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Friday, April 20, 2012

TITANIC - The Statistics of the Disaster


This portrait by E. D. Walker depicts Titanic in the Belfast Lough on April 2, 1912.

Basic Statistics of the Disaster

 
324 1st class passengers, 201 survived.
277 2nd class passengers, 118 survived.
708 3rd class passengers, 181 survived
885 crewmembers, 212 survived
13 postmen/musicians, none lived.
Grand total: 2,207 on board, 712 survived.


The Statistics of the Disaster

 

Titanic Research


An in-depth analysis of the number of Titanic passengers lost and saved.

Titanic's Certificates of Clearance indicate that 922 passengers boarded at Southampton; 274 at Cherbourg and 120 at Queenstown; giving Titanic a total compliment of 1316 passengers.
Using original 1912 documents this study is an attempt to confirm or correct those figures. Two factors need to be taken into account:
1] Official 1912 figures generally lump First and Second Class under the heading: Cabin Class.
2] Adults aged 12 and upwards; children between 1 and 12; infants aged under 1 year.
With this in mind we can begin by noting that according to her Certificates of Clearance Titanic took on board 427 Cabin Class Passengers at Southampton; 172 at Cherbourg and 7 at Queenstown. This gave her a total of 606 First and Second Class Passengers. The corresponding figures for Third Class were 495; 102 and 113. Making a total of 710.
PRO document BT 27/780B offers the following breakdown by Passenger Class for those who boarded at Southampton.
 ACI A.MalesA.Femalesmcfcmifi 
First Class1754118010570311-180
Second Class226183247143837113-247
 40122442724815310124-427
Third Class: While 27/780B breaks the figures down into British Subjects; Alien non-transmigrants and Alien transmigrants; this study retains the more familiar British Subjects [British and non-transmigrants] and non-British Subjects [transmigrants].
 ACI A.MalesA.Femalesmcfcmifi 
British1631831841303310812184
non-British27632331121066122021311
 43950649534099222833495
            
