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Saturday, October 20, 2012

The Taking Of South America In Atlantean Times

http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.gr/search/label/Amazonian%20Adaptation

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 10, 2012

The Taking Of South America In Atlantean Times

["Paleoindian" Skull from Texas]

Americas, antiquity and prehistory of the  Americas

 And the study of the origins of the aboriginal peoples of the Americas
Archaeologists believe humans had entered and occupied much of the Americas by the end of the Pleistocene epoch, but the date of their original entry into the Americas is unresolved. The term “Paleo-Indians” is generally used to refer to early Native Americans up through the end of the Ice Age (c.8000 B.C.). Most authorities believe they entered North America from Siberia as small bands of migratory big-game hunters. Such a journey could have been made by means of a land bridge, known as Beringia, which emerged several times during the Pleistocene.
The Asian derivation of the Native Americans is supported by the physical similarity of the native populations of East Asia and the Americas; studies indicate that the DNA patterns of modern Native Americans are very similar to those of Asian populations. All human skeletal remains from the Americas, including the very oldest, have been found in geologically recent contexts and belong to anatomically modern human beings. While recent analyses of the early skeletal material from the Americas indicate these populations exhibited considerable variability, and had dental and cranial characteristics rather different from those of modern Native American populations, such differences probably resulted from a process of gradual physical evolution after one or more Asian-derived groups had reached the Americas.
The best known Paleo-Indian culture is that of the fluted-point hunters (see Clovis culture and Folsom culture), found throughout much of North America and dating to c.9300–8000 B.C.; they were specialized big-game hunters adapted to an open, temperate, terrestrial environment. For many years, most authorities believed the fluted-point hunters were the oldest Paleo-Indians in the Americas. The Paleo-Indians had reached the southern tip of South America by 9000–8500 B.C.
During the Pleistocene, glaciers covered much of North America, and the growth and contraction of these giant ice sheets may have played a crucial role in the timing of human migration into the Americas. During the height of the Wisconsin Glaciation (c.17,000–13,000 B.C.)—and perhaps several thousand years before and afterward as well—the ice formed a continuous sheet across N North America, preventing any overland migration from Alaska into the Great Plains of North America. For much of the 20th century, most Americanists held that the first Paleo-Indians entered lower North America only after the height of the Wisconsin Glaciation, when an ice-free corridor had emerged between the continental ice sheets in Canada. This development may have taken place as recently as 10,000 B.C. Then, according to this theory, the first Paleo-Indians moved rapidly southwards into North and South America, the speed of their migration being conditioned by the great abundance of game animals and the absence of human competitors in this virgin territory. These first inhabitants of North America were identified as the Clovis and Folsom fluted-point hunters.
A minority of archaeologists always opposed this theory and argued for the existence of an earlier, pre-Clovis occupation of the Americas. The presence of humans at the southern tip of South America by 9000—8500 B.C. suggested to some investigators that the fluted-point hunters were not the first migrants into the Americas, as this would have necessitated a very rapid rate of migration by these hunters. However, the absence of clearly convincing pre-Clovis sites frustrated the development of alternative models for the original human migration into the Americas. Some supposedly pre-Clovis sites contained very crude stone artifacts that had almost certainly been produced by natural processes. Other sites, such as the Meadowcroft Rock shelter near Pittsburgh and Wilson Butte Cave in Idaho, are more convincing, but many archaeologists remain skeptical and believe these and other early sites to have been misdated.
Two early South American sites have now won broad acceptance among archaeologists, giving impetus to the proponents of the pre-Clovis hypothesis. Monte Verde, near Puerto Montt in S Chile (c.10,500 B.C.), is a remarkable pre-Clovis site in a moist peat bog with preserved perishable wooden and bone material. A large variety of plant remains were recovered at the site, along with mastodon meat, indicating its inhabitants practiced a hunting-and-gathering economy in a cool temperate rain forest. Pedra Pintada, near Monte Alegre in the lower Amazon (c.9,000–8,200 B.C.), is essentially contemporary with Clovis and represents a previously unknown Paleo-Indian subsistence pattern based on fishing, foraging, and limited hunting in the tropical rain forest. These early sites have shattered the archaeological consensus that the fluted-point hunters were the first Native Americans. While still earlier radiocarbon dates have been reported from some South American sites, including Monte Verde—reaching back to 30,000 B.C.—dates earlier than 12,000 B.C. are currently regarded as unproven by most Americanists.
Given the presence of the great North American glaciers throughout most of the late Pleistocene, the presence of humans in South America in the pre-Clovis era represents a puzzle. No new consensus on the problem of the antiquity of humans in the Americas has yet emerged. One possibility is that the original southward migration into the Americas occurred along the Pacific coast by groups who possessed boats. There is currently no direct evidence for such a migration along the Pacific Coast of North America, and this is not surprising, as rising sea levels during the Holocene would have concealed or destroyed early coastal settlements there. Recently, two pre-Clovis coastal sites, Quebrada Jaguay and Quebrada Tacahuay, have been reported in S Peru. They both date to c.10,000 B.C. and, along with Monte Verde, provide possible evidence for such a coastal migration. Another possibility is that the first Paleo-Indians migrated into lower North America over land prior to the formation of the continental ice sheet across Canada. Many experts believe the continental ice sheets presented an insurmountable barrier to terrestrial migrations after c.20,000 B.C.
At c.8000 B.C. the Pleistocene ended. Changing environmental conditions and the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna forced human groups to diversify their economic strategies and become more reliant on foraging and capturing small game. Known collectively as Archaic adaptations, these new subsistence strategies were highly specialized responses to local environmental conditions and actually emerged in different times in different places. In some regions, such as the Great Plains of North America, human reliance on big-game hunting continued until historic times. In contrast, the early South American sites described above indicate that a subsistence strategy based on plant foraging, the hunting of small game, and fishing actually emerged during the Pleistocene, thereby permitting an early colonization of a diversity of environments. In some areas of the New World, most notably the Andean region, the Amazon basin, Mesoamerica, the SW United States, and the Mississippi Basin and Eastern Woodlands, Archaic Native Americans evolved into sedentary agricultural societies, generally beginning about 2000B.C., although recent radiocarbon dating of Caral, in Peru's Supe valley, indicates that a city of several thousand arose there c.2600 B.C.
See J. D. Jennings, Prehistory of North America (3d ed. 1989); S. J. Fiedel, Prehistory of the Americas (2d ed. 1992); C. C. Mann, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus (2005).    ( Columbia Encyclopedia Online, 2007.)

