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Wednesday, April 18, 2012

TITANIC - Titanic Lifeboat Occupancy Totals


Titanic LifeboaOccupancy Totals

By Bill Wormstedt and Tad Fitch
© 2011 by Bill Wormstedt and Tad Fitch



Ithe aftermath of the Titanic disaster in 1912, both America and Britain held inquiriesiaattempt to find the causes of the accidentaninecessaryto make corrections or revisions tthe existing safety lawand regulations. As part of the proceedingsthe BritisInquirattempted to determine the ordeand timeat whicthe lifeboats were loweredand how many people where ieach lifeboat.  Unfortunately, very little of the Inquiry testimony mentions specific details of the numbers of passengers by class ieach boatand no list of whicindividuals were iwhich lifeboat was madesthe BritisAssessors were only able tgive rougestimates of the numbers.
One of the only other publisheanalyses of lifeboat occupancy rates was completed by Colonel ArchibalGracie.  A First Class survivor rescued atop Collapsible B, Gracie’s findingwere publishein 1913 as part of his boo“The TrutAbout the Titanic.”  Gracie was able tcorrespond with a number of othesurvivorsand was able to obtain additional accounts and information not available at the Inquiries. However, his data is heavily slantetowards First Class passengers and crewmemberswith not a lot of detail regarding the Second and Third Class passengers.
The British Inquiry did not attempt to assign individual survivors to lifeboats, as Gracie did.  However, as part of the final report they published, Report on the Loss of the Titanic,” they di giv thei estimate total of  the  survivor i eac individua lifeboat.    I sominstances, these totals agree with Gracie’s totals, but not in all cases The following table showtheir publishetotalsand the differences betweethe twsources:



Various Estimates othe Number oSurvivors by Lifeboat,
As Picked up by the Carpathia
Boat Number
British Inquiry
Gracie
1
12
12
2
26
25
3
50
40
4
40
40
5
41
41
6
28
28 (from BI)
7
27
28
8
39
28
9
56
56
10
55
55
11
70
70
12
42
43
13
64
64
14
63
60



15
70
70 (from BI)
16
56
56
A
picked up by D
picked up by D
B
picked up by 12
picked up by 12
C
71
39
D
44
40
Totals
854
795

In the tablabove, the assessors of the British Inquirand Colonel Gracie included the survivors from Collapsibles A and B ithe totals for D and No. 12, respectively As can be seen, when the estimated number of occupants in each boat are added up, they far surpass the actual number of survivors According to highly detailed research by researchers Lester MitchamHermann Söldner, and others, the exact number of people rescued by the Carpathia was 712, the same number as listed ithe final British Inquiry Report, a figure that is nearly universallaccepted ithe field of Titanic research at the current time.
Obviously, both the British Inquirand Colonel Gracie overestimated the number of people in the individual lifeboats This article ian attempt to correct some of these overestimatesand determine the actual number of people that were rescueieaclifeboat.



Lifeboat launch sequence

Ithe final report of the BritisInquirythe Assessors included a chart of the times theestimated each lifeboat left Titanic.  Subsequent research has showthat their times and sequence of events do not entirely agree witthe testimony at botInquiries, or witeyewitnesaccounts from sources given outside of the inquiries.  The following chart and supporting article
clarifies and corrects these errors The most significant differences between this timeline and the
BritisInquiry timeline are:

· Lifeboat No. 8 being lowered ahead of No. 6
· The 3 port aft lifeboats being lowered before the starboard aft lifeboats
· Lifeboat No. 10 being lowereaftethe otheaft port lifeboatsand the aft port boats leaving ithe opposite order of what the BritisInquiry saithey did.
· Collapsible C being lowereafteNo. 2 and No. 4, as the forward Well
Deck begatsubmerge.

Once the ordewas givetstart loading the lifeboatsthe officers igeneral starteloading and lowering the lifeboats from forward tstern.  First OfficeMurdoch, Third OfficePitmaand FiftOfficer Lowe worked on the forward starboard lifeboatswhile Second OfficeLightoller tried to loapassengers ithe forward port boats.  Ithe meantime, CaptaiSmith and ChieOfficeWilde were busy generally superintending the evacuation and sending for aid for the ship.  Despite popular belief, there is substantial evidence that Smitwas heavily involveiall aspects of the evacuation and boat loading/loweringand that ChieOfficeWilde was
heavily involveithe loading of the boats as well FourtOfficeBoxhall was put icharge of sending up distress rocketsand SixtOfficeMoody was still busy uncovering the lifeboats athe port stern.  As the evacuation progressed, the officers movetthe stern to load boats and


control the crowds gathering thereisome cases leaving the remaining fore boats to be set up and readied for use later on. The four collapsible boats could not be hooked up to the falls or loaded until the forward davits were clear of Lifeboats No. 1 and No. 2, and were not utilized until the rest of the lifeboats were away from the ship.

Lifeboat Launch Times Overview
Altimes approximatto 5 minutes,
and refeto the beginning of lowering from the dec(morspecific times listed iparenthesis when applicable)
From TitanicThe LifeboaLaunch Sequence Re-Examined
By Bill Wormstedt, Tad Fitch and George Behe

Port Lifeboats
Starboard Lifeboats
Time
Boat
Launched by:
Boat
Launched by:
12:40


7
Murdoch, Lowe
12:45


5
Murdoch, LowePitman (at 12:43)
12:50




12:55


3
Murdoch, Lowe
1:00
8
Lightoller, Wilde, Smith


1:05


1
Murdoch, Lowe
1:10
6
Smith, Lightoller


1:15




1:20
16
Moody


1:25
14
Lowe, Wilde, Lightoller


1:30
12
Wilde, Lightoller
9
Murdoch, Moody
1:35


11
Murdoch
1:40


13
15
Murdoch, Moody on A deck
Murdoch, Moody on A deck (at 1:41)
1:45
2
Wilde, Smith


