MUHAMMAD AND THE SATANIC VERSES
Muhammad Spoke the Satanic Verses - The Evidence and Proof
- MUHAMMAD SPOKE THE SATANIC VERSES - THE EVIDENCE AND PROOF
- THE EVIDENCE: THE EARLY ISLAMIC SOURCES
- DISCUSSION / REVIEW OF THE SIRA MATERIAL ON THE SATANIC VERSES.
- EVIDENCE FROM SAHIH HADITH THAT MUHAMMAD SPOKE THE SATANIC VERSES
- FROM THE QURAN
- AN ISLAMIC SCHOLAR'S COMMENTARY (TAFSIR)
- OTHER COMMENTS
- FUNDAMENTALIST MUSLIM'S COMPLAINTS AND DENIALS
It must be pointed out again that the "Satanic Verses" event is not something made up by non-Muslims. The event is recorded by the earliest Islamic sources available on Muhammad's life. No one should think that it is a story made up by people who are critical of Islam. It is an episode directly found in the early Islamic records.This topic is one of the most controversial in Islam. Satan caused Muhammad to recite his words as God's words. The background to this event is that Muhammad and his followers were being persecuted for attacking the pagan faiths of Mecca, and he did not want to further offend his Arab tribesmen, and, he wanted them to become his followers, i.e. Muslims. In fact Muhammad wished that God would not reveal anything further to him that would further alienate his fellow Arabs. So when opportunity arose, he spoke what Satan put into his heart and mind as God's word.
In the Old Testament (OT), if someone caused the people to worship other gods he was put to death - Deuteronomy 13:1 - 5:
Think about it, which of the Old Testament prophets ever spoke the words of Satan? Those prophets loved their people, but they persisted in speaking the truth to them, not compromising the word of God to gain peace and converts as Muhammad did.
This event is documented by the four early biographical writers of Muhammad's life: Ibn Ishaq, Wakidi, Ibn Sa'd, and Tabari. The Hadith and Quran also contain direct references. Additionally several other Islamic scholars on Hadith (traditions) support the event's occurrence.
One Islamic book on Muhammad's life provides the following list:
2) the "Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir", (The Book of the Major Classes), translated by S. Moinul Haq ,
3) the "Sirat Rasulallah" (The Life of Allah's Prophet) by Ibn Ishaq, translated by A. Guillaume ,
4) Wakidi's biographical material on Muhammad also includes the story of Muhammad speaking Satan's words. I have not been able to find Wakidi's entire work in English but Wakidi's work is quoted by W. Muir in "The Life of Mahomet" .
5) A sub source from #3 above is found in "New Light on the Life of Muhammad", by A.. Guillaume . This source is from a manuscript containing information from other sources as well as Ibn Ishaq. The writer of the manuscript, Yunus ibn Bukayr, heard Ibn Ishaq's lectures at Kufa (located in modern Iraq), and made notes.
6) Additional supporting evidence will be provided from the Sahih Hadith of Bukhari .
7) Finally, verses from the Quran will be provided as concurring evidence that Muhammad spoke the Quranic verses 
SATAN CASTS A FALSE REVELATION ON THE MESSENGER OF GOD'S TONGUE
Ibn Humayd - Salamah-Muhammad b. Ishaq - Yazid b. Ziyad al-Madani - Muhammad b. Ka'b al-Qurazi: When the messenger of God saw how his tribe turned their backs on him and was grieved to see them shunning the message he had brought to them from God, he longed in his soul that something would come to him from God which would reconcile him with his tribe. With his love for his tribe and his eagerness for their welfare it would have delighted him if some of the difficulties which they made for him could have been smoothed out, and he debated with himself and fervently desired such an outcome. Then God revealed:(171)"By the Star when it sets, your comrade does not err, nor is he deceived; nor does he speak out of (his own) desire..."
and when he came to the words:
Have you thought upon al-Lat and al-Uzza and Manat, the third, the other?
