited to settle in the territory.
1697
Prince Eugen of Savoy defeats the Turks at Senta.
1699
Peace treaty at Karlowitz: Hungary, Syrmia, Slavonia and the Batschka ceded to the Emperor Leopold I.
1712
The first Swabian settlers arrive at Sathmar.
1716 - 1718
Prince Eugen defeats the Turks at Peterwardein, Temeschburg and Belgrade.
1717 - 1779
The liberated Banat becomes imperial crown land with its own administration.
1718
Peace treaty at Passarowitz: the Banat, North Serbia and Belgrade ceded to Austria.
1722 1726
First large-scale Swabian migration trek (Grosser Schwabenzug) during Emperor Karl I's rule.
1723
Settlers granted tax exemption and inheritance rights.
1736 - 1754
Cathedral built at Temeschburg.
1737 - 1739
War with Turkey and peace treaty at Belgrade result in the loss of North Serbia.
1746 - 1780
Empress Maria Theresia settles 50,000 Germans in Hungary.
1763 -1773
Second large-scale Swabian trek.
1779
The Temescher Banat crown land comes under Hungarian administration.
1780 - 1790
Emperor Joseph II abolishes bondage; decrees German as the official language and in school teaching.
1782 - 1787
Third "Grosser Schwabenzug." Protestants included for the first time.
1790
Hungarianizing begins; Hungarian becomes the official language.
1806
End of the "Old Reich," demolished by Napoleon I.
1812
Opening of the German theater at Pest. Ludwig von Beethoven composed the ceremonial music.
1849 - 1861
The imperial crown land "Serbian Wojwodschaft and Temescher Banat" becomes established.
1867
The double monarchy Austria-Hungary is formed.
1868
The Hungarian parliament passes legislation, guaranteeing equal rights for its ethnic minorities, but they were never honored.
1907
Swabian Society (Schwabenverein) founded at Vienna.
1913
Society of the Germans in Croatia and Slavonia founded.
1914
Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian Nationalists at Sarajevo.
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.
Start of World War I.
1918
End of World War I. US President Wilson promulgates self-determination rights of nationals.
The dual monarchy collapses.
1,500,000 Danube Swabians are split up (1/3 given to each of the successor nations Hungary, Yugoslavia and Romania.)
1919
At the Versailles peace negotiations, a peace delegation of the Danube Swabians pleads for keeping the Banat undivided.

The Danube Swabians in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SHS), Renamed Yugoslavia after 1929
 1919 - 1944
In the peace treaties of Versailles, Yugoslavia, Romania and Hungary pledged to provide international guarantees
for their ethnic minorities which, however, were never adhered to.
1920
Founding of the Swabian-German Cultural Alliance.
1922
Founding of the German Economic Organization Agraria.
Founding of the German Party (Partei der Deutschen).
The collective term "Donauschwaben" (Danube Swabians) is becoming widely accepted.
1929
Parliament and political parties in Yugoslavia are dissolved and replaced by a "Royal Dictatorship."
1931
German School Foundation and Private Teachers College founded.
1939
Start of World War II.
1941
German forces occupy Yugoslavia. Disintegration of the Yugoslav state. Splitting up of the Danube Swabians: The Batschka and Baranja-Triangle revert to Hungary; the Banat remains with Serbia under German military occupation; Syrmia and Slavonia are attached to Croatia. With the German attack on Russia, Yugoslav partisans begin raids on ethnic German settlements.
1942
Partisan raids lead to evacuation of ethnic Germans from Bosnia and Serbia.
1942 - 1944
Due to partisan raids all dispersed German settlements in Syrmia and Slavonia are resettled in larger communities.
1943
The anti-Fascist council of the People's Liberation of Yugoslavia (acronym AVNOJ), the highest political body of the partisan movement, declares all persons who opposed the People's Liberation Army "enemies of the people and traitors." They lose all civic rights, are disenfranchised and face the threat of the death penalty.
Without formally mentioning any specific persons, ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia are affected and considered disenfranchised.
1944
As of October 1944 over 1,000 ethnic German civilians are killed by the partisans.

