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Thursday, March 29, 2018

Igor Shafarevich : The Socialist Phenomenon (I)




Bibliography
Russian-language entries are transcribed according to the Library of Congress system.
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66. I. M. D'iakonov. Obshchestvennyi i gosudarstvennyi stroi drevnego Dvurech'ia. Shumer (The Social and State System of Ancient Mesopotamia. Sumer, in Russian). Moscow, 1959.
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73. H. Kees. Ägypten. Munich, 1933.
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85. Qcherki po istorii Kitaia (Essays on Chinese History, in Russian). Ed. by Shang Yü-erh. Moscow, 1959.
86. K. Marx. "Formy, predshestvuiushchie kapitalisticheskomu proizvodstvu" ("Forms Preceding Capitalist Production," in Russian). In: Proletarskaia revoliutsiia, 1939, no. 3.
87. Vestnik drevnei istorii, 1940, no. 1.
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89. K. Wittfogel. Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power. New Haven, Conn., 1957.
90. F. Heichelheim. An Ancient Economic History, v. I. Leiden, 1958.
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93. M. V. Shchekin. Kak zhit' po novomu (How to Live in the New Way, in Russian). Kostroma, 1925.
94. D. Koigen. Zur Vorgeschichte des modernen philosophischen Sozialismus in Deutschland. Bern, 1901.
95. Michail Bakunins sozial-politischer Briefwechsel mit Alexander Ivanovitsch Herzen. Stuttgart, 1895.
96. M. Pokrovskii. Ocherki po istorii revoliutsionnogo dvizheniia v Rossii XIX i XX v. v. (Essays on the History of the Revolutionary Movement in Russia in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, in Russian). Moscow, 1924.
97. Charles Fourier. La Theorié des quatre mouvements et des destinées générales. (Quotations refer to the Russian translation, Teoriia chetyrekh dvizhenii i vseobshchikh sudeb. In: Izbrannye sochineniia, vol. I, Moscow, 1938.)
98. F. Engels. Anti-Dühring. (Quotations refer to the Russian translation, Anti-Diuring, Moscow, 1965.)
99. Osnovy marksizma (The Foundations of Marxism, in Russian). Samizdat, 1971.
100. S. Bulgakov. Karl Marks kak religioznyi tip (Karl Marx as a Religious Type, in Russian). Moscow, 1911.
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102. N. Bukharin. Ekonomika perekhodnogo perioda (The Economic Structure of the Transitional Period, in Russian). Moscow, 1920.
103. K. Kautsky. Von der Demokratie zu der Staats-Sklaverei. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Trotzki. (Quotations refer to Russian translation, Ot demokratii k gosudarstvennomu rabstvu. [Otvet Trotskomu].) Berlin, 1921.
104. W. S. Schlamm. Die jungen Herren der alten Erde (Vom neuen Stil der Macht). Stuttgart, 1962.
105. XIII s"ezd RKP(b) (The Thirteenth Congress of the Russian Communist Party). Moscow, 1924.
106. N. Valentinov. "Piatakov i bol'shevizm" ("Piatakov and Bolshevism," in Russian). In: Novyi zhurnal (New York), no. 52, 1958.
107. R. Chauvin. De l'abeille au gorille. (Quotations refer to Russian translation, Ot pchely do gorilly, Moscow, 1965.)
108. K. Jaspers. Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte. Zurich, 1949.
109. V. S. Solov'ev (Soloviev). Sobranie sochinenii v desiati tomakh (Collected Works, in Russian). 10 vols. St. Petersburg, 1911.
110. S. Bulgakov. Khristianstvo i sotsializm (Christianity and Socialism, in Russian). Moscow, 1917.
111. B. P. Koz'min. Nechaev i nechaevtsy (Nechaev and the Nechaevists, in Russian). Moscow-Leningrad, 1931.
112. D. Riazanov. "Marks i Engels o brake i sem'e" ("Marx and Engels on Marriage and the Family," in Russian). In: Letopisi marksizma, v. III, 1927.
113. V. I. Lenin. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii (Collected Works, in Russian), fifth edition. 55 vols. Moscow, 1958-65.
114. C. Hugo. Der Sozialismus in Frankreich im XVII und XVIII Jahrhundert. (Quotations refer to Russian translation, Sotsializm vo Frantsii v XVII i XVIII stoletiiakh, Ivanovo-Voznesensk, 1924.)
115. S. Bulgakov. Pervokhristianstvo i noveishii sotsializm (Early Christianity and Modern Socialism, in Russian). Moscow, 1911.
116. S. Frank. "Etika nigilizma" ("The Ethics of Nihilism," in Russian). In: Vekhi (Landmarks), Moscow, 1909.
117. G. Le Bon. Psychologie du socialisme. (Quotations refer to Russian translation, Psikhologiia sotsializma, St. Petersburg, 1908.)
118. W. Gurian. Der Bolschewismus. Freiburg, 1931.
119. H. Marcuse. Eros and Civilization. A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud. Boston, 1955.
120. IX s"ezd RKP(b) (Ninth Congress of the Russian Communist Party). Moscow, 1920.
121. L. Trotskii. Terrorizm i kommunizm. Anti-Kautskii (Terrorism and Communism. Anti-Kautsky, in Russian). 1920. (Quotations taken from 103, which is a response to 121.)
122. A. M. Kollontai. Novaia moral' i rabochii klass (The New Morals and the Working Class, in Russian). Moscow, 1919.
123. G. Grigorov and S. Shkotov. Staryi i novyi byt (The Old and the New Way of Life, in Russian). Moscow-Leningrad, 1927.
[306]