Satan cast on his tongue, because of his inner debates and what he desired to bring to his people, the words:
"These are the high flying cranes; verily their intercession is accepted with approval. (172)
When Quraysh heard this, they rejoiced and were happy and delighted at the way in which he spoke of their gods, and they listened to him, while the Muslims, having complete trust in their prophet in respect of the messages which he brought from God, did not suspect him of error, illusion, or mistake. When he came to the prostration, having completed the surah, he prostrated himself and the Muslims did likewise, following their prophet, trusting in the message which he had brought and following his example. Those polytheists of the Quraysh and others who were in the mosque (173) likewise prostrated themselves because of the reference to their gods which they had heard, so that there was no one in the mosque, believer orunbeliever, who did not prostrate himself. The one exception was al-Walid b. Al-Mughirah, who was a very old man and could not prostrate himself; but he took a handful of soil from the valley in his hand and bowed over that. Then they all dispersed from the mosque. The Quraysh left delighted by the mention of their gods which they had hared, saying,"Muhammad has mentioned our goes in the most favorable way possible, stating in his recitation that they are the high flying cranes and that their intercession is received with approval."
The news of the prostration reached those of the messenger of God's companions who were in Abyssinia and people said, "The Quraysh have accepted Islam." Some rose up to return, while others remained behind. Then Gabriel came to the Messenger of God and said, "Muhammad, what have you done? You have recited to the people that which I did not bring to you from God, and you have said that which was not said to you." Then the messenger of God was much grieved and feared God greatly, but God sent down a revelation to him, for He was merciful to him, consoling him and making the matter light for him, informing him that there had never been a prophet or a messenger before him who desired as he desired and wished as he wished but that Satan had cast words into his recitation, as he had cast words on Muhammad's tongue. Then God cancelled what Satan had thus cast, and established his verses by telling him that he was like other prophets and messengers, and revealed:
"Never did we send a messenger or a prophet before you but that when he recited (the Message) Satan cast words into his recitation (umniyyah). God abrogates what Satan casts. The God established his verses. God is knower, wise.(174)
Thus God removed the sorrow from his messenger, reassured him about that which he had feared and cancelled the words which Satan had cast on his tongue, that their gods were the high flying cranes whose intercession was accepted with approval. He now revealed, following the mention of "al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat, the third, the other," the words:
"Are yours the males and his the females? That indeed were an unfair division! They are but names which you have named, you and your fathers."
to the words:
to whom he wills and accept (175)
This means, how can the intercession of their gods avail with God?
When Muhammad brought a revelation from God canceling what Satan had cast on the tongue of His prophet, the Quraysh said,"Muhammad has repented of what he said concerning the position of your gods with God, and has altered it and brought something else." Those two phrases which Satan had cast on the tongue of the Messenger of God were in the mouth of every polytheists, and they became even more ill-disposed and more violent in their persecution of those of them who had accepted Islam and followed the messenger of God.
Those of the companions of the messenger of God who had left Abyssinia upon hearing that Quraysh had accepted Islam by prostration themselves with the messenger of God now approached.When they were near Mecca, they heard that the report that the people of Mecca had accepted Islam was false. Not one of them entered Mecca without obtaining protection or entering secretly. Among those who came to Mecca and remained there until they emigrated to al-Madinah and were present with the prophet at Badr, were, from the Banu Abd Shams b. Abd Manaf b. Quasyy, Uthman b. Afafan b. Abi al-As b. Umayyah, accompanied by his wife Ruaqyyah the daughter of the messenger of God; Abu Hudhayfah b. Utbah b. Rabiah b. Abd Shames, accompanied by his wife Sahlah bt. Suhalyl; together with a number of others numbering thirty three men.