The End of the Danube Swabians in Yugoslavia
1944
By October 4, 10,600 Danube Swabians from the West Banat and 2,500 from Serbia manage to escape from the Partisans and the Red (Russian) army.
Starting October 3: About 100,000 Danube Swabians from Syrmia, Slavonia and Croatia are evacuated, mainly to Austria.
Starting October 8: About 80,000 Danube Swabians in the Batschka and Baranja heed the evacuation call and flee.
October 20: Belgrade captured by the Russian Army and partisans.
Supported by the Russian army, the Tito-partisans assume control of Serbia and the Wojwodina. Close to 200,000 Danube Swabians come under the rule of the Tito-regime.
"Bloody autumn" in the Wojwodina. By the end of November about 7,000 Danube Swabian civiliansin the Banat, Batschka, Baranja and East Syrmia are murdered.
Beginning November: camps for civilians and work camps are set up.
November 21: AVNOJ deciares, without judicial process, Danube Swabians "enemies of the people and traitors"and thus disenfranchised. All movable and stationary property is confiscated by the government.
December 2: The first liquidation camp for Danube Swabians in the South Batschka is established at Jarek/Backi Jarek.
1944 - 1945
About 167,000 civilians are disenfranchised and interned between the beginning of December 4 and the end of August 1945.
December 29 - Jan 6, 1945: 8,000 women and 4,000 men, all Danube Swabians from theBatschka and Banat, are selected for slave labor and shipped to Russia.
March 12: The liquidation camps Gakowa/Gakovo and Kruschiwl/Krusevlje in the Batschka are set up.
May 8: German Armed Forces capitulate.
May 15: 150,000 German and over 200,000 Croatian soldiers lay down their weapons and become prisoners of the partisans.
May 22: 2,000 Danube Swabian soldiers of the SS Mountain Division Prinz Eugen are butchered by the partisans at Rann/Brazice (Slovenia).
May: The death camp Sternthal/Strnisce and Tüchern/Teharje (Slovenia) established.
May: Liquidation camp Walpach/Valpovo (Slavonia) established.
Liquidation camp Kerndia/Krndija (Slavonia) set up.
August: Liquidation camp "Svilara" (silk factory) established in Syrmian Mitrowitz/Sremaka Mitrovica.
September: Liquidation camp Molidorf/Molin (Banat) established.
October: Liquidation camp Rudolfsgnad/Knicanin (Banat) established.
1945
At the end of the year about 24,000 children, women and elderly starved to death in the liquidation camps.
1945 - 1946
November to April: Additional 20,000 camp inmates die due to starvation and typhus epidemic. Orphaned children are shipped off to Yugoslav children homes.
1946
Late autumn: Begin of mass escapes from the camps to Hungary and Romania - sometimes tolerated by the camp administration, sometimes being at mortal risk.
1947
Additional 4,000 civilians die in the liquidation camps.
Autumn: Camp administration stops further escapes. Since autumn 1946 about 30,000-40,000 Danube Swabians escaped to Hungary and Romania.
1947 - 1949
Discharge of most slave labor deportees from Russia, mainly to the former East Germany.
1948
March: Closing of the liquidation and work camps in Yugoslavia. The surviving ethnic Germans were forced to enter three-year work contracts.
1948 - 1959
Search in Yugoslavian children homes for separated children.
1950 - 1959
Repatriation of children to Austria with the help of the Red Cross.
1952 - 1960
Evacuation of the still remaining Germans by paying Yugoslav government for release from their Yugoslav Nationality.
1960
Only about 10,000 ethnic Germans remain in Yugoslavia.

New Homelands in the West
1946
Aid Society of Danube Swabians in the USA founded by Peter Max Wagner.
1948
About 10,000 Danube Swabians settle in France. (Part of the Danube Swabians are descendants of French settlers.)
1949
Umbrella organization of the Danube Swabian state societies in Austria founded.
German federal society of the Germans of Yugoslavia founded.
Southeast German cultural project established in Munich, Germany.
1950
Charter of the Expellees proclaimed at Stuttgart, Germany.
1951
Council of the ethnic Germans of Southeastern European countries founded at Bonn, Germany.
1952
2,000 Danube Swabians resettle from Austria to Brazil. Today this settlement is called Entre Rios.
1954
German state of Baden-Württemberg assumes the sponsorship of the Danube Swabians.
1964
Cultural Center of the Danube Swabians in Austria completed.
The German city Sindelfingen assumes the sponsorship of the Danube Swabians of Yugoslavia.
1970
The cultural center of the Danube Swabians opens at Sindelfingen.
1978
The Danube Swabian Institute, a public corporation for the promulgation of Danube Swabian research, documentation and cultural activities founded at Munich, Germany.
1987
Danube Swabian Institute for history and research at the University of Tübingen, Germany founded.
1996
"Haus der Heimat" (Homeland Center), a cultural convention center for the ethnic German societies in Austria opens at Vienna.
-------------------------------