124. I. Il'inskii. Pravo i byt (The Way of Life and the Law, in Russian). Leningrad, 1925.
125. Sem'ia i byt (The Family and the Way of Life, in Russian). Collection of essays compiled by A. Adol'f, B. Boichevskii, V. Stroev, and M. Shishkevich. Moscow, 1927.
126. Vserossiiskii Tsentral 'nyi Ispolnitel 'nyi Komitet XII sozyva. Vtoraia sessia (stenograficheskii otchet) (All-Russian Central Executive Committee. Second Session of the XII Congress. [Stenographic record]). Moscow, 1925.
127. M. N. Liadov. Voprosy byta (About the Way of Life, in Russian). Moscow, 1925.
128. S. Ia. Vol'fson. Sotsiologiia braka i sem'i (Sociology of Marriage and the Family, in Russian). Minsk, 1929.
129. A. Borovoi. Obshchestvennye idealy sovremennogo chelovechestva (Social Ideals of Contemporary Mankind, in Russian). Moscow, 1927.
130. Brothers Gordin. Sotsiologiia i sotsiotekhnika (Sociology and Sociotechnology, in Russian). Petrograd, 1918.
131. E. Enchmen. Vosemnadtsat' tezisov o teorii novoi biologii (Eighteen Theses on the Theory of the New Biology, in Russian). Piatigorsk, 1920.
132. A. Stoliarov. Dialekticheskii materializm i mekhanisty (Dialectical Materialism and the Mechanists, in Russian). Leningrad, 1929.
133. B. Arvatov. Iskusstvo i proizvodstvo (Art and Production, in Russian). Moscow, 1926.
134. Rogovin. "Problema tvorcheskogo metoda v ideino-khudozhestvennoi bor'be 20-kh g.g." ("The Issue of Creative Method in the Ideological and Artistic Debates of the 1920s," in Russian.) In: Voprosy estetiki, Moscow, 1971, no. 9.
135. K. Kautsky. Ein Brief über Marx und Mach. Der Kampf Vienna, 1909. Bd.2.
136. S. Minin. "Filosofiiu za bort" ("Throwing Philosophy Overboard," in Russian). In: Pod znamenem marksizma, 1922, nos. 5-6.
137. P. Blonskii. Sovremennaiafilosofiia (Contemporary Philosophy). Moscow, 1918.
138. I. V. Stalin. Ekonomicheskie problemy sotsializma (Economic Problems of Socialism, in Russian). Moscow, 1952.
139. A. Toynbee. An Historian's Approach to Religion. London, 1956.
140. K. Jaspers. Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte. Zurich, 1949.
141: L. Mumford. The Myth of the Machine. New York, 1962.
142. M. Walser. "Über die neusten Stimmungen im Westen." In: Kursbuch, Bd. 20, 1970, S. 19-41.
143. Ph. Gavi, J.-P. Sartre, P. Victor. On a raison de se revolter. Paris, 1974.
144. K. Lorenz. Das sogenannte Bose. Vienna, 1963.
145. H. M. Enzensberger. "Baukasten zu einer Theorie der Medien." In: Kursbuch, Bd. 20, 1970, S. 159-186.
146. Letopisi marksizma (Annals of Marxism, in Russian), v. III, 1927. '
147. Jerry Rubin. Do It! (Scenario of the Revolution). New York, 1970.
148. J. Eibl-Eibesfeldt. Grundriss der vergleichenden Verhaltensforschung. Munich, 1967.
[307]


149. A. P. Elkin. The Australian Aborigines. Sydney-London, 1938. (Russian translation, Moscow, 1952.)
150. G. Childe. What Happened in History. London, 1942.
151. Iu. Steklov. Mikhail Bakunin (in Russian), v. III. Moscow-Leningrad, 1927.
152. K. Kautsky. Terrorismus und Kommunismus. (Quotations refer to the Russian translation, Terrorizm i kommunizm, Berlin, 1919.)
153. S.-H. Saint-Simon. Izbrannye sochineniia (Selected Works, in Russian), vol. I. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
154. A. S. Izgoev. "Ob intelligentnoi molodezhi" ("On the Youthful Intelligentsia," in Russian). In: Vekhi (Landmarks), Moscow, 1909.
155. Byloe, no. I, July, 1917. (In Russian.)
156. I. R. Shafarevich. "Socialism in Our Past and Future." In: From Under the Rubble. Ed. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975. (Russian edition published in Paris, 1974.)
157. F. M. Dostoevskii. Sobranie sochinenii (Works, in Russian), 10 vols. Moscow, 1956-58, vol. IX.
158. H. Oldenberg. Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde. (Quotations refer to the Russian translation, Budda, ego zhizn', uchenie i obshchina, Moscow, 1884.)
159. S. Radhakrishnan. Indian Philosophy, vol. I. New York and London, 1923.
160. The Elder Edda. (Russian translation, Moscow-Leningrad, 1963.)
161. M. Stirner. Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum. (Russian translation, St. Petersburg, 1909.)
162. M. Heidegger. Sein und Zeit. Halle an der Saale, 1929.
163. M. Heidegger. Holzwege. Frankfurt am Main, 1950.
164. J.-P. Sartre. L 'Être et le Néant. Paris, 1943.
165. M. Heidegger. Nietzsche. Bd. II. Berlin, 1961.
166. J. Dembowski. Psikhologiia zhivotnykh (Psychology of Animals, in Russian; original in Polish). Moscow, 1959.
167. R. Stammler. Wirtschaft und Recht nach der materialistischen Geschichtsauffassung, 2nd ed. Berlin-Leipzig, 1906.
168. Aggression und Anpassung in der Industriegesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main, 1969.
[308]


Index
A
Absolute pessimism concept, 286, 289
Adamite sect, 31-33, 67-68, 75
Adventures of Telemachus, The (Fénelon), 104
Agriculture: in Ch'in empire, 181; Code of Nature, 111; post-revolutionary Russia and, 239-241, 252; Shang-teaching, 176-178; in socialist novels, 104-105; in Sumer, 154-155, 157, 159; in Utopia, 83; Yin era, China, 168-171
Agrodespotic state, 192 n.
Ajaoiens, 104-105
Albigensian sect, 19, 67, 69, 73, 77
Altman, I., 251
Amalrician sect, 67, 78
Amalric of Bena, 25-26
American sects, 80, 197, 268
Anabaptist sect, 34-40; destructive elements, 275; as forerunner of socialism, 78, 197, 214; in Münster, 59-66; name and origin, 67, 69-71; violence and fanaticism, 37-40, 60-66, 73, 265
Anarchism, 215, 248-249, 267
Ancient Kingdom. See Egypt
Ancient Orient socialist states, 152-185, 196,202; and ideology, 272; summary, 189-192,255. See also "Asiatic Social Formation"
Animal societies, 264-265, 269, 271-272; and instinct, 297
Anonymous society, 265, 269
Anthropology of socialism, 227-234
Antichrist, 25, 27, 29, 46, 48
Anti-Dühring (Engels), 208-209, 212-213
Anti-cultural theme, 178, 184-185, 196-197, 233, 265-266; post-revolutionary Russia, 248-251
Antiquity: labor population, 190; and socialism, 3-18, 78. See also China, ancient; Egypt; Mesopotamia
Apostolic Brethren, 29, 46-50, 67, 71
Aristophanes, 3-4, 6, 14-15
Arts, 2; 18th-century novels, 105-106; Enlightenment literature, 111, 119, 121; in ideal socialist state, 269; of New Left, 233; in Plato's Republic, 9-10, 265; in post-revolutionary Russia, 248, 250-251; Utopians and, 85. See also Anti-cultural theme
Arvatov, B., 250
"Asiatic Social Formation," xi, 185-189, 207,256-257; basic features, 187-188
Atheism: Deschamps and, 115-117; Levellers, 45-46; as "religion" of socialism, 130, 196, 225, 233-234; socialism as result of, 234-235
Australian aborigines, 205, 273
"Axial time," 255-257
Ayala, Guamán Poma de, 136, 139-140
Aztecs, 205
B
Babeuf, François Emile, 121, 124, 212
Bakunin, M., 186 n., 203, 215, 219, 223; confession of, 294; destruction and terror theme, 212, 275-279
Baptism, 68-70, 75
Baptists, 70, 80
Barilotto, 27, 42
Batenburg, 40
Bau temple, 153-155, 155 n.
Baudin, L., 141-142, 264
Bazarov, V. A., 226
Beehive analogy, 218, 269