Al-Qasim b. Al-Hasan - al Husayn b. Daud - Hajja - Abu Mashar - Muhammad b. Kab al-Qurazi and Muhammad b. Qays: The messenger of God was sitting in a large gathering of Quraysh, wishing that day that no revelation would come to him from God which could cause them to turn away from him. Then God revealed:
"By the Star when it sets, your comrade does not err, nor is he deceived..."
and the Messenger of God recited it until he came to:
"Have you thought upon al-Lat and al-Uzza and Manat, the third, the other?"
when Satan cast on his tongue two phrases:
"These are the high flying cranes; verily their intercession is to be desired. (176)
He uttered them and went on to complete the surah. When he prostrated himself at the end of the surah, the whole company prostrated themselves with him. Al-Walid b. al-Mughirah raised some dust to his forehead and bowed over that, since he was a very old man and could not prostrate himself. They were satisfied with what Muhammad had uttered and said, "We recognize that it is God who gives life and death, who creates and who provides sustenance, but if these gods of ours intercede for us with him, and if you give them a share, we are with you."
That evening Gabriel came to him and reviewed the surah with him, and when he reached the two phrases which Satan had cast upon his tongue he said, "I did not bring you these two." Then the messenger of God said, "I have fabricated things against God and have imputed to him words which He has not spoken." Then God revealed to him:
"And they indeed strove hard to beguile you away from what we have revealed to you, that you should invent other than it against us...
to the words:
"and then you would have found no helper against us" (177)
He remained grief stricken and anxious until the revelation of the verse:
"Never did we send a messenger or a prophet before you... to the words...God is knower, wise. (178)
When those who had emigrated to Abyssinia heard that all the people of Mecca had accepted Islam, they returned to their clans, saying,"They are more dear to us"; but they found that the people had reversed their decision when God cancelled what Satan had cast upon the messenger of God's tongue.
172) An alternative reading to turtada is turtaja, meaning, "is to be desired or hoped for"
173) The sacred area around the Ka'bah was not, of course, and Islamic mosque at this period, though the word masjid, "place of prostration, mosque,"seems to have been applied to it.
174) 22:52. The translation deviates here from that of Pickthall in order to make it correspond with what is required by Tabari's account. The meanings for tamanna and umniyyah, "recite" and "recitation", are well attested (see Lisan s.v.M-N-Y). An alternative rendering for this verse would be: "Never did we send a messenger of a prophet before you but that when he formed a wish Satan threw (some vanity) into his desire..."
175) 53:21-23, 26, Tabari explains diza, "unfair," as meaning 'awja, "crooked."
176) Surah 53. This version of the false verses has la-turja, "to be desired or hoped for."
177) 7:73, 75
Satanic verses spoken by Muhammad- page 107
Muslims return from Abyssinia - page 109
Boycott repealed - page 112
[NOTE: I have corrected some spelling and punctuation errors and changed some archaic language].
ACCOUNT OF THE CAUSES OF THE RETURN OF THE COMPANIONS OF THE PROPHET, FROM ABYSSINIA
He was sitting in his house and when it was evening, Gabriel came to him and revised the surah. Then Gabriel said: "Did I bring these two phrases?" The apostle of Allah said: "I ascribed to Allah, what He had not said."
Then Allah revealed to him: "And they indeed strove hard to beguile you (Muhammad) away from that which We have inspired you, that you should invent other than it against Us; and then would they have accepted you as a friend. And if We had not made you wholly firm you might almost have inclined to them a little, Then had We made you taste a double (punishment) of living and a double (punishment) of dying then had you found no helper against Us.""(1)
Muhammad Ibn Umar informed us; he said: Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah related to me on the authority of al-Zuhri, he on the authority of Abu Bakr Ibn Abd al-Rahman Ibn al-Harith Ibn Hisham; he said: "This prostration became know to people till the news reached Abyssinia and the Companions of the apostle of Allah that the people of Makkah fell in protraction and joined Islam including al-Walid. Ibn al-Mughirah and Abu Uhayhah who prostrated behind the prophet. The people said: "When such persons have joined Islam, who else remains in Makkah?" They said: "Our relatives are dear to us." So they returned. Where they were at a distance of one hour's walk from Makkah, they confronted some horsemen of Kinanah. They inquired about the Quraysh and their affairs. The horse men said: "Muhammad spoke well of their deities, so they followed him but then they turned apostate. He began to abuse their gods and they began to harm him. We left them in this struggle." They discussed that they should return to Abyssinia; but then they said: "We have reached here, so let us enter (the town), see the Quraysh and visit our families and then return.""