1:50
10
4
Murdoch
Lightoller


1:55




2:00


C
Murdoch, Wilde
2:05
D
Lightoller, Wilde


2:10




2:15
B
Lightoller (floated off)
A
Murdoch, Moody (floated off)
2:20
Titanic sinks


 
The small group of survivorrescued in Boat No. 1 posed together onboard the Carpathia
for this picture. (Authors Collection)

Fifth Officer Lowe, who helped load and lower Boat No. 1, estimated 27 people were aboard,28  Lookout Symons originally estimated there were 14 to 20 at the American Inquiry,29 then lowered his estimate to 12 by the time he testified at the British Inquiry.30    Hendrickson’s estimate was fairly accurate; he said 12 or 13 were aboard, including 5 passengers, 2 seamenand 5 firemeand trimmers.31


Boat 6 - Launched at about 1:10am ATS under the supervision of Captain Smith and Second
Officer Lightoller.  Quartermaster Robert Hichens was put icharge.
Lightoller, who did not leave in No. 6, estimated 35 occupantwere aboard when it walowered.32    Major Arthur Peuchen testified that 24 occupants had beeaboard; himself, 20 women, 1 quartermaster, 1 sailor, and 1 stowaway.33    Lookout Fredrick Fleet testified that 30 were aboard34, and Quartermaster Hichens testified that there were 38 women, 1 seamaand himself, 2 male passengers, 1 Italian boy, and the Canadian major aboard,35 for a total 
of 44.
According to both passengers Margaret Brown36 and Steward Charles Andrews,37 crewmawas transferred intNo. 6 from Andrews’ boatNo. 16.
Peuchen’s count is verspecific, but lower than that given by Fleet, Hichens and Lightoller.  Peuchen mentions the occupants of the lifeboat actually having been counted, so hitotal of 24 is probably very close tthe actual numbeaboard.
There are multiple photographs of lifeboat No. 6 as she approached Carpathia.   The first
below (A) allows a count to be taken, of approximately 25 people second photo, taken evecloser to the rescue ship, is very fuzz(B), and was heavily retouched to create the third photo (C).
Comparing the three photos, we can see that most of the people aboard are in the same placein all three pictures Pictures B and C both have Hichens at the stern cropped off, but hcan be accounted for, as it is doubtful that he left his position athe tiller In Picture B, near the front of the boat, there appears to be something on the forward thwart, extending a little beyond the starboard gunwale, and there appeato be shoes, bottom up, in the center of the thwart. Comparing this to the retouched Picture C, it appears the artist missed this detail, and chose to draw aempty thwartinstead of what appears to be a person leaning ovethe side.
An examination of Picture C, the retouched photo, yields a count of 21 Accounting foHichens, who was out of frame whethe picture was taken, there would be 22 aboard.  However, as was pointed outthis drawing can not be entirely trusted.  There is at least one more person, on the forward thrwart  and possiblanother  somewhere in Picture B, which were not accounted for in the retoucheversion Picture A yields a count of around 25, however, even in this clearer photo, it is hard ttell what is a full person, versus a shadow or part of another.
Wheall of the evidence, both eyewitness and photographic alike, is examined, it appears that No. 6 actuallcontained around 24 people as it approached Carpathia, very close to whaPeuchen said, but very much in line with both Fleet and his estimates This count of 24 includethe crewmawho was transferred from No. 16 tNo. 6.



Picture A
Lifeboat No. 6 approaching Carpathia (National Archives and Records Administration, Northeast Region)

Picture B
A closer photograph of Boat No. 6, as it reached Carpathia.
(Brooklyn Daily Eagle, April 20, 1912)

Picture C
The heavily retouched version of Picture B Note that several detaildo not match those in the originaphotograph, including what appear to be the shapes of additional occupantin the forward half of the boat, which are missing in this version.


  
Collapsible D
White dots indicate where occupants are clearly visible in this photograph of Collapsible D, at least
35 in all It is possible that additional occupants are partially obscured or blocked from view(National Archives and Records Administration, Northeast Region)


Lifeboat Occupancy


Boat 7 - Launched at about 12:40am ATS under the supervision of First Officer Murdoch, supported by Fifth Officer Lowe.  Lookout George Hogg was put in charge.
Third Officer Pitman, who helped load and lower the boat, estimated 30 to 40 people were in it at that time.1    Fifth Officer Lowe, who assisted him, estimated 50.2  Lookout Hogg, who was in charge of the lifeboat once it reached the water, said it lowered with around 42 aboard, but then 6 more were transferred into it from No. 5, giving a total of around 48.3
Passengers Mr. and Mrs. Dickinson  Bishop both gave a count of 28,4  and passenger J. R. McGough also said 28, plus 5 transferred from No. 5.5    William Sloper stated No. 7 contained 29, including 3 crew members.6   Mr. George Harder, an occupant of No. 5, said No. 7 had 29 in it, before 4 or 5 people were transferred out.7 The crew, with the exception of Lookout Hogg, gave rough estimates, some fairly high. The passengers were consistent in giving lower and more specific estimates, and Mrs. Bishop mentioned that they counted off just after they reached the water.   The actual number of occupants was probably closer to 28, as supported by the passengers’ statements.  With the additional 6 transferred in from No. 5 once the boats were afloat, 34 is the best estimate of the number of people picked up in this boat by the Carpathia.