[309]


Beghards and Beguines, 28-29, 67, 71
Being concept, 291
Berdiaev, Nikolai, 226, 295-296
Bernard de Clairvaux, Saint, 23, 70
Berlin's Commune No.1, 236, 269
Birthrates, 274
Black masses, 68
Blacks, in America, 203, 300
Blonsky, P. P., 251
Bogomil heresy, 19, 68-69
Bohemia, 29-34, 37, 71
Bokelson, Jan (Johann of Leyden), 40-41, 197, 294; life of, 59-66
Bolsheviks, 213, 217-218, 277-279
Bonding theory, 264-265
Book burning and destruction, 31, 119, 184-185
Bourgeois society. See Marxism Brethren of the Free Spirit, 24, 47; doctrines, 26-29, 41, 69, 76-77; origins, 69, 254; sexual practices, 27-28, 42; and socialist aspects, 28, 32-33, 35, 78, 236
Brik, Osip, 250
Bruys, Pierre de (Peter), 21, 69-70
Buddha, 286-288
Buddhism, 255, 286-288
Bukharin, Nikolai, 212, 243, 250, 294
Bulgakov, Sergius, 7-8, 208, 210, 220; on Marxism, 295-296; on socialism as religion, 225-226, 233
Buonarroti, Philippe, 121, 124, 128-129
Bureaucracy: ancient Egyptian, 162-164; Ch'in empire, 180; in "Equals" state, 122; Inca empire, 138-139
Burial customs, 120, 139-140, 198
C
Campanella, Tommaso, 87-88, 100, 112, 124, 197; City of the Sun, xiii, 87-95, 238, 254, 256, 259, 300; criticism of church, 94-95, 129; and socialist ideals, 237, 285
Capital (Marx), 207-211, 229, 266-268
Capitalism, bourgeois society, 5, 242-243, 250; compared with socialism, 216-219; Marxism and, 202, 212-213; polarization of sexes, 263; and social justice, 225
Carpocratian sect, 15
Cathars, 19-25,28,73,75,77-78; and charity, 221; death notion, 279-280, 283; dualism, 297-298; origins, 69-71, 254
Catholic Church: Campanella and, 94; and charity, 221; Dostoyevsky on, 234-235, 285; and Italian fascism, 253; medieval heresies and, 18, 21-38, 72-75, 196; More and, 87. See also Inquisition; Reformation period
Censorship, 9-10, 123
Charlevoix, P. F. X. de, 145-146, 148, 150
Chernyshevsky, N. G., 222
Childbearing, 12,20,22,91-92,246
Children: communal upbringing, 80, 87; destruction of parental ties, 4, 12, 15-17,118-119,179,195,236,270-271; in Enlightenment literature, 111, 113, 118; in "Equals," 123; Fourier on, 228; heretical doctrines on, 37, 68-69; Inca empire, 137-138, 141-142; in Jesuit state, 150; in post-revolutionary Russia, 240-241,244-248; in socialist novel, 103-105; Solarians and, 91; state regulation and upbringing, 5, 89-92; 269-271; and Ur, 159
Chiliasm, 3
Chiliastic socialism, 3-130; ancient Greece, 7-15; contradictions, 295; definition and doctrines, 3-6; early Christianity, 15-17; English Revolution era, 41-46; Enlightenment literature, 106-120; "Equals" in France, 121-129; heretical movements link to, 67-79; Hussite movement, 29-34; Middle Ages, 18-29; new features of, 129-130; Reformation period, 34-41; 17th and 18th-century novels, 101-106; State socialism, differences with, 236, 253-257; Utopians, 82-101; violence, loss of, 80, 81 n.; vision of future society, 254, 257
China, ancient: Ch'in empire, 180-185; labor population, 190; Shang teachings, 173-180; Yin and early Chou era, 168-172
China, contemporary, 252-253, 262, 296
Ch'in empire, 179-185
Christ, 223; Christian beliefs, 74-76; Dostoyevsky on society without, 234-235, 285; "Equals" disagreement on, 124; medieval heresies and, 19, 21, 25-44, 75; Meslier hatred for, 107, 130; temptation of, 220
Christianity: Campanella on, 94-95; decline, 234-235; early sects, 15-17; end-of-world concept, 281; fundamental principle of, 74, 76; individuality concept, 255-256; medieval heresies and, 17-34,196; Meslier on, 107, 130; Reformation and, 34-41; socialism as reaction to, 256; socialist ideology and, 79; in Utopia, 87; Winstanley on, 45
City of the Sun (Campanella), 87-95; and identity, 259; isolation of society, 238; sexual regulation, 91
Class struggle, 229-230, 262-263

[310]