Muhammad Ibn Umar informed us; he said: Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah related to me on the authority of al-Zuhri, he on the authority of Abu Bakr Ibn Abd al Rahman; he said: "They entered Makkah and none entered it except under (some one's) protection; Ibn Masud stayed for a short time and returned to Abyssinia."
Muhammad Ibn Umar said: "They had left (Makkah) in the month of Rajab in the fifth year. There they remained in the months of Shaban and Ramadan. The incident of prostration took place in Ramadan, and they returned in Shawwal in the fifth year."
1) Quran 53:1
2) Quran 53:19-20page 238
Satanic Verses spoken by Muhammad - pages 236 - 239.
1st return to Mecca - pages 238 - 239
Second Hijrah to Abyssinia - pages 239
Return from Abyssinia just after Khaybar - page 240
When the annulment of what Satan had put upon the prophet's tongue came from God, Quraysh said: "Muhammad has repented of what he said about the position of your gods with Allah, altered it and brought something else." Now those two words which Satan had put upon the apostle's tongue were in the mouth of every polytheist and they became more violently hostile to the Muslims and the apostle's followers. Meanwhile those of his companions who had left Abyssinia when they heard that the people of Mecca had accepted Islam when they prostrated themselves with the apostle, heard when they approached Mecca that the report was false and none came into the town without the promise of protection or secretly. Of those who did come into Mecca and stayed there until he migrated to Medina and were present at Badr with him was Uthman B. Affan... with his wife Ruqayya d. of the apostle and Abu Hudhayfa b. Zutba with his wife Sahla d. of Suhayl, and a number of others, in all thirty-three men (1). ...
THE RETURN OF THOSE WHO HAD FLED TO ABYSSINIA
The apostle's companions who had gone to Abyssinia heard that the Meccans had accepted Islamand they set out for the homeland. But when they got near Mecca they learned that the report was false, so that they entered the town under the protection of a citizen or by stealth.
5) Sura 53: 1-20Page 166
1) The word is said to mean "Numidian Cranes" which fly at a great height.
2) Another reading is "turjada" "to be hoped for".
3) Mentioned in the last verse of the Sura.
4) Sura 22:51. The following verse is not without relevance in this context: "that He may make what Satan suggested a temptation to those whose hearts are diseased and hardened."
5) Sura 53:19-27
1) A parallel tradition from M.b. Ka'd al-Qurazi and M.B. Qays is given by Tabari 1195 - 6.
Boycott - page 159
Mo speaks Satanic Verses - page 165, 166
Muslims in Abyssinia return from Abyssinia - pages 167, 168
Annulling of the boycott - page 172
WAKIDI'S WRITINGS ON THE SATANIC VERSES
W. Muir quotes Wakidi as writing:
"When he had reached this verse, the devil suggested an expression of the thoughts which for many a day had possessed his soul; and put into his mouth words of reconciliation and compromise, the revelation of which he had been longing for from God, namely;
"These are the exalted Females, and verily their intercession is to be hoped for"
"The Coreish were surprised and delighted with this acknowledgement of their deities; and as Mahomet wound up the /Sura with the closing words
"Wherefore bow down before God, and serve Him"
"the whole assembly prostrated themselves with one accord on the ground and worshipped. Walid alone, the son of Mughira, unable from the infirmities of age to bow down, took a handful of earth and worshipped, pressing it to his forehead."