8407210922588252324073922
For a number of reasons it is not considered practical to accept that 180 First Class Passengers boarded Titanic at Southampton. [3 named passengers did not board; the Minahans boarded at Queenstown; while a number (including 7 personal servants) of others are not named within BT 27/780B. It follows then that we can therefore have no confidence in any stated figures [I have seen 142] with regard to the number of First Class Passengers who boarded at Cherbourg.
The First Class Passenger List contains the names of 323 passengers. It is here noted that in The Night Lives On that Walter Lord observed that one Frank Carlson failed to board at Cherbourg, but his name remained among those lost in the disaster. However, a Frans Olof Carlsson was on board, so the name Carlsson must remain. One and only one passenger can be accepted as having upgraded from Second Class. Alfred Nourney [travelling as Baron van Drachstedt] With all respect to both Walter Lord and the lady herself Mrs Cassebeer was booked to travel First Class. (In support of that I note that she paid a First Class fare of 27 pounds, 14s and 5d. The same fare as that paid by a number of other First Class Passengers. Mrs Cassebeer's name also appears on one of the First Class Passenger pages of the White Star Line Contract Ticket List.) This gives a total of 324 First Class Passengers. 176 men; 143 women and 5 children/infant. 58 men; 139 women and 4 children/infants were saved. 118 men; 4 women and 1 child were lost. = Saved 201; Lost 123.
Two Official Lists of Deceased Passengers exist. BT 100/260 names 123 First Class Passengers. MT 9/920/201 names 121; which includes Hakan Bjornstrom-Steffansson, who survived; but excludes Dr Minahan and 2 menservants. This brings the total back to 123.
Second Class requires only the deletion of Nourney, giving a total of 284. 167 men; 95 women and 22 children/infants. - [Note this includes Titanic's 8 bandsmen, who were officially listed as Second Class Passengers.] 13 men, 83 women and 22 children/infants were saved. 154 men and 12 women were lost. =Saved 118; Lost 166.
Both BT 100/260 and MT 9/920/201 name 167 Second Class Passengers of whom 1 lady [Mrs Lahtinen] was lost and 2 [Mesdames Brown and del Carlo] were saved. This brings the total to 166.
Because Third Class is broken into categories; it is easy to correct the breakdown of figures as given in BT 27/780B.
The British Subjects figures of 130 adult males; 33 adult females; 10 male children; 8 female children; 1 male infant and 2 female infants = 184, needs to be adjusted to allow for 4 adult male passengers [Alfred Lowe; Frederick Miles (see special note below) and Charles & Henry Sutton]; who did not board; plus Austin van Billiard and his two sons who are not listed. Masters Aks and Moor are listed as females; as is Francis Somerton; who is listed as Frances Somerton; occupation: wife. Born in 1899, Anthony William Sage was therefore at least 12 and counts as an adult. The correct figures should read: 129 men; 32 women and 22 children/infants = 183. Of that number only 38 survived. - 14 men; 16 women and 8 children/infants. Lost 115 men; 16 women and 14 children/infants. = 145
The Non-British Subjects figures of 210 adult males; 66 adult females; 12 male children; 20 female children; 2 males infants and 1 female infant = 311, needs to be adjusted to allow for a number of passengers incorrectly marked as male [Carla Andersen; Ida Andersson; Augusta Lindblom; Velin Ohman and Jelka Oreskovic]; or female [Johannes Kalvik; Milan Karajic and Nicola Lulic]; for 9 year Arthur Olsen whose age is given as 42. [As with the Contract Ticket List; Filip Oscar Asplund is counted as a child and Juha Panula as an adult.] Included is Elias Johannessen, who did not make it onboard Titanic. Missing is the name of Anders Gustafsson. The correct figures should read: 207 men; 68 women and 36 children/infants = 311. Of that number only 66 survived. - 30 men; 27 women and 9 children/infants. Lost 177 men; 41 women and 27 children/infants. = 245
BT 27/780B only applies to Passengers who boarded at Southampton. For Cherbourg in addition to Titanic's Certificate of Clearance we have The White Star Line Contract Ticket List. For Queenstown Titanic's Certificate of Clearance; BT 27/776 and the Contract Ticket List.
At Cherbourg every list [including the White Star Line Contract Ticket List] agrees with a figure of 102. However, the Certificate of Clearance figures of 63 adult males; 22 adult females; 7 male children 7 female children and 3 male infants are wrong. The correct figures should read: 62 men; 23 women and 17 children/infants = 102. Of that number only 37 survived. - 9 men; 15 women and 13 children/ infants. It is herewith noted that as I have only a questionable birth date of [16 April ?]1900 for Elias Nicola who could therefore have been 11 or 12 I have retained him as per the Contract Ticket List as a child. - Lost 53 men; 8 women and 4 children. = 65
Happily Queenstown agrees at 113 [there being no need to amend 27/776]. 52 adult males; 56 adult females and 5 male children. Of that number only 40 survived. - 7 men and 33 women. Lost 45 men; 23 women and all 5 children. = 73
Overall this gives us a total of 709 Third Class Passengers [183+311+102+113]. Of that number only 181 [38+66+37+40] survived. Lost 528 [145+245+65+73].
Allowing that Nourney is named in the White Star Line Contract Ticket List as a 2nd Class Passenger we may note that that Contract Ticket List names 323 1st and 285 2nd Class Passengers. For 3rd Class it is a little more complex. There are 4 main pages before the Scandinavians. Those pages name 173 passengers [plus 2 who prepaid] and are therefore on a subsequent page together with 13 [5 (plus the 2) named, plus 8 Chinamen, who are not included in the total which reads 7] others. However, 9 passengers who are in the non-British section are named among the 173. Also included within the 173 is Amy Stanley, who is counted as 2 passengers and a Frederick Miles [ticket No 392095] who although named in 27/780B was perhaps [see special note below] among those who did not sail. Missing are 6 Seaman/American Line employees who were traveling on ticket No 371060 [see BT 27/780B]; which is not listed on the Contract Ticket List. - 173+15-9-2+6 = 183. The numbers balance.
For the non-British at Southampton [after adding back the 9 passengers who are included in the British section]; as with Cherbourg and Queenstown the Contract Ticket List balances.
According to MT 9/920/201 passengers 289-823 were deceased Third Class Passengers. That gives a total of 535; less 4 [numbers 437 Thomas Emmeth; 638 Bert O'Donoghue and 812/813 Hanne and Georges Youssef] who were subsequently named on an attached Minute as being saved. In a bizarre twist in the attached Minute; the two Irish passengers who are named as having survived had their names replaced with two who died [Thomas Smyth and Bridget Donohue]. - Nos 822 and 823. - This mistake occurred because although both 27/776 and the Contract Ticket List names the two passengers correctly, the Official White Star Passenger List records their names incorrectly and therefore some official decided that 4 passengers were involved. Two lost and two saved. In fact there were only two passengers; Bridget Donohue and Thomas Smyth; both lost. So 535 becomes 533. From that we need to deduct the names of 5 passengers [numbers 512 Carl (Jansson) Johnson; 612 Hanna (Borak) Monbark; 613 Mantoura Moussa and the two Peter children] who survived. = 528 deceased Third Class Passengers.
According to BT 100/260 passengers 291-822 plus 828 [823 to 827 were the 5 Postal Clerks] were deceased Third Class Passengers. A total of 533. As with 9/920/201 a correction has to be made with regard to the Irish Passengers. Here the correction is even more Bizarre. Both the names of Bert O'Donoghue and Thomas Emmeth are crossed out, indicating that they survived; but Emmeth's number 439 then has the name of Farres Chehub Emir written in as a replacement. So 533 becomes 532. As with 9/920/201 the names of 5 passengers who survived need to be deducted. We need to add the name of Youssef Brahim whose name has been omitted. This confirms our previous total of 528 deceased Third Class Passengers.
In establishing the Total Number of Passenger Lost BT 100/260 names a total of 828; plus 290a; less numbers 823-827; less 7 who survived [2 in 2nd Class and 5 in 3rd ] less Bert O'Donoghue who did not exist; plus Youssef Brahim = 829-5-7-1+1 = 817. - [123 1st 166 2nd and 528 3rd Class]
Statistically for Third Class 20.8% of the British subjects at Southampton survived. For non-British it was 21/2%. For Cherbourg 36.3%; for Queenstown 35.4%.
Women and children: British 44.4%; non-British 34.6%; Cherbourg 70%; Queenstown 54.1%.
Adult male passengers: British 10.9%, non-British 14.5%, Cherbourg 14.5%; Queenstown 13.5%
 Saved  Lost  
 MenWomenChildren/InfantsMenWomenChildren/Infants
British141681151614
Non-British302791774127
Cherbourg915135384
Queenstown733-45235
 6091303908850
   181  528