Clothing, identical, 4, 269; Anabaptists, 36-37; characteristic of socialist society, 259,267,269; Incas, 136, 141;Jesuit state Indians, 149; in Morelly's Code of Nature, 111; Sevarites, 103; Solarians, 90-91; Utopians, 84, 259
Code of Nature, The (Morelly), 111-112, 114; and identicalness, 259
Collectivization of agriculture, 239-240, 247,252
Communality idea: and abolition of private property, 195; anti-cultural bias, 196-197; Aristophanes on, 4; in Buonarroti's society, 122; of children in City of the Sun, 91; Christians, early, 15-16; English sects, 41-44; heretical sects and, 35-39, 47-48,57,60-63,67,78-79; in Jesuit state, 145-146; and Marxism, 5; of men and women, 118; in Republic and Diodorus, 11, 14; 17th and 18th-century literature, 102-105, 108, 118; as slogan, 213; as socialist principle, 196, 200, 257. See also Private property; Wives; Women
Communes, 43, 103, 123-124, 181, 199; China, 252-253; post-revolutionary Russia, 239-240, 247-248
Communism, 87,195,213-214
Communist Manifesto, xiii, 4-6, 195, 244
Compulsory labor: Anabaptists, 37; in ancient China, 170, 177, 179, 182-183, 189-190; ancient Egypt, 162, 189; ancient Greeks, 4,13-14; and conscription, 189, 241-243; "Equals" on, 122; Incas, 135; Jesuit state, 146, 150; and meaning of socialism, 215; Mesopotamia, 153-155, 158-161,189-190; Morelly on, 111; post-revolutionary Russia, 240-243; socialist novel on, 103, 105; Utopians, 83, 85, 90; Winstanley on, 96-97, 99. See also Communes; Work and workers
Concubines, 137-138, 141
Confucianism, 172, 185, 255 Conspiracy of Equals (Buonarroti), xiii, 121-129
Consolamentum (consolation), 22
Counter Reformation, 75
Craftwork and artisanship: ancient China, 170,177-178,182,190; ancient Egypt, 165, 190; Mesopotamia, 154, 157-158, 163,165,190; Morelly on, 111; Plato on, 8,13-14; socialist novels, 104-105; South American societies, 135, 147, 190
Credenti, 21-22
Crime and Punishment (Dostoyevsky), 199
Crimes and punishment: ancient China, 172,174-175,179,183,191; "Equals" on, 123; Incas, 139-140; Jesuits, 145-146; Utopians, 83, 90, 92-93, 97, 99. See also Laws
Critique of Political Economy (Marx), 207
Cromwell, Oliver, 42-43, 45, 96 Culture.
See Anti-cultural theme
D
Death: Cathar doctrine, 22-23; Deschamps on, 114, 120; Diodorus' communes, 15; Incas, 139-140; Plato on, 9-10, 13; and socialist ideology, 275-276. See also Extinction of mankind theme; Self-destructive impulse; Suicide
Death instinct, 282-285, 292, 297
Denck, Hans, 36, 39
Descartes, Rene, 293
Deschamps, Dom L. G., 114-120, 198,215; on God, 114-116, 130; on leveling of man, 260; and Plato, 254; three stages of man, 117-120
Destruction of existing society theme, xii, 3, 78, 130, 217-225, 237-238; injustice and suffering, 221-225; and revolutionary movements, 275-277; tendency of chiliastic socialism, 254, 257
Dialectics, 210, 277, 280-281, 295
Diary of a Writer, The (Dostoyevsky), 234, 285
Diderot, Denis, 112-114, 142
Diggers, 43-46, 95
Diodorus, 15
Divorce, 247-248. See also Marriage customs
Dolcino, Fra, 29, 47-50, 73,197,214
Dostoyevsky, F. M., 129, 198-199,267, 269; Crime and Punishment, 199; Diary of a Writer, The, 234, 285; on failure of Catholicism and socialism, 234-235, 285; "Grand Inquisitor," 285; Possessed, The, 129, 198, 267
Dualism, 297-298
E
East, ancient. See Ancient Orient socialist states
East Africa, 191, 201
Ecclesiazusae (Aristophanes), 3-4, 6; compared with Republic, 14-15, 198
Economic systems: ancient China, 168-185; ancient Egypt, 162-165, 173; ancient Sumer, 152-161, 173; Asiatic Mode of Production, 185-189; contemporary China, 252-253; Incas, 133-142; Jesuit state, 142-151; King as center of, 189-192; Soviet Russia, 239-241, 252; state capitalism concept, 216, 239

[311]


Education: in Ch'in empire, 184-185; Deschamps on, 119; "Equals" on, 122-123; Inca children, 139; Marxism on, 5; Plato on, 9, 11-12; socialist novels, 103-106; Winstanley on, 101
Ego and His Own, The (Stirner), 290-291
Egypt, 142, 161, 173, 192; Ancient Kingdom, 162-164, 190-191; compulsory labor, 215; 18th Dynasty, 164-165; machine analogy, 261-262; religion, 166-167
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, J., 271
Elder Edda, 289
"Elect" (Inca civilization), 137-138
Enchmen, E., 249-250
Encyclopédie, 112, 142, 197
Endura, 22
Engels, Friedrich, 5, 33, 195; on Asiatic Mode of Production, 186; on family, 243-245; on Fourier and Saint-Simon, 204; on justice, 212; on Marxist contradictions, 211 n., on mobilization of workers, 241; reviews of Capital, 267-268; on revolution, 238; and scientific method, 208-210. See also Marx-Engels correspondence
English Revolution of 1648, 41-46, 73, 95
Enlightenment literature, 81 n., 106-120; on equality and nature, 259; on Jesuit state, 151
Enzensberger, H. M., 266
Epiphanes, 15-16, 236
Equality concept: Christian doctrine and socialism, 79; Deschamps on, 118; early Christian sects, 16-17; "Equals" social aim, 121; as identical behavior, 258-261; in socialist novels, 104-106; socialist principle, 196,200,219; and suppression of individuality, 262; in Utopia, 85-86
Equals, Society of, 121-129, 238; dispute over religion, 124; and identical lives, 259-260; naivete and inanity, 129,267; transitional period, 124-127
Escadón, Juan de, 145-146, 150
Ethology, 264-265, 297
Europe: and nihilism, 291-293; and socialism, 200, 234-235. See also Western Europe
Existentialism, 114-115,291
Extinction of mankind theme, 274-285; self-destructive impulse, 286-300
F
Fadeyev, A., 250
Familist sect, 41
Family: abolition of: American sects, 80; actual realization of, 236-237, 253; ancient Orient, 179, 183; Aristophanes on, 4,6; and identical behavior, 258-261; Incas, 136-137; and individuality, 262; Marxist theory on, 5-6, 243-245; medieval heresies, 23, 28, 67,76-77; and over-population, 253; Plato on, 12; post-revolutionary Russia, 245-248; socialist principle, 195, 200, 257; Utopians and, 87, 98. See also Marriage customs
Fénelon, 104
Feuerbach, Ludwig, 114,294
Foigny, Gabriel de, 103
Fontenelle, 104-105
Food, 11-12, 15, 147, 240
"Forerunners" notion, 197, 214
Forest Brethren, 268
Fourier, Charles, 215, 219, 224, 245, 249; compared to Marxism, 204, 210, 211; and Freud, 228-229, 230-231; inevitable death theme, 280-281; on instinct and passions, 227-228; on irresponsibility, 266-267; Marcuse on, 6; planet theory and socialist teachings, 204-206, 256; sincerity of, 205, 205 n.; "Unitheism," 262
France, 24, 296, 300; Dostoyevsky on, 234; in "Equals," 124, 238
Frank, Semyon, 226
Freedom of will, 20, 115,229,300
Free Spirits. See Brethren of the Free Spirit
Freudian theory, 298; death instinct, 292, 297; human personality concept, 228-231; influence on Marcuse, 263-264, 281-282
Fromm, Erich, 277
G
Germany, 69, 129; and medieval heresies, 27,34,37-40,51-66,74; Nazi lebensborn, 253
Gnostic heresies, 68, 75, 77, 236; and equality, 258; socialist aspects, 254, 256. See also Manichean sects
God: in Buddhism, 288; Cathar beliefs, 19-21,75-76; Deschamps on, 115-117,130; Fourier on, 228; Incas and, 135, 137-138; and individual man, 267; king worship, 166-168; manicheism and, 68, 76; medieval heresies and, 25-27, 30, 37, 41; Meslier on, 107-108; Ranters, 141-142; and Socialism, 234-235; Winstanley's idea of, 101
"God-building" tendency, 226
Gorky, M., 226
"Grand Inquisitor" (Dostoyevsky), 285, 285 n.