"And all the people were pleased at that which Mahomet had spoke, and they began to say,
"Now we know that it is the Lord alone that give life and takes it away, that created and supports. These our goddesses make intercession with Him for us; and as thou has conceded unto them a portion, we are content to follow thee". But their words disquieted Mahomet, and he retired to his house. In the evening Gabriel visited him; and the prophet recited the Sura unto him. And Gabriel said, "What is this that thou has done? Thou has repeated before the people words that I never gave unto thee". So Mahomet grieved sore, and feared the Lord greatly; and he said, "I have spoken of God that which He had not said." But the Lord comforted His prophet, and restored his confidence, and cancelled the verse, and revealed the true reading thereof (as it now stands), namely,
"And see ye not Lat and Ozza, and Manat the third beside? What! Shall there be male progeny unto you, and female unto him? That were indeed an unjust partition! They are naught but names, which ye and your Fathers have invented, etc."
DISCUSSION / REVIEW OF THE SIRA MATERIAL ON THE SATANIC VERSES.
3) When Muhammad began to recite the chapter called "The Star", Satan interjected some words and thoughts into Muhammad's heart and mind. This was coupled with Muhammad's own desires; thus Muhammad spoke Satan's words.
4) Later, Gabriel rebuked Muhammad for having spoken Satan's words. Muhammad admitted his sinful error and was then comforted by Allah.
EVIDENCE FROM SAHIH HADITH THAT MUHAMMAD SPOKE THE SATANIC VERSES
The Prophet performed a prostration when he finished reciting Surat an-Najm, and all the Muslims and pagans and Jinns and human beings prostrated along with him.
Note again how this Hadith lines up with the four biographies.
FROM THE QURAN
The second passage is in chapter 22, called "The Pilgrimage", (Al-Hajj), verses 52, 53:
Note how Tabari records Muhammad's admittance of sin and repentance after Gabriel confronted him with his error. Afterwards, God supposedly comforts Muhammad with the verses from chapters 17 and 22. Ibn Sa'd records the same sequence of verses. After he admitted his sinful error, Muhammad was comforted by Gabriel. Who was this Gabriel?
See the webpage below for more material dealing with Muhammad interactions with "Gabriel" and Satan..
AN ISLAMIC SCHOLAR'S COMMENTARY (TAFSIR)
"The faithful rendering of the revelation Zamakhshari on Sura 22:52/51
Some say that Gabriel drew his attention to it, or that Satan himself spoke those words and brought them to the people's hearing. As soon as the messenger of God prostrated (for prayer) as the end of the sura, all who were present did it with him and felt pleased (that is, the unbelievers felt pleased that their goddesses had been accepted as intercessors with God).
Regarding these early Islamic scholars, William Muir writes in "The Life of Muhammad" that:
In "Muhammad and the Religion of Islam", by John Gilchrist, published by Jesus to the Muslims, page 118, Gilchrist writes: 
C) Another note of interest, Muhammad claimed that his Quran was above human invention. He challenged anyone, including "jinn" to produce something like the Quran. Well, we see that Satan was able to do so. Gabriel had to confront Muhammad with the fact that those "Satanic Verses" were not Allah's words. And note, all of the Muhammadans, i.e., Muhammad's followers, also prostrated when Muhammad prostrated. They did not realize that a false Quran had been spoken. Obviously, this "Quran" is not that special; even Satan was able to bring forth similar material.
FUNDAMENTALIST MUSLIM'S COMPLAINTS AND DENIALS
I will examine several of their arguments against the occurrence of the event. But note, there are numerous arguments and the scope of this paper is not to address each and every one. Most of them are subjective and lack substance; they are not worth the time of a reply.
One set of denials is put forth by a set of Muslim writers M S M Saifullah, Qasim Iqbal, Jason Hannan, Mansur Ahmed & Muhammad Ghoniem. Much of their work is copied from other Muslim's works. What follows are some of their arguments.