Boat 5 - Launched at about 12:45am ATS under the supervision of First Officer Murdoch, with the assistance of Third Officer Pitman and Fifth Officer Lowe.  Fifth Officer Pitman was put in charge of this boat by Murdoch.Pitman estimated that the lifeboat contained 40 people, including 6 men.8   Steward Henry Etches said No. 5 had 42; 6 crew, a steward and himself, an officer, 4 male passengers and 1 stewardess, in addition to a number of women.9  Mr. George Harder said 36 were aboard, including 30 women, the officer & a sailor, 3 other crewmembers, and that 4 or 5 were later transferred to lifeboat No. 7.10    Mrs. Catherine Crosby claimed the lifeboat had 38 people, 2 officers and the rest first class passengers.11   William Sloper, an occupant of No. 7, which met up with No. 5, said that the latter contained 35 people12.  Max Frolicher estimated 36 people were aboard, and Anna Warren’s estimate was 35 or 36.13   Catherine Crosby also said 36 people were aboard.14 The numbers given are all in the 35 to 42 range, and based on the bulk of evidence, an estimate of 36 is probably close to the actual total.  The passengers were reluct ant to board the boats earlier in the sinking, and the earlier boats were significantly under loaded when lowered away.  Since around 6 people were transferred out to Boat No. 7, Boat No. 5 reached the Carpathia with around 30 occupants.

Boat 3 - Launched at about 12:55am ATS under the supervision of First Officer Murdoch, supported by Fifth Officer Lowe.  Able Bodied Seaman George Moore was put in charge. Seaman Moore estimated 32 people were in the lifeboat – 2 seamen, a few men, 5 or 6 firemen, and no stewards or stewardesses.15    Lookout Symons, who helped load the boat from the boat deck, estimated 40 were aboard.16   The highest estimate of the number in this boat was from Fifth Officer Lowe who helped load and lower the lifeboat, and guessed that there were 40 to 45 people aboard.17    (In general, Lowe’s estimates of the number of occupants aboard the lifeboats he helped load and/or lower were amongst the highest amongst the range of estimates given by survivors for those individual boats.) Passenger  estimates  of  the  number  aboard  Boat  No.  3  varied.    Mr.  Henry  Harper estimated that there were some 40 aboard, and said that the boat was far from full.18   Mr Thomas Cardeza said that he counted 38 heads, and judged that a few more were probably obscured in the bottom of the boat, which was not overcrowded.19    Mr. Albert Dick agreed with Seaman Moore’s estimate, and said that there 32 aboard, mostly men.20     Mrs. Edith Graham gave a similar number, saying that there were 34 people aboard, including two sailors, two ship’s boys, and a half dozen or more men.21     Margaretta Spedden also estimated 32, 10 of which she believed were stokers and sailors.22 A count of around 32 aboard appears to be the most accurate estimate of the number aboard Boat No. 3, given that this specific number was mentioned by both a crewmember and a passenger, and that the earlier lifeboats were lowered far from full.

Boat 8 - Launched at about 1:00am ATS under the supervision of Captain Smith, Chief Officer Wilde, and Second Officer Lightoller.  Able Bodied Seaman Thomas Jones was put in charge. Seaman Jones gave 38 as the number of occupants; 35 plus himself, a lady and a child .23 Steward Crawford, also saved in the lifeboat, estimated 35 to 40 passengers were aboard, all women, and 4 men.24    Passenger Mrs. J. White claimed 26 (22 women, 4 men) were aboard,25 Mrs. Caroline Bonnell estimated that there were 20 women, 2 sailors and 1 steward aboard for a total of 23,26  and Mrs. E. Taussig said 24 were aboard, and that 4 were stewards and 20 were women.27 Both Jones and Crawford give higher counts than the passengers, but that is a common thread for most of the crew estimates.  Given this trend, and that No. 8 was lowered relatively early in the sinking, the current authors feel that the passenger estimates are closer to the correct count, and that based on the evidence, around 25 individuals were aboard.

Boat 1 - Launched at about 1:05am ATS under the supervision of First Officer Murdoch and supported by Fifth Officer Lowe.  Lookout George Symons was put in charge. Unlike other lifeboats, the number of individuals known to have been aboard Boat No. 1 is definitively known – 12.  Eleven occupants testified at the inquiries, and by cross-referencing their testimonies, all of the occupants can be identified by name - Lord & Lady Duff Gordon, Miss Francatelli, A. Solomon, C.E.H. Stengel, Lookout Symons, Seaman Horswill, Firemen Collins, Pusey, Hendrickson and Taylor, and Trimmer Sheath.  Carpathia passenger Dr. Frank Blackmarr took group photographs of the occupants of this boat, confirming the small number of individuals that were aboard.

Boat 12 - Launched at about 1:30am ATS under the supervision of Chief Officer Wilde, with Second Officer Lightoller assisting.  Able Bodied Seaman John Poingdestre was put in charge. Seaman Frederick Clench testified that 40 to 50 people were aboard, which included 14 to 15 passengers, and 2 seamen.49   Seaman Poingdestre estimated 40 women and children were aboard, but a laternewspaper account he gave adds 2 sailors to this count.50    Passenger Lillian Bentham said there were “more than thirty” aboard No. 12, before they pulled “20 men” into the boat off of Collapsible B.51   PassengerVictor Sunderland, rescued from Collapsible B, says there were 72 aboard after rescuing the survivors on his boat.52   Lightoller estimated there were around 75 in the lifeboat after picking him and the other survivors up from Collapsible B, he counted 65, not including himself, and guessed the rest.53 Poingdestre’s total count was 42.  No. 12 also picked up around 11 people from No. 14 when Lowe was moving his people out of the boat in preparation for going back to the site of the sinking.  It also picked up around 16 of the approximately 28 surviving men on Collapsible B, and reached the Carpathia with around 69 people aboard.