[312]


Great Wall of China, 182
Greece, 3-15, 78, 190; human personality concept, 255
Guarani Indians, 143-151,274
Guilds, 81 n., 190
H
Hartlib, Samuel, 46
Hartmann, Eduard von, 290, 299
Hartmann, Johann, 26-27
Hawaiian Islands, 191-192, 201
Hegel, G. W., 114, 210
Heichelheim, F., xi, 189-192
Heidegger, M., 291
Heinrichians, 69
Heretical sects. See Gnostic heresies; Manichean sects; Medieval heresies
Hetzer, 36
Hide, Edward, 42
Hierarchies: animal societies, 265; bureaucratic in socialist state, 261; Incas, 138-139; medieval heresies, 22, 28, 77; Meslier on, 107; socialism and abolition of, 196, 200
Historical materialism, 185-189
History, concepts of: ancient Chinese, 180; "axial time," 255; Deschamps's three stages of, 117-118; and dualism, 297-298; evolutionary progress idea, 130; Freudian view, 230; Heichelheim thesis, xi; iron laws of, 266; Joachim of Flore view, 25; Morelly's basic force of, 112; socialist view of, 226
History of the Sevarites (Vairasse), 102-103, 238
"Homines Intelligentia," 28, 33
Homosexuality, 117, 232
Housing arrangements: Anabaptists, 37; Aristophanes, on, 4,198; free entry, 198-199; Incas, 133, 141, 199; Jesuit reductions, 148-149; Marxism, 5; Plato on, 11, 198-199; for the poor in "Equals," 126-127, 127 n.; post-revolutionary Russian dormitory, 199,247-248; privacy vs. equality, 199, 259; Utopians, 85, 198, 259; Winstanley's society, 100
Humanism, 27-28, 81 n.
Human personality, concepts of, 227-233; and "axial time," 255-256; death of mankind idea, 293-294; leveling down of, xiii, 233, 260; Marcuse on, 231-233; Marx on, xiv; in religion, 233, 255; post-revolutionary Russian literature, 250-251; in socialist ideology, 227-231. See also Individuality
Human sacrifice, 134, 138
Hussite movement, 29, 71, 73; wars, 33-34
Hut, Hans, 36, 39
Hydraulic societies, 191-192, 201
I
Iconoclasm, 75-76, 95. See also Medieval heresies
Identicality, xiii, 119-120, 198,258-262
Ideology of socialism: coincidences and conservatism, 197-201; and contradictions, xiii-xv; definition and basic principles, 194-197, 200, 236-237; delusive quality, 295-296, 299; dependence on Christianity, 79; different conceptions of, 202-235; in Enlightenment and Utopian writings, 129-130; goal of, 285, 285 n.; and human extinction idea, 274-285; identicality vs. equality, 258-261; and implementation of, 272-275; and instinct, 296-297; model of ideal society, 269; party character and, 216-217; reconciliation of doctrine and practice, 236-257; self-destructive impulse and socialist organization, 286-300; and social justice, 221-225; suppression of individuality, 262; terror and violent aspects of, 275-279. See also State socialism
Ilyin, Captain, 268
Inca empire, 113 n., 133-142, 144, 192, 197,201; and birthrate, 274; class structure and peasant life, 134-137,215, 246; collapse of, 141-142; crime and punishment, 139-140; isolation, 238; More's Utopia and, 142, 198; standardization, 141, 264
Individual bonding, 264
Individuality, 255-256, 300; Heidegger on, and death, 291; and identicality, 258-263; Marx on, xiv-xv; socialist hostility to, 262-265; Soloviev on, 299; suppression of, 262, 269, 272-285, 294
Informers, xiii, 175, 179
Inquisition, 47-48, 70, 75
Instinct, 227-228, 231-232, 296-298. See also Death instinct
Irrigation systems, 154-155, 171-172, 191-192
Isolation, 103, 124, 199, 238
Italy, 46-50, 253
Izgoev, A. S., 283-284
J
Jaspers, Karl, 211, 219, 255, 296
Jesuit state in Paraguay, 142-151,215,238,274
Jewish nationality question, 206
Joachim of Flore, 25-26, 46, 78, 130

[313]


Johann of Leyden. See Bokelson, Jan
Judaic Messianism, 225-226
Justice: in City of Sun, 92-93; Epiphanes on, 16; in Plato's Republic, 8; Shang on, 174. See also Social justice concept of socialism
K
Kanler, Konrad, 27
Kautsky, Karl, 214, 243, 251, 277-279
Keller, Ludwig, 69, 81 n.
Kinetic theory of gases, 260-261
Kings: centralized economic system and, 189-191; deified, 166-168, 166 n., 191, 196
Kollontai, Aleksandra, 246
Komensky, Jan (Comenius), 46
Kung-sun Yang. See Shang Yang
Kushnir, B., 250
L
Labor. See Compulsory labor; Work and workers
La Bretonne, Restif de, 105-106
La Mettrie, Julien de, 293
Land: Aristophanes on, 4; ancient China, 169-171, 177, 179,181,186-189;ancient Sumer, 153-154, 157, 161, 190; Bolsheviks on communality, 213-214; Diggers and, 43; Egypt, 162, 165; Incas, 135; Jesuit state, 145-146; post-revolutionary Russia, 239-240; Winstanley's scheme, 96
Language, 119, 144, 172, 260
Lao-tse, 288
Lassalle, F., 208, 225
Law of Freedom, The (Winstanley), xiii, 95-101
Laws (Plato), 7, 15
Laws: of history, 266; of Inca empire, 113, 136, 140; of Morelly's system, 111-112; Shang reforms, 174, 179-180; and socialist party, 217. See also Crimes and punishment; Justice; Scientific socialism concept
Lebensborn, 253
Le Bon, G., 226
Left Front of the Arts (LEF), 250
Leftness, degree of, 283
"Legislator, The" (Diderot), 112-113, 142
Lenin, V. I., 224, 239, 241
L'Étoile, Eon de, 21
Levellers, 44-46
Liadov, M. N. (Mandelshtam), 246
Liberation concept, 130,254,257; Marcuse on instincts, 231-232
Libidinal rationality, 232
Lilburne, 41
Literature: 17th and 18th-century novels, 101-106; Enlightenment writers, 106-120; in post-revolutionary Russia, 250-251; socialism's hostility to, 265-266; Utopian socialists, 80-100
Leob's theory of tropisms, 293
Lollard sect, 41
Lorenz, Konrad, 265
Loria, A., 211 n.
Lucifer, 19-20,27-28
Lunacharsky, A., 226
Luther, Martin, 69, 71-73; and Müntzer, 51-53, 55, 57, 59
Lutherans, 40, 59-60, 69
Luxemburg, Rosa, 277
Lyons Paupers, 71
M
Machine symbol: and nature of man, 293; and socialist ideal, 261-262
Mahler, Gustav, 292
Manichean sects, 16, 18,23,67; doctrines, 68, 75, 221; dualism, 297
Mao Tse-tung, xiv, 185,203,262
Marcionites, 68
Marcuse, Herbert: death and destruction themes, 281-283; on Freudian dualism, 292, 298; and individuality, 264; and Plato, 254; on work and play, 6,14,231-232; synthesis of Freud and socialist ideology, 231-233, 263-264, 281-283
Marriage customs: American communal settlements, 80; Anabaptists, 35, 37-40; ancient China, Yin era, 171-172; bourgeois society, 5; Cathars, 21-24, 77; 18th-century socialist novels, 105; Incas, 137-138, 141; Jesuit state, 149; Marxist theory, 5; medieval sects and sex, 28, 32-33; Meslier on divorce, 109; Morelly on, 111; Plato on, 12; Ranters, 41; post-revolutionary Russia, 243-248; Solarians, 89; Tahitians, 113; Utopians, 85. See also Wives, as common property
Marx, Karl, xiii-xv, 251; and Asiatic Mode of Production, 186-189; on mobilization of workers, 241; on private property, 195; and scientific method, 204, 208-209; theory of value, 211-213, 211 n.
Marx-Engels correspondence: Capital reviews, and frivolousness, 267-268; contempt and hatred of others, 224-225, 278-279; on scientific character of Marxism, 209-210; suffering welcomed, 223-224
Marxism: alleged Russian distortion of, 277-278; and child labor, 223; compared with Fourier, 204, 210; compared with