Chapter 13:

Appendix 1
Explanations and Notes

Names of localities are listed by their German as weIl as Yugoslavian nomenclature. Example: Werschetz/Vrsac. Where only German or Yugoslavian designations are available, they are retained in their original version.
Abbreviations and Expressions used in the ChaptersAktion Intelligenzija
Originally a Russian expression for cleansing the society of intellectuals, wealthy, influential, political persons. Also adopted by the Yugoslav partisans.
AVNOJ
Anti-Fascist Council for the Liberation of Yugoslavia. Legislative Assembly of Partisan Movement.
DDT-Powder
Insect powder used against lice and typhus epidemics.
HLKO
Haag Convention on Conduct of War.
KPJ
Communist Party of Yugoslavia.
LW I-IV
Documentation Series, Volumes I-IV, The Sufferings, Tragedy of the Danube Swabians, published by the Donauschwäbische Stiftung, Germany.
Magyare
Ethnic Hungarian.
Polenta
Cooked ground corn (maize).
OZNA
Secret Police of Partisans.
SHS
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovens, before renamed Yugoslavia.
USK
Independent Nation of Croatia.
VDU
Alliance of Ethnic Germans in Hungary.
VOMI
German SS-Office in Berlin, dealing with ethnic German affairs.
Wojwodina
Yugoslav area comprising the Banat, Batschka and Syrmia.
ZK
Central Committee of the Yugoslav Communist Party.

--------------------------------

Chapter 13: 

Appendix 2
War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, 
Including Genocide

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 78 U.N.T.S. 277, entered into force Jan. 12, 1951.
The Contracting Parties,
Having considered the declaration made by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 96 (I) dated 11 December 1946 that genocide is a crime under international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world,
Recognizing that at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity, and
Being convinced that, in order to liberate mankind from such an odious scourge, international co-operation is required,
Hereby agree as hereinafter provided:
Article I
The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish.
Article II
In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Article III
The following acts shall be punishable:
(a) Genocide;
(b) Conspiracy to commit genocide;
(c) Direct and public incitement to commit genocide;
(d ) Attempt to commit genocide;
(e) Complicity in genocide.
Article IV
Persons committing genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III shall be punished, whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals.
Article V
The Contracting Parties undertake to enact, in accordance with their respective Constitutions, the necessary legislation to give effect to the provisions of the present Convention, and, in particular, to provide effective penalties for persons guilty of genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III.
Article VI
Persons charged with genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III shall be tried by a competent tribunal of the State in the territory of which the act was committed, or by such international penal tribunal as may have jurisdiction with respect to those Contracting Parties which shall have accepted its jurisdiction.
Article VII
Genocide and the other acts enumerated in article III shall not be considered as political crimes for the purpose of extradition.
The Contracting Parties pledge themselves in such cases to grant extradition in accordance with their laws and treaties in force.

Article VIII
Any Contracting Party may call upon the competent organs of the United Nations to take such action under the Charter of the United Nations as they consider appropriate for the prevention and suppression of acts of genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III.
Article IX
Disputes between the Contracting Parties relating to the interpretation, application or fulfilment of the present Convention, including those relating to the responsibility of a State for genocide or for any of the other acts enumerated in article III, shall be submitted to the International Court of Justice at the request of any of the parties to the dispute.
Article X
The present Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall bear the date of 9 December 1948.
Article XI
The present Convention shall be open until 31 December 1949 for signature on behalf of any Member of the United Nations and of any non-member State to which an invitation to sign has been addressed by the General Assembly.
The present Convention shall be ratified, and the instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
After 1 January 1950, the present Convention may be acceded to on behalf of any Member of the United Nations and of any non-member State which has received an invitation as aforesaid.
Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article XII
Any Contracting Party may at any time, by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, extend the application of the present Convention to all or any of the territories for the conduct of whose foreign relations that Contracting Party is responsible.
Article XIII
On the day when the first twenty instruments of ratification or accession have been deposited, the Secretary-General shall draw up a proces-verbal and transmit a copy thereof to each Member of the United Nations and to each of the non-member States contemplated in article XI.
The present Convention shall come into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.
Any ratification or accession effected, subsequent to the latter date shall become effective on the ninetieth day following the deposit of the instrument of ratification or accession.