Boat 9 - Launched at about 1:30am ATS under the supervision of First Officer Murdoch on the boat deck, assisted by Sixth Officer Moody. Boatswain  Albert  Haines was put  in  charge, although multiple survivor accounts indicate the belief that Able Bodied Seaman George McGough was in charge ofthis boat, probably due to the fact that he sat at the tiller. Quartermaster Walter Wynn was aboard the lifeboat, and said it contained 56 passengers – 42 women, 4 stewards, 4 seamen and 6 men passengers.54    Haines estimated there were 60 occupants aboard, 2 sailors, 3 or 4 stewards, 3 or 4 firemen, and 2 or 3 men passengers, with the remainder women.55    Fireman George Kemish claimed that No. 9 was dangerously overloaded with almost 80 aboard the boat.56     Passenger Bertha Watt said No. 9 contained 46 or 47.57 Passenger Ellen Toomey was in the same boat as Watt, but stated that there were only 35 in the boat, including herself, her mother, and 3 sailors and two men.58 All of these crewmembers gave estimates substantially higher than the passengers did for this boat, and some of their numbers are simply not believable, particularly considering that the capacity for this type of lifeboat was 65.  The current authors believe that the evidence supports that the passenger counts are closer to the truth, and that No. 9 was lowered with around 40 people aboard.

Boat 11 - Launched at about 1:35am ATS under the supervision of First Officer Murdoch.  Able Bodied Seaman Sidney Humphries was put in charge. Steward Edward Wheelton said the lifeboat contained 58 people, with 7 or 8 of them being crewmembers, and 1 a male passenger.59   Seaman Walter Brice estimated 60 were aboard, with 51 passengers,himself, the mate, and 1 fireman.60   Steward Charles Mackay claimed there were 74 to 78 occupants, including 8 children.61    Steward Joseph Wheat agreed with Mackay, saying 74 were aboard, detailing it as 51women, 9 children, 7 stewards, 2 sailors, 1 fireman, and himself, and 3 male passengers.62, Passenger Nellie Becker guessed that there were 50 people in the boat,63 while Elizabeth Nye guessed that there were 30 or 40.64    Passengers Jennie Hansen and Jane Quick agreed that around 50 wereloaded into the lifeboat.65 Boat No. 11 was one of the most heavily loaded boats when lowered, although 74 to 78 aboard seems like an unrealistically high total considering that the capacity of the boat was 65. Mrs Nye’s total isprobably too low, considering how far off from the other estimates it is.  An estimate of around 50 is probably more accurate.

Boat 13 - Launched at about 1:40am ATS under the supervision of First Officer Murdoch on the boat deck, with Sixth Officer Moody assisting on A deck.  Leading Fireman Frederick Barrett assumed command ofthe lifeboat when it reached the water, although he later relinquished control of the boat to another crewmember because he was extremely cold due to the lightweight clothes he was still wearing after leaving theboiler rooms. Fireman George Beauchamp estimated 60 to 70 occupants were in the boat, while Barrett estimated 70 were aboard, with 5 or 6 being women, and 1 or 2 children.66   Passenger Lawrence Beesley, writing in1913, indicated that there were about 35 passengers, and 25 crew aboard, for a total of 60.67   Passenger Mary Hewlett guessed 50 people were on board.68 No. 13 was another heavily loaded boat, with about 55 people in it.

Boat 15 - Launched at about 1:41am ATS under the supervision of First Officer Murdoch on the boat deck, with Sixth Officer Moody assisting on A deck.  Fireman Frank Dymond assumed command of the lifeboat when it reached the water, however Steward Rule claimed Steward Jack Stewart was incharge.69   This was obviously a mistake, though it is possible that Stewart was put in charge before Dymond boarded the boat, and subsequently relinquished control. Steward Samuel Rule estimated 68 occupants were in the boat, including 4 or 5 women, 3 children, and the rest men.70    Trimmer George Cavell thought No. 15 contained 70 people, including 60 women andchildren, probably from third class.71 Steward John Hart felt “about 70” were in the boat when they reached the water.72   Steward Walter Nichols said there were 10 crewmembers manning the boat, plus approximately 50 passengers, plus some picked up from the water.73   FiremanFrank Dymond said 68 were aboard, including 22 women and 6 babies.74 Passenger Charles Dahl gave a high count of 82 in the lifeboat.75 Rule, Cavell, Hart and Dymond all agreed on a number of around 68 to 70 people.  Rule claimed that the lifeboat was filled primarily with men, while Cavell and Hart thought they were mostly women andchildren.  While these numbers are likely an overestimate, this was certainly one of the most heavily loaded boats when launched.  Rule claimed that the gunwales of the boat were far down in the water,76 alsoindicating a heavily loaded boat.  This detail is supported by the private accounts of Bertha Mulvihill, a third class passenger rescued in No. 15, who stated that when she leaned against the gunwale, it was so low that her hair dangled in the water.  With no evidence to thecontrary, a total of around 68 appears to be the most likely total for this boat.

Boat 2 - Launched at about 1:45am ATS under the supervision of both Chief Officer Wilde and Captain Smith.  Fourth Officer Boxhall was put in charge. Both Fourth Officer Boxhall and Able Bodied Seaman Frank Osman estimated 25 to 30 people were in the lifeboat, and even detailed the same numbers of sailors, stewards and passengers – 1 officer, 1sailor, 1 steward, 1 cook, and 1 male passenger, with the remainder being women.77   Steward Johnstone gave an estimate of 23 to 25 aboard.78 Passengers gave lower estimates for this boat – Mrs. Mahala Douglas said 18 to 20 were aboard,79  Mrs. Malvina Cornell said 23,80  and Mrs. Minnie Coutts stated more than once that there were 17 aboard– an officer, a seaman, and a male passenger, and the remainder were women and children.81    Mr. Anton Kink also stated that there were 17 aboard, including ten women, three children, two sailors, himself, and oneother occupant.82 Boxhall  and  Osman,  in  their  testimony,  gave  *exactly*  the  same  breakdown  of passengers  aboard  No.  2.    The  passengers  give  similar  details,  however,  *none*  of  the passengers mentionthe cook.  Based on the similarities in their counts, the authors feel it very possible,  even  likely,  that  Osman,  who  testified  April  30th,  just  repeated  the  testimony of Boxhall, who had been previouslyquestioned on April 25th.  If this is the case, then Boxhall is the only one who suggested a cook was in the boat, and at most only two of them reported the cook if Osman wasn’t repeated what Boxhall had said. The present authors believe 17 people aboard is close to the correct amount, since crewmembers tended to inflate the estimated numbers aboard each boat when they testified, and the passengers indicated thatthere were far fewer aboard this boat.  Additionally, there are 17 survivors who can be firmly established as having been aboard No. 2: Ms. Elizabeth Allen, Mrs. Charlotte Appleton, Mrs. Malvina Cornell, Mrs.Minnie Coutts, Master William Coutts, Master Neville Coutts, Mrs. Mahala Douglas, Mrs. Emilie Kreuchen, Mr. Anton Kink, Mrs. Luise Kink, Ms. Luise Kink, Ms. Bertha Leroy, Ms. Georgette Madill, Mrs. Elizabeth Robert, Fourth Officer Boxhall, Steward James Johnstone, and Able Bodied Seaman Frank Osman.83