[314]


Marxism (cont'd)
Freudian thesis, 229-231; contradictions, 211 n., 295-296; and family, 4-6, 244-245; and forerunner" notion, 214; on individual man, 262; and nihilism, 277-279; and oppression of workers, 219, 223-224; predictions and errors, 206, 295-296; and problem of "Asiatic social formation," 185-189; as reaction to Christianity, 256; and religion, 226; as scientific theory, 203-213, 295; socialism concept, 202-203; two ineffective answers, 299-300; Wells on, 2-3
Masonic movement, 81 n.
Maspero, H., 168, 171-172
Mass movements. See Popular socialist movements; Revolutionary movements
Materialism, 6, 96, 114,219,226-227
Matthijs, Jan, 59, 61-64
Mazdak, 16-17, 203, 262
Meals, common, 269; in City of the Sun, 89; "Equals" on, 123-124; Incas, 136; post-revolutionary Russia, 240, 247-248; in Utopia, 84
Medieval heresies, 19-41; characteristics, 72-74; and communism, 87; concentric structure, 78-79; destruction of society idea, 130, 254, 266; and Enlightenment socialist writing, 81 n.; equality and community, 258; hatred of church, 73-74, 196,227; ideology and origins, 67-72; kinship with socialist doctrines, 76, 78, 197; link to socialist party, 219; naming of, 69; opposition to control, 76, 215; as reaction to Christianity, 75, 256; secularity and loss of violence, 80-81; and Utopian socialism, 87, 94-95; world view of, 73-77. See also names of heretical sects
Melanchthon, 56, 59
Mennonites, 70, 80
Meslier, Jean, 130, 215, 219; on equality, 258-259; on peasant suffering, 224; Testament, 106-111,283,294
Mesopotamia, 142, 152-161, 173, 190; machine analogy, 261-262; and religion, 167-168
Messalian sect, 68
Methodists, 43
Middle Ages: Christian values and goals, 74-75; heretical movements, 18-34,67-79; and sexual freedom, 27
Militarization of workers, 241-243, 252
Military organization and armies; ancient China, 171-172, 180-184, 189, 255; ancient Egypt, 165; ancient Sumer, 153, , 155; Incas and peasants, 134-135; Jesuit state Indians, 143, 151; Plato's guardians, 8-13; Shang on, 176-177, 179; Solarians and crimes, 92-93; Winstanley's state, 99
Mine and thine concept, 104, 113, 118, 142
Minin, S., 251
Minorities, 203, 300
Money: ancient states, 190; Aristophanes on, 4; "Equals" and, 122; Inca empire, absence of, 141; Levellers and Diggers, 43-44; post-revolutionary Russia, 240-241,252; in Utopia, 82; Winstanley on, 96
Monism, 298
Monogamy, 44, 85, 244
Montagnards, 128
Montesquieu, C. L., Baron de, 151
Moral values: Fourier on, 227-228; Freud on, 229-230; and identicality, 260; Marcuse on, 231; medieval heresies and, 26-27,41-42,68,76; Shang and, 176-177; socialist novel, 106; social justice and socialism, 219-220; Tahitians, 113
Moravian Brethren, 67, 77, 197,222-223
More, Thomas, 81-82, 87, 100, 102, 112, 124, 129; on crime, 222; as forerunner of socialism, 197, 214; and Inca social system, 142, 198; and isolation, 238; on material satisfaction, 227; Plato and, 254-256, 258; Utopia, 82
Morelly, 111-112, 114, 124, 197; and identicality, 259
Müller, Max, 287
Mumford, Lewis, 262
Mummification, 198
Müntzer, Thomas, 38-41, 77, 129,256, 258,294; as forerunner, 197,214; life of, 50-59; and Luther, 51-53, 55; secret union, 53, 59
Music. See Arts
Mysticism, 25, 130, 204-205
Mythology: Narcissus and Orpheus, 232-233,254,282; Plato's Republic, 10-11, 14; Scandinavian, 289
N
Narcissus and Orpheus, 232-233, 254, 282-283
Nature, state of, 111-112, 114, 130
Naylor, James, 42-43
Nazi Germany, 253
Nechayev, S., 198,267,276-278
Neo-Marxism, 6, 203, 231-233
New Christianity, 197
New Economic Policy (NEP), 252, 272
New Left, 6, 203, 233; and culture, 265-266; and individuality, 263
Nicetas, Pope, 24