Denial / Complaint #1
The fundamentalist Muslim usually complain about someone criticizing their religion. And to cover the weakness of their position, they personally attack Christians or others who put forth the criticism. So, to start with, they complain about Christians identifying Muhammad with the Beast of Revelation 13. Here is their first complaint:
Shouldn't a false prophet be pointed out? If a man speaks Satan's words as God's, shouldn't this be revealed? Further, Islam denies the Sonship, Crucifixion, Messiahship, and death and resurrection of Jesus Christ - shouldn't this be exposed? Additionally, didn't Muhammad order that all Jews and Christians be driven out of the Hijaz, i.e. the land where Muhammad lived? Didn't Muhammad have 800 males, some as young as 12 massacred? Didn't Muhammad allow the rape of female slaves? Didn't Muhammad torture a man just to obtain money? Didn't Muhammad order the deaths of female slaves for just mocking him? So then, to equate this evil man with the "Beast" of Revelation is no stretch. While it may offend Muslims, I encourage all Muslims to take a deeper look at the man they follow. I encourage all sincere Muslims to re-examine a man upon whom they are staking their eternity. I have examined Muhammad, and I find him evil. I find him as the greatest false prophet in history.
Denial / Complaint #2
Muslim fundamentalists try to make it seem that only one man transmitted the event of the "Satanic Verses" spoken by Muhammad. They write:
No, it is not a deliberate distortion of the facts. First of all, the story is transmitted by the four early biographers of Muhammad's life: Ibn Ishaq, Wakidi, Ibn Sa'd, and Tabari. Ibn Sa'd did use Wakidi's material, but he also was a scholar in his own right and did a great deal of research. Didn't he write a 15 volume work on the early Muslims? Ibn Sa'd was much more than just a mere copyist. Tabari used Ibn Ishaq's material as well as Wakidi's, and others. But Tabari did not simply write anything he came across. He too was more than a mere copyist. Tabari was also one of the greatest scholars of Islam. He wrote a 39 volume history mostly related to Islam, as well as a thorough Commentary (Tafsir) on the Quran. Obviously Tabari thought that the story had enough merit to be included in his writings.
Additionally, there is corroborative material in both the Sahih Hadith and Quran supporting the story. Therefore, no facts are being distorted. These men were reputable Islamic scholars. They rank among the greatest in Islamic History. To say that the story is true based upon what they wrote is no distortion.There is nothing in the Quran or Hadith contradicting the story.
Denial / Complaint #3
Fundamentalist Muslims try to discredit the event by saying that the verses in the Quran related to the event were revealed at a much later date than the incident occurred. Here is their argument:
This argument rests upon the chronological time of the revelation of 17:73 - 75. The early Muslim sources - Tabari and Ibn Sa'd, say these verses were revealed around the time the Satanic verses were spoken by Muhammad, not at the time of the Miraj.
Additionally, the Quran is haphazardly composed. Verses that Muhammad spoke in Medina were mixed in with verses that he spoke in Mecca. Frequently, Muhammad told that verses he spoke at one time were to be recited with verses revealed at a much earlier time. To this date, Islamic scholars have not been able to determine a unified chronological sequence of the revelation of the Quran's chapters. While there are certain portions that can be put in some logical sequence, much of its chronology is indeterminate; the Quran is a hodgepodge of verses that have been spliced together. So, to base an argument on the supposed chronological order of the Quran is akin to building a house upon sinking sand. It cannot stand.
This complaint / denial argument has also been defeated by John Gilchrist in "Muhammad and the Religion of Islam". Let me quote from page 120:
Some poor Muslim scholars or students have put together an argument that rests upon the internal evidence of the chapter. Basically, they link both the Satanic verses with their replacement verses. Here is their argument:
The Muslims who put together this argument did not bother to do their homework. Otherwise they would have read in Tabari that the Satanic verses were cancelled out by the critical verses of the goddesses. I have previously posted this out of Tabari:
to the words: "to whom he wills and accept"".