Boat 10 - Launched at about 1:50am ATS under the supervision of First Officer Murdoch.  Able Bodied Seaman Edward Buley was put in charge; however, once afloat, he was transferred to Boat No. 14 by FifthOfficer Lowe, to help go back into the wreckage to look for survivors. Seaman Frank Evans estimated that there were 57 occupants aboard, which were himself, a seaman (Buley), a steward, 7 or 8 children, and the rest women.84    Buley said 60 to 70 were aboard, including asteward, a fireman, Evans, and himself.85    Steward Burke stated around 60 were in the lifeboat, including 4 children.86 Since No. 10 was more heavily loaded than Boats Nos. 4, 12, and Collapsible D, it appears that no one was transferred from No. 14 to No. 10.  No one in No. 10 testified to picking up any people atthat time. Evans, Buley, and Burke are all in very close agreement, supporting that the last of the aft port boats lowered had around 57 to 60 people aboard.  However, by the time No. 10 reached the Carpathia, bothEvans and Buley had moved to No. 14, leaving No. 10 with around 55 people aboard when they boarded the Carpathia.

Boat 4 - Launched at about 1:50am ATS under the supervision of Second Officer Lightoller. Quartermaster Walter Perkis was put in charge. Second Officer Lightoller, in his 1940 book, estimated that 40 people were in No. 4 when it  lowered.    Lightoller  only  helped  load  and  lower  the  lifeboat,  he  did  not  leave  in  it.87 Quartermaster  Perkis estimated  that  there  were  42  occupants  aboard  –  3  sailors,  including himself, and 39 passengers.  He also said that an additional 8 people were picked up from the ocean, and 2 of themdied in the lifeboat.88   Greaser Thomas Ranger, who climbed down the falls that previously had previously held boat Boat No. 16 into the boat, guessed that No. 4 eventually contained  49  people.     He  said  that Perkis  and  Steward  William  Foley  were  the  only crewmembers aboard the lifeboat until Greaser Frederick Scott and 7 others were picked up from the sea.89    Steward Andrew Cunningham estimated thatthere were 49 people aboard after the men were picked up from the water.  However, he said he could not count how many were in the boat, and only gave an estimate when pushed for one by the examiner duringhis Inquiry testimony.90 Lightoller’s estimate of 40 people being loaded aboard this boat does not include the 8 people picked up from the water.  Lamptrimmer Hemming also estimated there were 40 aboard, before 8 men, himselfincluded, were pulled from the water.91   Mrs. Virginia Clark said that No.
4 could have held 15 more when lowered.  The capacity of the boat was 65, so this places her estimate around 50.  However, in another account, she gave a more specific count of 43 – Mrs. Madeleine Astor, Mrs. Clara Hays, herself, and 40 others.92    These estimates do not appear to include the peoplepicked up from the water either. Other estimates vary widely.   Mrs. Madeleine Astor reportedly said that there were 12 other women, a man in charge of the boat who she wrongly believed was “one of the ship’s pursers,” and a manwho jumped into the boat, and herself, for a total of 15, before the men were pulled from the water.  However, this account is second-hand, having been relayed through one of her friends, and may be of limitedreliability.93 Mrs. Elizabeth Eustis said there were about 30 aboard when the boat was lowered.94 Again, this does not appear to include those picked up from the water.  Mrs. Martha Stephenson said that there were 23 aboard when the boat was lowered – 20 women, 1 man, plus two other men who came down the falls to help man the boat.95 (Quartermaster Perkis testified that he and a sailor were sent downthe falls to man the boat.) Mrs. Emily Ryerson said that there were 24 women and one seaman aboard, when the order to lower away was given.  She says that another sailor was sent down the falls to man theboat, plus several other men who were not sailors climbed down the falls into the boat, for a total of around 29 aboard, before anyone was picked up from the water.96 The evidence and the process of elimination supports that Boat No. 4 picked up around 10 people from No. 14, as Lowe transferred people out of his lifeboat before returning to the wreckage to look for survivors in the water.  The crewmembers gave estimates of about 40 being aboard beforeanyone was rescued from the water, while there is evidence from some passengers that there were about 30 aboard before anyone was pulled from the water.  Given the tendency of crewmembers to overestimate thenumber of people in each boat, it appears likely that about 30 were aboard when the boat lowered, plus 8 pulled from the water, another 10 from No. 14, and 12 from the overturned Collapsible B, which means No. 4 reached the Carpathia with around 60 people aboard.

Collapsible C – Launched at about 2:00am ATS under the supervision of Chief Officer Wilde and First Officer Murdoch.  Quartermaster George Rowe was ordered to assume command of the lifeboat. Quartermaster  Rowe  estimated  that  there  were  39  occupants  (himself,  3  firemen,  1 steward, Ismay and 1 other male passenger), plus 4 oriental stowaways, for a total of 43 aboard.97 Pantryman Albert Pearcey gave a high value of 71, which was 66 passengers, all women; and 3 fireman, himself, and the quartermaster.98    Passenger Bruce Ismay estimated 45 were aboard, with 4 beingcrewmembers.99    Passenger William Carter testified to an occupancy of about 40, mostly women and children from steerage.100 Taking into consideration that the collapsibles were only designed to hold 40 persons, Pearcey’s numbers cannot be right.   Rowe’s numbers are very specific, close to Ismay and Carter’s estimates, and his estimate of 43 was probably correct, or very near to it.