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Nicolaites sect, 15
Nicolas of Basel, 69
Nihilism, 198-199, 215, 222; destruction and terror themes, 275-279; and religion of socialism, 226; self-destructive impulse and examples, 286-293
Nirvana principle, 282, 287, 298
Nizan, Paul, 285 n.
Nothingness, 286-294; Deschamps and, 115-116
Novels, socialist, 101-106
Nusinov, I., 251
O
Oldenberg, H., 287
Old Testament, 19, 27, 62-63, 68
"Orgiastic mass," 27
Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, The (Engels), 243-244
Orpheus myth. See Narcissus and Orpheus
Ortliebarians, 67, 69
Orwell, George, 89
Overpopulation, 253
P
Pantheistic heresies, 67-68, 100
Paraguay, 142-143, 151
Paris Communards, 214
Party structure, 216-219
Paternity, 12,247-248. See also Children, destruction of parental ties
Paulicians, 68, 76
Peasantry: ancient Chinese, 169-172, 181-183; ancient Egyptians, 162; and appeal of socialism, 203; Engels on, 279; in Inca empire, 134-135; post-revolutionary Russia and mobilization of, 241-243, 252; socialist leaders view of, 224
Peasant War of 1525, 38-39, 56-59, 129
Perfecti, 21-23
Pessimism, 286, 289
Peru, 113, 113 n., 142, 144
Petrobrusians, 67, 69
Pfeiffer, Heinrich, 54-56
"Phalansteries," 205
Pharaohs, 164-167, 191
Phillips, Ubbo, 40
Philosophers, in Republic, 8-12
Philosophes, 115-117, 151. See also Enlightenment literature
Philosophy, in post-revolutionary Russia, 251
Piatakov, G. L., 217-218, 294
Planet theory (Fourier), 204-206
Plato, 142, 197,200-201,214; and culture, 9-10,196; implementation of ideal state, 179, 237, 254-256, 285; and justice, 227; and open houses, 198; and religion, 14, 196; Republic, 7-15, 198,254; Timaeus, 298
Pleasure principle: Fourier on, 227-228; Freud and Marcuse, 229-233, 298; Megapatagonians, 106
Poetry, 10, 106
Pokrovsky, M. N., 203
Polygamy, 40, 63-65, 137
Popes and medieval heresies, 21, 24-25, 28-29,33-34,47-50, 196; More on, 87
Popular socialist movements, xv, 2, 78, 200; comic and naive traits, 267-268; contradictions and seizure of power, 213-215; differences with state socialism, 237-238; "Equals," 121-129; and religious aspects, 226
Population: birthrates, 274; family and overpopulation, 253; Indians in Jesuit state, 143-144,274; mass resettlements, 83-84, 134-135, 137, 181-182, 191
Possessed, The (Dostoyevsky), 129, 198,267
Power, seizure of, 3, 213-215
Pre-Columbian Americas, 189, 191, 201, 272
Preobrazhensky, G. N., 246-247
Priests and monks: in City of the Sun, 94; persecution of, 31, 47, 49-56, 60; Winstanley on,1Ol. See also Catholic Church
Primitive peoples, 118,205,273-274
Principles of Communism (Engels), 5, 214
Principles of socialism, 195-197,200,236-237; death of mankind and, 275-285; equality vs. identicality, 258-261; ideal society model, 269; implementation and consequences, 272-275; and individualized animal societies, 265; vs. reality, 238-239,253-257
Private property: abolition of, in Enlightenment literature, 108, 111-112, 115, 118; abolition of, in "Equals," 122, 126; abolition of, and family, 244; abolition of, and identicality, 258-261; abolition of, as socialist principle, 195,200,257; Aristophanes on, 4; and Asiatic mode of production, 187; early Christians, 16; Incas, 140-141; Marxism on, 4, 6; medieval heresies and, 22-23, 28-29, 35-37, 76; in Republic, 12; state control, 213; suppression of individuality, 262; and territory idea, 265; in Ur, 159; Utopians, 82-83, 85, 95; Winstanley and Diggers on, 43-45. See also Land
Production, mode of: Asiatic, 185-189; Marxist theory, 206-207, 229; post-revolutionary Russia, 240-241, 244

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Proletariat: Marx and Engels contempt for, 278-279; Marxist theory, 202-203, 206; revolutionary aspect of, 296, 300. See also War Communism
Promethean myth, 232-233, 282
Protestantism, 67
Psychedelic revolution, 233, 263
Q
Quakers, 41-42, 80
Quipu system, 134, 138-139
R
Ranters sect, 41-43
Rappoport, 296
Reason, 130; lack of, in socialist doctrine, 295-297; Marcuse thesis, 232-233, 263, 300
"Red Army" in Japan, 270-271
Reductions, 143-150
Reformation period: Anabaptists, 34-41, 75; English Revolution, 41-45; and medieval heretical movements, 18, 25, 71-73, 129, 258; and state control, 215
Regression concept (Marcuse), 231-232
Religion: abolition of, as basic socialist principle, 195-196; decline of, 234-235; end of world concept, 281; Enlightenment literature on, 106-109, 115-117, 130; historical change, 197-198; king worship, 166-168, 166 n.; Levellers and atheism, 45-46; Marx on, 263; and nature of man, 227-233; post-revolutionary Russia, 251; in Republic, 14, 196; 17th and 18th-century socialist novels, 102, 105-106; socialism as a, xii, 225-227, 233-234; socialist hostility to, 235, 251, 253, 257, 267; sun worship, 94-95, 102; Utopian literature, 86-87, 93-95, 100-101, 129. See also Atheism; Christianity; Medieval heresies
Renaissance, 81 n.
Repression concept (Marcuse), 231, 282
Republic, The (Plato), 7-14, 198,254
Republic of Philosophers or the History of the Ajaoiens, The (Fontenelle), 104-105
Revolution: Deschamps prediction, 116-117; in "Equals," 125; scientific inevitability of, 211-212; socialism and implementation of, 213-215
Revolutionary movements, 203; Anabaptists, 37-40, 60-66, 73, 265; in antiquity, 78; death and destruction mystique, 275-285,285 n.; and free love, 33; Levellers, 45; and medievalheresies, 77, 256; New Left, 263
Ricardo, David, 211 n.
Rights, political, 9, 98-99, 122, 181, 261
Road-building, 134, 141, 182
Russia: birthrate, 274; and culture, 248-251, 273; economy, 239-241, 252, 272; family and children, 243-248; meaning of socialist experience, 300; privacy and housing, 199, 247-248; and religion, 251, 272; revolutionary youth and death, 283-285; sexual freedom, 246-248; and social justice, 219; War Communism period, 238-252
Russia in the Shadows (Wells), 2
Russian Orthodox Church, 251
S
Sacconi, Rainier, 21, 23-24
Saint-Simon, C. H., Comte de, 204, 211, 280
Salinger, J. D., 292
Sargon, King of Akkadia, 155-156, 161
Sartre, J.-P., xv, 264, 277, 285 n., 299; on being and nothingness, 291; on Soviet state, 296
Savinkov, Boris, 284-285
Sazonov, N. I., 284-285
Scandinavian mythology, 289
Schlamm, W., 217
Schopenhauer, A., 289-290, 299
Science: loss of authority, 292, 300; Enlightenment literature, 111-112, 119; loyalty proof demanded in "Equals," 122; post-revolutionary Russia and, 248-249, 252; Utopian writers, 85, 90
Scientific socialism concept, 204-207, 259-260; criticism of Marxist claim to, 206-213, 260-261
Scriptures, 19, 34, 46
Secret Directory of Public Salvation, 121-128
Segarelli, Gerard, 46-47
Self-destructive impulse, 286-293; and socialism, 285, 293-295, 299
Sex: Cathar doctrines, 20, 23; in economic system of Fourier, 229; Engels on, 244-245; Freudian thesis, 230; in Marcuse thesis, 231-233; in model of ideal socialist state, 269; New Left and, 263; Plato on, 12; state control, City of the Sun, 91; state control, Russia, 246-248
Sexes: common ownership of, 118; polarization of under capitalism, 263
Sexual freedom: contemporary revolution, 233,263; medieval heresies and, 27-28, 32-33, 38-40, 42; post-revolutionary Russia, 246-248; and Ranters, 42; Winstanley's attack on, 100. See also Women, communality of
Shang Yang, 173-180, 272