Denial / Complaint #5
Muslims claim that if Muhammad's followers heard him allow the worship of idols, they would have seen his hypocrisy and stop following him. The argument is as follows:
Again, we have a case of today's Muslims not doing their homework. The early sources state that Muhammad's followers listened to Muhammad proclaim the worship of the deities and that they continued to follow him, not suspecting any error on Muhammad's part. Again, here is a quote from Tabari:
Today's Muslims point out that there is no mention of the "Satanic Verses" found in Sahih Hadith. Here is the Muslim position:
It has been already established that Bukhari's Hadith does contain an indirect reference to the event. Additionally, many other sources of Hadith also record the event. Just because the Sahih Hadith do not specifically mention it does not mean it never happened. The later collectors of Hadith could have been embarrassed, as Ibn Hisham was, and decided to leave the event out of their collections.
Another part of this Muslim argument says that the pagans were so overawed when they heard "The Star" chapter, that they bowed in prostration. However, these pagans had already heard Muhammad recite much of the Quran, and they rejected it. Further, if they were "overawed", why did the persecution against the Muslims grow immediately worse? The evidence, i.e., the early Islamic sources tell us that they prostrated themselves because Muhammad allowed their worship. As the pagans told Muhammad:
Of course the ramifications are large. Muhammad had a strange relationship with Satan. Was it really Gabriel choking Muhammad in the cave?
How many other words were influenced by Satan? Why would God make light of a prophet speaking Satan's words as God's? Didn't God command in the Old Testament that false prophets should be put to death? Didn't Jesus predict that false prophets would come and mislead many? (Ref. Matthew 24:11).
Muhammad had a deal with the devil. Satan led, he followed. If Muhammad began to get off course, Muhammad was corrected. Islam's denial of Christ's identity, is Satan's stronghold upon millions of people. Muslims follow one of the false prophets Jesus foretold.
One Christian writer addressing this question asked:
"Muslims today who simply dismiss the account of these writers as fabricated and unhistorical must at least answer the question why such reputable persons would fabricate it. The question is not new. But, it seems, a serious Muslim response is hard to find."
To this date, a serious Muslim response is still hard to find.
Further reading: Sir William Muir's conclusion regarding the historical validity of the reports, and other articles and discussions on this issue.
 "Sirat Un Nabi", page 214, by Allama Shibli Nu'mani, translated by M. Tayyib Bakhsh Budayuni, Volume 1, published by Kazi Publications, Lahore Pakistan.
3] "Tabari's History", pages 107 - 113, translated by W. M. Watt, published by SUNY, N.Y., USA.
 "Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir", pages 236 - 239, (Book of the Major Classes), by Ibn Sa'd, translated by S. Moinul Haq, published by the Pakistani Historical Society.
 "The Life of Muhammad", pages 165 - 167, (translation / re-composition of Ibn Ishaq's "Sirat Rasulallah" ("The Life of the Prophet of God", the most authentic extent biography of Muhammad's life), by A. Guillaume, published by Oxford, London, England.
 "The Life of Mahomet", Volume 2, pages 150 - 152, by W. Muir, quoting "Kitab al-Wakidi", published in London.
 "New Light on the Life of Muhammad", by A. Guillaume, published by Manchester University Press, Cambridge, England.
 "Sahih Hadith of Bukhari", translated by Khan, published by Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi, India.
 "The Quran" translated by N.J. Dawood, published by Penguin, London, England.
 "The Quran and its Exegesis", by Helmut Gatje, pages 53 - 55, published by Oneworld, Oxford, England.
 "Muhammad and the Religion of Islam", by John Gilchrist, page 118, published by Jesus to the Muslims, Durban, South Africa.