Collapsible D – Launched at about 2:05am ATS under the supervision of Chief Officer Wilde and Second Officer Lightoller.  Quartermaster Arthur Bright was placed in command. Lightoller, who helped load and lower the boat, but was not an occupant, estimated 15 to 20 people, including 1 seaman and 1 steward, were aboard.101   Quartermaster Bright said 25 were in the lifeboat, 10 or 12 were later transferred from another boat, and one seaman transferred out102.  StewardHardy estimated 25 were originally in the boat, and that Lowe transferred in 10 more people, for a total of 35.103    Seaman Lucas, who was lowered in Collapsible D, but later transferred to No. 12, said D originally contained 47 people, which were 40 women, 1 quartermaster,  2  foreigners, himself,  and  3  stowaways.104      Passenger  Hugh  Woolner,  who jumped into the lifeboat at the last minute as it was lowered past A deck, estimated 36 were aboard, consisting of one sailor, one steward, andone other; plus himself, his friend Mauritz Håkan Björnström-Steffansson, plus another man pulled from the sea, and 30 women and children.105 Lightoller’s count is an estimate.   Bright and Hardy agreed that there were 25 aboard when the collapsible was lowered, plus 10 or 12 transferred in by Lowe later.  So, Collapsible D must have left the Titanic with around 20 people, in close agreement with Lightoller, picked up 3 male passengers between A deck and the water, per Woolner, plus the 12 transferred in from No. 14 later, giving a total of 35 aboard.  A visual count of the number of occupants in Collapsible D in a photograph of it approaching the Carpathia shows at least 35 people aboard, so a count of 35 seems very reasonable. Seaman Lucas testified that an unspecified number of people, including himself, were transferred out of  Collapsible D to Boat No. 12 (which he mistakenly called Boat No. 8),106 but much of this movementwas offset by people coming into Collapsible D from No. 14.  The net effect of this movement was the additional 12 people referred to in the paragraph above, as the visual count indicates that around 35 peoplewere in Collapsible D when she reached Carpathia. Seaman Lucas testified that an unspecified number of people, including himself, were transferred out of  Collapsible D to Boat No. 12 (which he mistakenly called Boat No. 8),106 but much of this movement was offset by people coming into Collapsible D from No. 14.  The net effect of this movement was the additional 12 people referred to in the paragraph above, as the visual count indicates that around 35 people were in Collapsible D when she reached Carpathia.



Collapsible A – This boat was washed off the boat deck swamped as it submerged around
 Quartermaster Arthur Bright was not on Collapsible A, but in Collapsible D, which was towed by No. 14, which picked up the survivors from Collapsible A.  Bright estimated that 14 people were picked up, 13 men and one woman, and that two bodies were left aboard .107 2:15am ATS.   First Officer Murdoch and Sixth Officer Moody were trying to attach the collapsible to the forward falls when the boat deck dipped under.   Consequently, no one was placed in charge of this lifeboat.
Steward Brown, who survived on Collapsible A, said 12 to 14 survivors were picked up in this boat.108   Fifth Officer Lowe in No. 14, which spotted Collapsible A and picked them up, claimed
21  survivors  were  aboard  it;  20  men  and  one  woman,  with  3  dead  bodies  left  aboard.109
Passenger Olaus Abelseth said 10 to 12 were aboard, including himself.110    In a private letter, George Rheims, a passenger, said “about 20 men and women” were aboard the collapsible originally, but 8 died during the night, for a rough estimate of 12 survivors;111 However, he later
Collapsible A washed off the ship, and nearly all occupants of the lifeboat climbed in from the water.  Over the course of the night, many died and fell, or were rolled back into the gave a more detailed description, stating that 13 or 14 were picked up, 3 dead bodies were left aboard, and that an additional 2-3 occupants had died during the night, whose bodies were not in the collapsible.112   Passenger William Mellors wrote that 20 to 30 clung to Collapsible A through the night, but only 10 to 12 survived to be picked up in the morning, and that 5 or 6 dead bodies were left in the boat.113sea.  The number left alive, when picked up by Collapsible D, was probably 12 to 13, with just one being a woman.  Lowe’s account is again quite a bit higher than the other estimates.

Collapsible B – This boat was washed off the boat deck upside-down at around 2:15am ATS. Second Officer Lightoller and a number of others pushed the boat from the roof of the Officers’ Quarters, where it landed upside down on the deck below, just as the boat deck dipped under, and washing it overboard.  Once he climbed aboard the lifeboat, Lightoller assumed command.
Passengers Archibald Gracie and John Thayer Jr. thought 30118 and 28,119 respectively, were rescued from the upturned boat.  Another passenger, Edward Dorkings, said 31 were rescued, 30 men and 1 woman, and of these, 3 died and were thrown overboard, and 2 others slipped off, leaving 26 to be rescued.120   Passenger Victor Sunderland claimed 28 were aboard when No. 14 appeared, but that 2 were dead.  It is unclear whether these 2 were part of his count is 28.121 Lightoller said that around 28 to 30 men were left on board the over-turned collapsible when they were picked up by No. 12 later that morning.114    Baker Charles Joughin, who spent part of the night partially submerged in the water, holding on to one of the men standing on the boat, estimated 20 to 25 men were aboard.115   Able Bodied Seaman Lucas, one of the crewmen in No. 12 (he mistakenly thought he was in No. 8), said they picked up 36 people from this boat.116     Marconi Operator Harold Bride thought 30 to 40 were left alive to be rescued.117 Passenger Lillian Bentham said there were “more than thirty” aboard No. 12, before they pulled “20 men” into the boat off of Collapsible B.122 Both  John  Thayer  Jr.  and  Archibald  Gracie  said  that  the  men  were  taken  off  of Collapsible B into two lifeboats, and Gracie said he had learned that they were No. 4 and No. 12.123   Thayer commented that about half went to each lifeboat.124   Lamptrimmer Hemmings also agreed that the men taken off went into two lifeboats,125 although he thought only 20 men were aboard Collapsible B, and only 4 or 5 were taken into No. 4, which was his boat.126   Passenger Martha Stephenson also thought “only a few” of the survivors were taken into No.4.127 Joughin’s lower estimate could be explained by him being in the water, and unable to accurately count the men standing on the overturned boat.  Bentham’s count is low compared to the bulk of the other estimates.  The actual count rescued by No. 4 and No. 12 appears to be a range from 28 to 30.  Of these, about 12 were transferred to No. 4, while about 16 were transferred to No. 12.
One final item that must be taken into account at this point, is that 4 people rescued by the lifeboats, and part of our counts above,   died and were buried from the Carpathia – specifically, First Class passenger William Hoyt, Third Class passenger David Livshin (traveling under the alias Abraham Harmer), Bedroom Steward Sidney Siebert and Able Bodied Seaman William Lyons.128