There were 107 children/infants on board. 5 in 1st Class; 22 in 2nd Class and 80 in 3rd Class.

Overall there were a total of 1317 passengers on board Titanic. First Class 324; Second Class 284 [including 8 bandsmen]; Third Class 709. Of those 524 were women and children.
 148 1st Class117 2nd Class259 3rd Class  
Saved14310512136970.3%
Lost51213815529.7%
1st Class 96.6% saved; 2nd Class 89.7% saved [women: 92.9% - 1st Class 97.2%; 2nd Class 87.4%];
3rd Class 46.7% saved [women 50.8%; children 37.5%]
Men:176 1st Class167 2nd Class450 3rd Class793 
Saved58136013116.5%
Lost11815439066283.5%
1st Class 33% saved; 2nd Class 7.8% saved; 3rd Class 13.3% saved
Passengers Saved 369 women and children and 131 men = 500 [38%]
Lost 155 women and children and 662 men = 817 [62%]
First Class201 [62%]Out of 324[Lost 123 - 38%]
Second Class118 [41.5%]Out of 284[Lost 166 - 58.5%]
Third Class181 [25.5%]Out of 709[Lost 528 - 74.5%]
 500 [38%]Out of 1317[Lost 817 - 62%]
The final % of Saved to Lost is an exact reversal of the proportion of 1st Class Saved to Lost. Also % wise more 3rd Class children were saved than 1st Class adult male passengers; while on a simple head count more 3rdClass adult male passengers survived than for 1st Class. - The British Inquiry figure concluded more 3rd Class than 1st and 2nd Class combined. - 75 to 71 [57+14].
At the beginning it was noted that this study was an attempt to confirm or correct Official 1912 figures for the number of Passengers on board Titanic. As far as Titanic's Certificates of Clearance are concerned there are reasons to reject the figures for Cabin Class; because 27/780B from which the numbers who boarded at Southampton has been taken contains too many errors. Names not included; names included in error and in the case of Hilda Slayter and the Rev. Kirkland included in both 27/780B and 27/776. Cabin Class can therefore best be established from the White Star Passenger List cross-checked back to the Contract Ticket List. On the other hand 27/780B and therefore Titanic's Southampton Certificate of Clearance for 3rd Class is reasonably accurate. It has been established above that the Contract Ticket List is accurate for the number of 3rd Class Passengers who boarded at Cherbourg; with that document and 27/776 being accurate for the number of 3rd Class Passengers who boarded at Queenstown.

Special Note: My only remaining query is with regard to one Frederick Miles, named on 27/780B as a 44 year old clerk, with U.S. Citizenship. While a tick alongside his name [I thank Hermann Soeldner {private communication} for drawing my attention to this point.] suggests that he boarded; many other passengers who were onboard do not have ticks alongside their names. The name of Frederick Miles also appears on the Contract Ticket List; which although otherwise accurate, contains a number of errors; all of which occur; in the 3rd Class "British" section; which is section in which the name Frederick Miles appears. It may however be that although no Passenger List; including the White Star Passenger List itself [or either of the Death Certificate Lists 100/260 and 9/920/201] includes the name of Frederick Miles; that he should be accepted as having been on board. [The tick alongside Frederick Miles' name on 27/780B; together with his name and ticket number on the Contract Ticket List leads Hermann to accept that Miles should be regarded as having been onboard Titanic.] If that is correct then the overall number of Passengers would increase to 1,318; with 818 lost.

Total Number of Survivors:
Of the 500 Passengers who survived 369 [73.8%] were women and children; 131 [26.2%] were men. 212 [192 men and 20 women] of Titanic's Crew also survived making a total of 712 survivors. - 389 [54.6%] women and children; 323 [45.4%] men. - Of those 323; % wise; 59.4% were Crew; 40.6% were Passengers. Of the 712 survivors approximately 53 were plucked from the sea or reached boats A or B; this suggests 388 women and children and about 271 men in the boats. % wise 58.9% women and children to 41.1% men.

Copyright © 1999/2000/2001 Lester J. Mitcham, New Zealand
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