Below, chart of projectile points in North America and some maps for Clovis and successor cultures. The best evidence is that Clovis started in the Southeast/Mississippi delta and move up inland until they filled the area up to the glacial margin. Clovis was preceeded by an earlier more Solutrean-like precourser culture.

At Right, some Early Archaic points from Florida with side-notching which come from the end of the Ice Age and seem to bear some affinity for the South American types of points. The South American points (and the ones from the Gulf Coast) seem to have some drivation from Clovis: there are also Clovis-like points in Mexico and one was found in Cuba.But for the most part the South American points are somewhat different and they resemble contemporary types of stone points from the Capsian culture of North Africa instead. Below are the Fell Point types which seem to derive from an even older type of Saharan thick-stemmed Aterian point. The Aterian is older than the Solutrean but thought to be associated with it. I shall post some more photos on the Capsian points in a later Blog entry I am already preparing. It will be good to refer back to the chart below then.

It seems these early "Archaic" sites (Mesolithic, experimenting with marine resources and incipient cultivation) started in around the Northern parts of South America, worked their way all around the rim of the continent abnd then started moving inland. The much later Arawaks continued much the same lifestyle, only in later years they received better crops developed by their neighbours. In South America you find that sebveral of the domesticated crops such as cassava (tapioca) are toxic in the natural state and underwnt a protracted proceedure of selective breeding to make them edible. Hence several of these crops (mostly root-crops) had to have been started by 8000-9000 BC.



Basically it seems that at 12500 BC (at least) there is an establishment of the East-Asian types of points (spearheads) at the Early Upper Pleistocene. But then about 11000 years ago (9000 BC)
you start getting these North African point types (as I interpret them) in the middle to late Upper Pleistocene. And this is asociated with the theory that most of South America was colonised quite suddenly by "Paleoindians" ("Paleoamerinds"), practically all in the space of 11000 to 9000 years ago (9000 to 7000 BC) as shown in the charts below (the older populations at the tip of South America are also the ones thought to be Australoids, and they were there already at the start of this process)These dates are highly significant in that they also correspond to the dates of the Atlantis empire and its fall, the start of plant-crop breeding and to the period of oldest mining in the Andes.


Below, a modified chart from National Geographic indicating both the CircumPacific and TransAtlantic routes into America, and the different stone tool types either way. As noted at the top, the ones coming out of Europe are thin and flat in cross-section and the Asiatic points are thicker



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