The following table summarizes the numbers above:




Estimated lifeboat occupancy
Boat
Number
As loweredfrom Titanic
People moved fromother boats orpicked up from sea
Aspickedup
By
Carpathia
1
12

12
2
17

17
3
32

32
4
30
+8 (from sea)
+10 (from No. 14)
+12 (from
Collapsible B)
60
5
36
-6 (to No. 7)
30
6
23
+1 (from No. 16)
24
7
28
+6 (from No. 5)
34
8
25

25
9
40

40
10
57
-2 (to No. 14)
55
11
50

50
12
42
+11 (from No. 14)
+16 (from
Collapsible B)
69
13
55

55
14
40
+3 (from sea)
-33 (to Nos. 4,12and D)
+13 (from
Collapsible A)
+2 (from No. 10)
25
15
68

68
16
53
-1 (to No. 6)
52
C
43

43
D
20
+3 (from sea)
+12 (from No. 14)
35
Estimated Total
Recovered


726
Died and Buriedfrom Carpathia


4
Estimated Total
Survived


722



ActuaTotal
Survived


712



In the accounts above, it is mentionethat lifeboat Nos. 10, 12, 14, and Collapsible tied up together after leaving the ship, and many transfers of passengers were made betweethese boats, some ofwhich are not thoroughly documented by the survivors Boat No. 14 must have lowered with around 40 occupants aboard, but Lowe transferred almost all of these to othelifeboats before he took a nearly emptylifeboat back into the debris to look for survivors Thestransfers are not all thoroughly detailed, although it can be established that around 12 passengermoved to Collapsible D, that an undetermined amount weretransferred from Collapsible D tNo. 12, and that none were put intNo. 10. Based on the best available evidence, the presenauthors are forced to estimate the number of occupants, and which boats theweremoved to, tcome up with the counts as the lifeboats reachethe Carpathia.
Taking into account the 4 people who were buried from the Carpathia, the present authors’ survivor totals add up to 722closetthe actual number of survivors rescued thathtotals for each boat given ineither the British Inquiry or Colonel Gracie’s book, but still abovthe actual number of survivors of 712.  It must be noted that the number of occupants listed as being saveieaclifeboat ithis chapter areestimates only, based on aanalysis of eyewitnesstatements regarding the number in each boat.    While future research may allow for more accurate estimates of the number saved in each boat, it is unlikelythat the precise numbers wilever be arriveat.
Unfortunately, it iimpossible to determine the specific number of survivors aboard eacindividual lifeboat, with the exception of a few boats like No. 1 and No. 2, where the names of all those aboard canbe established by multiple lines of evidence Survivors gave a range of estimates of the numbers saved in each boat.   Not everlifeboat was photographed, or photographed clearly as it approached the Carpathia,so that line of evidence is limited in that regard.   Most survivors were otherwise occupied during the sinking, and did not count each person in their boat individually This means that researchers are forced torely on sometimesubjective survivor estimates and circumstantial evidence to get an idea of the number rescueieach boat.
Part of the issue is that crewmembers tendetgive higheestimates of the number of people in the lifeboats than did the passengers This discrepancy was noted by the assessors at the British Inquiry, whoattributed it not to lying, but to a natural desire to make the best case for themselves and their ship.”   A clear example of this is Lookout Hogg and Third OfficePitman testifying that there were 40, or 30 to40 aboard boat No. 7, while first class passengerMr. J. McGough and Mrs. D. Bishop both agreed there were 28 aboard.  Another example is how  Fift Office Lowe’s  estimate were  almos alway higher tha thos give i otheaccounts A good example of this is his estimate of 27 in Lifeboat No. 1, while we know there were only 12 ithis lifeboat.
While it may not be possible to state the number aboard each individual boat witcertainty, cross-checking sources and lines of evidence, a has been done in the preceding section, does allow for amore accurate picture of the occupancy of each boat than presented ithe inquiries or Gracie’s book In general terms, it appears that survivors likely overestimatethe numbers present in the aft boats, whichwere generally heavily loaded and lowered later ithe sinking The earlier boats left far from full, which would have made at least some of the counts easier and more accurate.





