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Thursday, April 27, 2017

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn - Two Hundred Years Together - Ch. 1 footnotes, NEW

Chapter 1 footnotes

Khazars
* Ancient people of Turkish race established since ancient Antiquity in the region of Lower Volga. In the seventh century they founded a vast empire, from the Ural to the Dnieper, which declined in the 10th century after their defeat by the Prince of Kiev, Sviatoslav (966).
Bar‐Kokhba
* Founded in 480 BCE by the Greeks, conquered by Mithridates in 107 BCE, it remained under Roman protectorate until the fourth century.
Prince Igor
** Prince of Kiev (912‒945), successor of Oleg the Wise.
Sviatoslav
*** Grand Prince of Kiev (964‒972).
Koumiks
**** People of Turkish language Independent state in the fifteenth century, annexed to Russia in 1784.
Polovtsiens
***** People of Turkish language, who came from Central Asia to occupy the steppes of southern Russia in the eleventh century.
Karaites
****** People of Turkish language professing a faith similar to Judaism, but without recognizing the Talmud (about 5,900 in 1959).
Ten tribes
******* After the death of Solomon in the reign of Rehoboam, ten of the twelve tribes of Israel separated from the House of David, formed the Kingdom of Israel and were then punished and dispersed.
Khmelnitsky pogroms
* Hetman, Ukrainian leader (1593‒1657), successfully raised the Ukrainian Cossacks against Poland with the help of the Crimean Tatars. In 1654, he obtained the protection of Moscow and became the vassal of Tsar Alexis Mikhailovich.
Vladimir
** Saint Vladimir (956‒1015), son of Svyatoslav, became the sole ruler of Kievan Russia, of which he is considered the founder. He was converted to Byzantine Christianity, which he established throughout the country (988).
Sviatopolk Iziaslavich
* Successively Prince of Polovsk, Tomov and Kiev (1050‒1113).
V. N. Tatischev
* 1686‒1750, collaborator of Peter the Great, historian, geographer, creator of modern Russian historiography.
Vladimir
* Russian principality attached to Moscow in the middle of the 15th century.
Bogolioubski
** Grand Prince of Vladimir and Suzdal (ca. 1110‒1174).
Souzdal
*** Russian principality attached to Moscow in the middle of the 15th century.
The bylines
**** Russian gesture songs.
Prince Alexander of the Neva
* Grand Duke of Novgorod then Grand Prince of Vladimir, saint (1220‒1263), beat the Swedes on the banks of the Neva in 1240, and in 1242 the Teutonic Knights; Governed as a vassal of the Mongols, but obtained the reduction of the tribute paid to them.
Olga
* Saint Olga (?‒969), princess of Kiev, wife of Prince Igor of which she was widowed in 945; Exercised the regency until the accession of his son Svyatoslav. Converted in 954, however, it did not succeed in spreading Christianity throughout the country.
Ivan III
* Ivan III the Great (1441‒1505), Grand Prince of Moscow from 1402, put an end to the Mongol suzerainty.
The archimandrite Zosime
** Raised to the supreme dignity of metropolitan of Moscow in 1490, which he abandoned in 1494, officially for health reasons.
John the Young
*** John said “the Young”, son of the Grand Prince John III, died at the age of 32 in 1490.
Dimitri
**** Son of John the Younger (1483‒1509), deprived of his right as heir to the throne by his uncle Vasili, born of the second marriage of his grandfather with the Princess Sophia Palaiologina, and died in prison.
False‐Dimitri
* A mysterious figure who claimed to be the son of Ivan IV, and who, having come from Poland with the support of an army of Polish mercenaries, seized Moscow and reigned there from June 1605 to May 1606, when he was killed by opponents.
Time of Troubles
** Raging period (1598‒1613) between the extinction of the lineage of princes from Riourik and the advent of the Romanovs.
False‐Dimitri II
*** Also a mysterious character who pretended to be the real Dimitri in 1607 and succeeded in maintaining himself in various towns near Moscow until 1610, when he was assassinated in Kaluga.
Vladislav
* Polish king (1595‒1648) pretender to the throne of Moscow which he occupied with the agreement of the Muscovites during a few months in 1610.
Michael Feodorovich
** First Tsar (1596‒1645) of the Romanov dynasty, elected by the People’s Assembly in 1613.
Alexis Mikhailovich
*** Son of the former tsar of Russia from 1645 to 1676.
Feodor Alexeyevich
* Son of the preceding tsar of Russia from 1676 to 1682.
Hetman
* Title of the Cossack leader from 1648 to 1704.
Menchikov
** Alexander Menshikov (circa 1670‒1729), favourite of Peter the Great and Catherine the First.
Catherine the First
*** Empress of Russia from 1725 to 1727 after the death of her husband Peter the Great.
Peter II
**** The son of the tsarevich Alexis, born in 1715, emperor of Russia from 1727 to 1730.
Anna
***** Anna Ioannovna, granddaughter of Tsar Alexis I, Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.
Slobodskaya
* Name given to the part of Ukraine situated on the left bank of the Dnieper.
Biron
** Favourite of the Empress Anna, governs Russia, proclaims himself regent at the death of Anna, which entails his disgrace and his exile in Siberia until the accession to the throne of Peter II.
Anna Leopoldovna
*** 1718‒1746, great‐granddaughter of Tsar Alexis I. Her project of being recognised empress after Biron’s exile did not succeed.
Elizabeth
* Elizabeth, daughter of Peter I and Catherine I, acceded to the throne in 1741.
Chancellor A. Bestoujev‐Rioumine
* Appointed Grand Chancellor by Elizabeth I in 1744, he ruled Russia for 16 years until his disgrace in 1758.
Preobrazhensky Regiment
** Guard Regiment created by Peter the Great in 1687 (named after the Preobrazhenskoye village, near Moscow).
Elizabeth’s coup
*** She had to dismiss and exile Anna Leopoldovna in order to gain access to the throne.
Peter III
**** grandson of Peter the Great by his daughter Anna, who was married to the Duke of Holstein, Karl Friedrich, who was recognised as heir to the throne in 1742, married to his cousin Sophie, future Catherine II, he was dethroned by her in 1762, interned and murdered.
New Russia
* Name given in 1764 to the sparsely populated territory, situated between Crimea and present‐day Moldavia, and proposed for colonisation.
Haidamakas
** Detachments consisting of peasants, Cossacks, Russian soldiers, etc, who in Little Russia were fighting against the domination of the Polish lords and against the Jews.
The Union of Lublin
* The city of Lublin was the seat of the diet which sealed the union between Poland and Lithuania.
Catherine’s Commission
* After her accession to the throne, Catherine convened a representative commission to study and promote reforms.
Derzhavin, who was not only one of our eminent poets
* The greatest of the Russian poets prior to Pushkin, Derzhavin (1743‒1816) made a brilliant administrative career: having begun as a private soldier, he became governor of Tambov, a senator, Private secretary of Catherine II, Minister of Justice under Alexander I.
Alexander
* Alexander I (1777‒1825), son of Paul I, emperor of Russia from 1801 to 1825.
Michael Speranski
** Michael Speranski (1772‒1839), Minister of Justice from 1808 to 1812, liberal reformer, was between 1826 and 1833 codifying the Russian laws.
Decembrists
* A group of Russian nobles and officers, members of secret societies, who in December 1825 attempted a coup to establish a constitutional regime in Russia.
Pestel
** Paul Pestel (1792‒1826), one of the most radical decembrists. Arrested after the abortive coup, he was condemned to death and hanged.
 
 https://twohundredyearstogether.wordpress.com/2017/04/19/chapter-1-footnotes/
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