[317]


Simonians, 68
Sin, 20, 23, 26-27, 41, 74
Slavery: ancient China, 169, 179, 182-183, 190; ancient Egypt, 165; ancient Sumer, 153, 155, 158-161; Aristophanes and, 4; Asiatic universality of, 188; Incas, 134-135; Jesuit state, 143-144; 17th-century socialist novels and, 103-104; in Utopian literature, 83, 85-86, 90, 97
"Sleeping Souls" sect, 45
Smirnov, 241-242
Socialism. See Chiliastic socialism; Ideology of socialism; Principles of socialism; State socialism
Socialist political parties, 216-219
Social justice concept of socialism, 219-225
Society of Jesus, 143, 151, 219. See also Jesuit state
Socrates, 255. See also Republic, The
Soloviev, Vladimir, 219, 286, 289, 299
Solts, 246
Solzhenitsyn, A., 218
South American state socialism, 133-151, 189
Southern Discovery ... (la Bretonne), 105-106
Southern Land, The (de Foigny), 103
Soviet Russia. See Russia
Spain, and Jesuit state in Paraguay, 142-143, 151
Spaniards, and Inca empire, 133-137,141-142
Stalin, Iosif, 186, 252, 262, 272, 294
State capitalism, 216
State ownership of property and land, 103, 105, 111, 190; Asiatic Social Formation, 185-189; positive abolition of private property, 195
State socialism, 132-192; ancient China, 168-185, 189-192, 255; ancient Egypt, 162-168; "anonymous" society model, 269; compared with chiliastic socialism, 236,253-257; death of man theme, 272-274; ideology and reality of, 197-201, 216,236-257; Incas, 133-142; Jesuit state, 142-151; Mesopotamia, 152, 162, 167-168; and party character, 216-217; and religion, 253; post-revolutionary Russia, 238-252; and social justice, 221-225; worldwide, 274-275
Statism, absolute, 189-192; ancient China, 168-185; ancient Egypt, 162-165; "Equals" concept of, 122-123; family as unit of, 195; rise of, in Mesopotamia, 161-162; socialism as means to, 213, 215
Staupitz, Johann, 71
Sterility, in women, 91-92, 103
Stirner, Max, 290
Storch, Niklaus, 37-38, 50, 258
Suffering and oppression, eradication of, 219-225
Suicide: Cathars, 20, 22, 283; collective, 290; death instinct, 282-285
Sumer, 152-155, 192. See also Mesopotamia
Surplus-repression concept, 231, 233
Switzerland, 36-37, 74
T
Taborites, 29-34, 265; destruction of, 275; doctrines, 30-32, 77-78; and Marxist analysis of socialism, 203
Tahitians, 113-114
Taoism, 288-289
Technology, 133, 231-232
Temple estates of Mesopotamia, xii, 153-156, 161, 163, 173
Torres, Father Diego de, 144
Totality aspect (Deschamps), 115, 117
Trade: ancient China, 173, 177-178, 190; ancient Egypt, 163, 165; Diggers on, 43-44; "Equals" and, 122; Incas, 141; Jesuit state and, 144, 148, 151; Morelly's ban on, 111; and socialist isolation, 238; state monopoly, Ur, 158; Winstanley on, 96
Trade unions, 42, 225, 242
Travel restrictions, 85, 103, 137, 144, 269
Tropism theory, 293
Trotsky, Leon, 199,217,241-243,294
Truth of the True System (Deschamps), 114-120, 198
Twentieth-century socialism, 256-257, 299-300. See also Russia
U
United States: blacks, 203, 300; communal sects, 80,197,268; and Zen Buddhism, 291-292. See also New Left
Ur dynasty, 156-160
Urukagina, King of Lagash, 153-154, 155 n.
Utopian socialism, xiii, 80-120, 300; compared with Incas, 142, 198; Hellenistic, 15; and isolation, 238; as reaction, 256
V
Vairasse, Denis, 102-103, 238
Valdes, 69-70
Valentinov, N., 217
Violence and terror: Anabaptists, 39-41, 60-66; lessening of, in America, 80; Levellers, 45, 45 n.; as part of socialist ideology, 275-279; Russian revolutionary

[318]


Violence and terror (cont'd)
youth and, 283-285; socialist party concept of, 217-218. See also Medieval heresies; Shang Yang
Vipper, R., 215
Voice of Reason, The (Deschamps), 116-117
Voltaire, 106, 110, 151
W
Waldensians, 29, 36; beliefs, 73, 76-77; origins, 67, 69-71
Walwyn, William, 44
War Communism, 238-252, 265
Weber, Max, 296
Weitling, Wilhelm, 45 n., 121
Wells, H. G., 2-3, 273
Western Europe: contemporary leftist movements, 268; meaning of Russian socialism, 300
Winstanley, Gerrard, 43-46, 95; concept of new society, 96-101, 219
"Withering away of the state" concept, 175, 206-207
Wittfogel, K., 191-192, 192 n., 201, 207; ancient Eastern Socialism, 186-187, 186 n.; on state capitalism, 216
Wives, as common property: American sects, 80; Anabaptists, 36, 38-40; Apostolic Brethren, 29, 47-48; Cathars, 23-24; in Münster, 63-66; Plato on, 12,258-259; as revolutionary slogan, 214; and socialism, 195, 236
Women: communality of, 4,12,15-17,91-92, 95; Diggers and Winstanley against communality, 44, 100; Inca oppression and state regulation, 134, 136-138, 141-142; and men in Deschamps' paradise, 118-120; Meslier's complete freedom to, 109; in Mesopotamia, 153, 155, 158-159; Plato's equal rights to, 9; in post-revolutionary Russia, 245; Solarian regulations, 91-92. See also Family, Marriage customs; Wives, as common property
Work and workers: liberation from, Marcuse thesis, 6, 231-232; and revolution, 203; socialist goal of social justice and, 223-224. See also Compulsory labor
World empire concept, 161-162
World view: of Deschamps, 120; dualism, 297-298; of "Equals," 130; of Freud, 292, 297; inevitable death theme, 280-285; Marxism and nihilism, 278-279; of religion, 267; of socialism, xv, 226-227, 231, 237
Writing and recording systems: ancient China, 168, 172; ancient Mesopotamia, 153-157, 161; Deschamps prohibition, 119; Egyptian scribes, 162-165; Incas, 134, 134 n., 138-139; Jesuit state, 144
Z
Zen Buddhism, 291-292
Zinoviev, G. E., 294
Zulus, 141
Zwickau Prophets, 37
Zwingli, Ulrich, 34, 37, 71, 73

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