Article XIV
The present Convention shall remain in effect for a period of ten years as from the date of its coming into force.
It shall thereafter remain in force for successive periods of five years for such Contracting Parties as have not denounced it at least six months before the expiration of the current period.
Denunciation shall be effected by a written notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article XV
If, as a result of denunciations, the number of Parties to the present Convention should become less than sixteen, the Convention shall cease to be in force as from the date on which the last of these denunciations shall become effective.
Article XVI
A request for the revision of the present Convention may be made at any time by any Contracting Party by means of a notification in writing addressed to the Secretary-General.
The General Assembly shall decide upon the steps, if any, to be taken in respect of such request.

Article XVII
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify all Members of the United Nations and the non-member States contemplated in article XI of the following:
(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions received in accordance with article XI;
(b) Notifications received in accordance with article XII;
(c) The date upon which the present Convention comes into force in accordance with article XIII;
(d) Denunciations received in accordance with article XIV;
(e) The abrogation of the Convention in accordance with article XV;
(f) Notifications received in accordance with article XVI.
Article XVIII
The original of the present Convention shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.
A certified copy of the Convention shall be transmitted to each Member of the United Nations and to each of the non-member States contemplated in article XI.

Article XIX
The present Convention shall be registered by the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the date of its coming into force.


 Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory
Limitations to War Crimes Against Humanity,
G.A. res. 2391 (XXIII), annex, 23 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 18) at 40, U.N. Doc. A/7218 (1968), entered into force Nov. 11, 1970.
PREAMBLE
The States Parties to the present Convention,
Recalling resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations 3 (I) of 13 February 1946 and 170 (II) of 31 October 1947 on the extradition and punishment of war criminals, resolution 95 (I) of 11 December 1946 affirming the principles of international law recognized by the Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Nurnberg, and the judgement of the Tribunal, and resolutions 2184(XXI) of 12 December 1966 and 2202(XXI) of 16 December 1966 which expressly condemned as crimes against humanity the violation of the economic and political rights of the indigenous population on the one hand and the policies of apartheid on the other,

Recalling resolutions of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations 1074 D (XXXIX) of 28 July 1965 and 1158 (XLI) of 5 August 1966 on the punishment of war criminals and of persons who have committed crimes against humanity,
Noting that none of the solemn declarations, instruments or conventions relating to the prosecution and punishment of war crimes and crimes against humanity made provision for a period of limitation,
Considering that war crimes and crimes against humanity are among the gravest crimes in international law,
Convinced that the effective punishment of war crimes and crimes against humanity is an important element in the prevention of such crimes, the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, the encouragement of confidence, the furtherance of co-operation among peoples and the promotion of international peace and security,
Noting that the application to war crimes and crimes against humanity of the rules of municipal law relating to the period of limitation for ordinary crimes is a matter of serious concern to world public opinion, since it prevents the prosecution and punishment of persons responsible for those crimes,
Recognizing that it is necessary and timely to affirm in international law, through this Convention, the principle that there is no period of limitation for war crimes and crimes against humanity, and to secure its universal application,
Have agreed as follows:
Article I
No statutory limitation shall apply to the following crimes, irrespective of the date of their commission:
(a) War crimes as they are defined in the Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Nurnberg, of 8 August 1945 and confirmed by resolutions 3 (1) of 13 February 1946 and 95 (I) of 11 December 1946 of the General Assembly of the United Nations, particularly the "grave breaches" enumerated in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the protection of war victims;(b) Crimes against humanity whether committed in time of war or in time of peace as they are defined in the Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Nurnberg, of 8 August 1945 and confirmed by resolutions 3 (I) of 13 February 1946 and 95 (I) of 11 December 1946 of the General Assembly of the United Nations, eviction by armed attack or occupation and inhuman acts resulting from the policy of apartheid, and the crime of genocide as defined in the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, even if such acts do not constitute a violation of the domestic law of the country in which they were committed.
Article II
If any of the crimes mentioned in article I is committed, the provisions of this Convention shall apply to representatives of the State authority and private individuals who, as principals or accomplices, participate in or who directly incite others to the commission of any of those crimes, or who conspire to commit them, irrespective of the degree of completion, and to representatives of the State authority who tolerate their commission.
Article III
The States Parties to the present Convention undertake to adopt all necessary domestic measures, legislative or otherwise, with a view to making possible the extradition, in accordance with international law, of the persons referred to in article II of this Convention.
Article IV
The States Parties to the present Convention undertake to adopt, in accordance with their respective constitutional processes, any legislative or other measures necessary to ensure that statutory or other limitations shall not apply to the prosecution and punishment of the crimes referred to in articles I and II of this Convention and that, where they exist, such limitations shall be abolished.
Article V
This Convention shall, until 31 December 1969, be open for signature by any State Member of the United Nations or member of any of its specialized agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency, by any State Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and by any other State which has been invited by the General Assembly of the United Nations to become a Party to this Convention.
Article VI
This Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article VII
This Convention shall be open to accession by any State referred to in article 5. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary- General of the United Nations.
Article VIII
1. This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the tenth instrument of ratification or accession.
2. For each State ratifying this Convention or acceding to it after the deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or accession.
Article IX
1. After the expiry of a period of ten years from the date on which this Convention enters into force, a request for the revision of the Convention may be made at any time by any Contracting Party by means of a notification in writing addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
2. The General Assembly of the United Nations shall decide upon the steps, if any, to be taken in respect of such a request.
Article X
1. This Convention shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of this Convention to all States referred to in article V.
3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States referred to in article V of the following particulars:

(a) Signatures of this Convention, and instruments of ratification and accession deposited under articles V, VI and VII;
(b) The date of entry into force of this Convention in accordance with article VIII;
(c) Communications received under article IX.
Article XI
This Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall bear the date of 26 November 1968.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized for that purpose, have signed this Convention.
Principles of international co-operation in the detection, arrest, extradition and punishment of persons guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity.
General Assembly resolution 3071 (XXVIII) of 3 December 1973
The General Assembly,
Recalling its resolutions 2583 (XXIV) of 15 December 1969, 2712 (XXV) of 15 December 1970, 2840 (XXVI) of 18 December 1971 and 3020 (XXVII) of 18 December 1972,
Taking into account the special need for international action in order to ensure the prosecution and punishment of persons guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity,
Having considered the draft principles of international co-operation in the detection, arrest, extradition and punishment of persons guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity,
Declares that the United Nations, in pursuance of the principles and purposes set forth in the Charter concerning the promotion of co-operation between peoples and the maintenance of international peace and security, proclaims the following principles of international co-operation in the detection, arrest, extradition and punishment of persons guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity:

1. War crimes and crimes against humanity, wherever they are committed, shall be subject to investigation and the persons against whom there is evidence that they have committed such crimes shall be subject to tracing, arrest, trial and, if found guilty, to punishment.
2. Every State has the right to try its own nationals for war crimes against humanity.
3. States shall co-operate with each other on a bilateral and multilateral basis with a view to halting and preventing war crimes and crimes against humanity, and shall take the domestic and international measures necessary for that purpose.
4. States shall assist each other in detecting, arresting and bringing to trial persons suspected of having committed such crimes and, if they are found guilty, in punishing them.
5. Persons against whom there is evidence that they have committed war crime and crimes against humanity shall be subject to trial and, if found guilty, to punishment, as a general rule in the countries in which they committed those crimes. In that connection, States shall co-operate on questions of extraditing such persons.
6. States shall co-operate with each other in the collection of information and evidence which would help to bring to trial the persons indicated in paragraph 5 above and shall exchange such information.
7. In accordance with artic1e I of the Dec1aration on Territorial Asylum of 14 December 1967, States shall not grant asylum to any person with respect to whom there are serious reasons for considering that he has committed a crime against peace, a war crime or a crime against humanity.
8. States shall not take any legislative or other measures which may be prejudicial to the international obligations they have assumed in regard to the detection, arrest, extradition and punishment of persons guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity.
9. In co-operating with a view to the detection, arrest and extradition of persons against whom there is evidence that they have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity and, if found guilty, their punishment, States shall act in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and of the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.
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