1   AI 289
2   AI 390
3   AI 578.  Hogg came up with a total of 47, however, a careful reading of his testimony indicates
6 people (4 ladies, a baby and a gentlemanwere transferred, giving a total of 48.
4   AI 999, AI 1002
5   AI 1143
6   Hartford TimesApril 19, 1912, printeiOBoard the RMS TitanicGeorge Behe, 2011
7   AI 1031
8   AI 277-278
9   AI 818
10   AI 1031
11   AI 1144
12   Hartford TimesApril 19, 1912, printeiOBoard the RMS TitanicGeorge Behe, 2011
13   LancasteIntelligencer, April 23, 1912, and The Oregonian, April 27, 1912courtesy of
George Behe
14   AI 1144
15   AI 560-561
16   AI 574
17   AI 402
18   Harper’s Weekly, April 27, 1912
19   Philadelphia Inquirer, April 28, 1912
20   TorontStar, April 20, 1912
21   Trenton Evening TimesApril 20, 1912
22   DiariDe Noticias
23   AI 570
24   AI 828
25   AI 1007
26   The Washington TimesApril 19, 1912
27   New York TimesApril 22, 1912
28   AI 404
29   AI 575
30   BI 11733, 11538
31   BI 5008, BI 5025-2006
32   AI 81
33   AI 336
34   AI 363
35   AI 451
36    Newport Herald, May 28 & 29, 1912, in OBoard the RMS TitanicGeorge Behe, 2011
37   AI 625
38   AI 645
39   AI 645-646
40   AI 624
41   AI 625
42   The Longford Leader, May 18, 1912


43   AI 615
44   BI 387-393
45   BI 5316-5326
46   BI 2940
47   AI 406-412
48   AI 833-834
49   AI 636-637
50   BI 2925-2926, BI 2940New York TimesMay 9, 1912, courtesy of George Behe
51   Democrat and ChronicleApril 15, 1931
52   Cleveland PlaiDealer, April 26, 1912
53   AI 75
54   BI 13330
55   AI 658
56        Lette t Walte Lord,  June  19,  1955.     Kemis sai th lifeboa wa overloaded
dangerously Courtesy of Paul Lee.
57   Letter tWalter Lord, April 10, 1963.  Courtesy of Paul Lee We know Watt was in No. 9, ashe mentions a minister in the boat with her.   Sidney Collett is known to have been in this boatas he kept thenumeral as a souvenir, and that in his account in the Auburn Citizen of April 23,
1912, he mentions Paddy McGuffe (McGough) was master of our boat.
58   The Indianapolis Star, April 23, 1912.
59   AI 545, AI 547
60   AI 651
61   BI 10769-10771
62   BI 13209-13211
63   Madras MailMay 22, 1912, printeiOBoard the RMS TitanicGeorge Behe, 2011
64   Folkestone Herald, May 4, 1912, printed iOBoard the RMS TitanicGeorge Behe, 2011
65    London Free Press, April 23, 1912 and Detroit NewsApril 21, 1912, courtesy of George
Behe
66   BI 722
67   Lawrence Beesley“The Loss of S.STitanic”, 1912, Chapter 4
68   LettewritteMay 30, 1912, printeiOBoard the RMS TitanicGeorge Behe, 2011
69   BI 6596
70   BI 6529
71   BI 4315-4353
72   BI 10008-10009
73    Private letter from Walter Nichols to his sister, printed in the New York Times, April 22,
1912
74   Hampshire Telegraph, May 3, 1912
75   Statement relateto TPShaveshortly aftethe disaster, printeiOBoard the RMTitanic”George Behe, 2011
76   BI 6618, BI 6621
77   AI 255, BI 15428, AI 241, AI 538
78   BI 3468
79   AI 1101
80   New York TimesApril 20, 1912


81    The Washington Post, April 20, 1912; Islington Gazette & North London Tribune, May 9,
1912.  The latter account is courtesy of George Behe.
82   Milwaukee JournalApril 24, 1912
83   List courtesy of Don Lynch.
84   AI 676
85   AI 604
86   AI 823
87   CommandeLightoller, Titanic and OtheShips,” 1935
88   AI 581
89   BI 4067-4105
90   AI 794-796
91   AI 666-668
92   New York TimesApril 25, 1912; Los Angeles TimesApril 25, 1912
93   New York TimesApril 22, 1912
94   Boston Globe, April 19, 1912
95   Boston Evening TranscriptApril 19, 1912
96   AI 1107-1108
97   AI 520
98   BI 10411-10418
99   AI 8-9
100   Washington Post, April 20, 1912
101   AI 83
102   AI 833-834
103   AI 589
104   BI 1538-1542
105   AI 888
106    BI 1595-1598
107   AI 834
108   BI 10660
109   AI 411, BI 15998
110   AI 1040
111   Private letter from George Rheims to his wife, dateApril 19, 1912, printein OBoard the RMS Titanic”George Behe, 2011
112   Deposition ithe Limitation of Liability hearingsNovember 14, 1913http://www.titanicinquiry.org/lol/depositions/rheims01.php
113     Private letter from William Mellors to Dorothy Ockenden, May 9, 1912, printed in On
Board the RMS TitanicGeorge Behe, 2011
114   BI 14109, AI 73, AI 87
115   BI 6085
116   BI 1598
117   AI 162
118   AI 997
119   John BThayer, “The Sinking of the S.STitanic”, 1940
120   Bureau County Republican, May 2, 1912
121   Cleveland PlaiDealer, April 26, 1912


122   Democrat and ChronicleApril 15, 1931
123   Colonel ArchibalGracie, “The TrutAbout the Titanic,” Ch.5, 1913
124    Memo from the office of the first vice president, Pensylvania Lines of West of Pittsbury,
printein OBoard the RMS Titanic”George Behe, 2011
125   AI 669
126   AI 673
127   Martha Stephenson and ElizabetEustis“The Titanic – Our Story, reprinteiOBoard the RMS Titanic”George Behe, 2011
128 Hoyt was pulled from the water by Fifth Officer Lowe iNo. 14, and Siebert and Lyons were pulled from the wateiNo. 4.   The situation regarding Livshiis not scleacut, he may have been a bodyremoved from No. 12 wheshe was emptied, or he may have beealive whethe
lifeboats reached Carpathia, and died there For more details on thissee AppendiPBurieat
Sea from “On a Sea of Glass by the present authors and JKent Layton.

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