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Monday, May 7, 2012

911 - Underground Nuclear Power Plants

Underground Nuclear Power Plants
It may not be widely known that several Underground Nuclear Power Plants (UNPPs) have
been operated since the early 1960s.

In Western Europe, 4 small Underground NPPs have been operated at Halden (Norway,
1960s); Agesta (Sweden, 1957); Chooz (France, 1960s); and Lucens (Switzerland, 1962).

Construction of the Swedish Agesta complex started in 1957 and operations started in
1964. The underground reactor was a small CHP system (for a Stockholm district),
producing only 10MW of electricity and some 70MW of thermal energy for district
heating. It is believed it was also used for military plutonium production.

Construction of the Swiss Lucens reactor started in 1962 and it went live in 1966. This was
also a small reactor producing some 8MW of electricity. It was built in an underground
cavern and experienced a core meltdown in 1969.

In the Soviet Union, the AD-2 underground reactor was commissioned in 1964 to provide
combined heat and power (CHP) to the city of Zheleznogorsk. It is still operational and was
also used to produce weapons grade plutonium. Russia have recently been studying plans
to build more underground NPPs using small "mini" reactors based on naval technology.

The report "Underground Nuclear Power Plant Siting" by The Aerospace Corporation and
California Institute of Technology (1972) analysed different potential underground NPP
configurations and scenarios with a view "toward novel approaches to siting plants within
the State of California". 4 potential underground sites on the California coast were listed.
One of the stated advantages of underground siting was the "reduced population-distance
requirements" - i.e. an underground NPP could be situated much closer to major
population centres due to the improved containment.


It was stated that underground NPP construction was feasible because of the European
experience with 4 reactors and existing experience with large underground excavations
for hydroelectric facilities.
"The most apparent advantage for underground power plant siting is improved
containment".

"The separation distance from the plant to population centres might well be reduced from
the 10-20 miles characteristic of comparable surface plants to a small localised area".
In other words, it was seen as quite feasible to locate underground NPPs within a city
limits.

Several nuclear reactors worldwide are used not just for electrical power generation but
also for district heating - Combined Heat and Power - using the steam generated from the
NPP for heating and air conditioning (via steam chillers). CHP is desirable due to its higher
efficiency and better utilisation of power plant thermal energy.

New York has one of the largest district heating systems in the world. Starting in 1882, the
ConEdison system covers much of Manhattan (including 7 WTC) from the southern tip to
75th Street. It would have made sense for the UNPPs under the WTC to have been
integrated into the district steam heating system to improve their efficiency and to
disguise the reactor cooling system.

In his 7th August 2007 testimony to New York City Council, the President of the
International District Energy Association spoke of how
 "district energy recycles and
reuses the heat that is produced during generation of electricity. Standard power plants
effectively convert only about 33-36 percent of the fuel they burn into electricity. Nearly
two-thirds of the fuel used in the electricity production process ends up being rejected or
"wasted" up the smokestack, in cooling towers or exhausted to rivers, lakes and oceans.
Combined heat and power recycles this waste heat and uses it to heat buildings in a
surrounding area through a district energy system. Combined heat and power is most
feasible when there is an area near the plant that has a need for the heat – a downtown
area......"
Integration of the UNPPs into the ConEdison system would eliminate the problem of
having to discharge cooling water into the Hudson, which would lead to increased river
water temperatures, a possible radiation signature and could lead to discovery of the
NPPs. In addition, if there were or are "Manhattan Project" underground military facilities
being powered by the UNPPs, these would also require heating and cooling. Integration
into the pre-existing district energy system would be the simplest approach.

It can be seen that UNPPs had already been built and operated before construction of the
WTC commenced. The Swedish Agesta reactor could be a blueprint - a small underground
nuclear reactor used for CHP for a major city and for military plutonium production.

Where else would the military place at least some critical nuclear weapons material
facilities at the height of the Cold War other than underground? What other electrical
power generating technology would be used to provide long term power for underground
military infrastructure during and after a nuclear war?.

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