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Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Infinity, Patterned Symmetry, Pythagoras, and the Black Hole at the Edge of the Universe

Journal of Cosmology, 2011, Vol 13, In press
JournalofCosmology.com February-March 2011



Infinity, Patterned Symmetry, Pythagoras, and the
Black Hole at the Edge of the Universe
Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D.,

Abstract

The long sought "grand theory of everything" must begin where there is no beginning and end where there is no ending: patterns which repeat themselves in nature and which give rise to infinite symmetry. Similar patterns are repeated from the micro-atomic to the macro-atomic, from snail shells to spiral galaxies. There is no reason to suspect these patterns end with individual galaxies. The symmetry and patterns exhibited by elementary particles, atoms, snail shells, sea shells, whirlpools, cyclones, solar systems, and spiral galaxies, should be applied to all galaxies, collectively, and to the cosmos. What these patterns have in common is they can be predicted from formulations first proposed by Pythagoras, and secondly, all orbit an eye or hole at their center. It is these same repeating patterns, within our own Hubble Length Universe which creates the illusion of expansion and acceleration as it spirals and orbits a universe-in-mass black hole. As distant galaxies come closer to this supermassive black hole, they accelerate and the light associated with those galaxies develop a red shift pattern indicative of that acceleration. However, as they accelerate they grow smaller in size, and appear to dim thereby creating the illusion they are speeding off faster and further away into the distance, when in fact they are falling into the infinity of a universe-in-mass black hole. These patterns do not end with the (known) Hubble Length Universe, but continue infinitely, giving rise to ever greater super-structures, of which the known universe is an insignificant fragment. Unifying symmetry, based on identical repeating patterns, leads not to a big bang creation event, but to an infinite universe which is eternal, and has no beginning, and no end.
Key Words: Big Bang, Pythagoras, Black Holes, Symmetry, String Theory, Galaxies, Universe, Cosmos,





1. REPEATING PATTERNS ARE THE LAW OF NATURE & THE COSMOS
The fabric of the "known" Hubble length universe, from galaxies down to the smallest atom, rely upon similar repeating patterns that generate micro-structures and super-structures which share a unifying patterned symmetry. A pattern, be it recurring numbers, events, or objects, repeats itself in a predictable manner down to its essential elements (Ball 2009; Novak 2002; Wille 2010). The pattern at the elementary level, therefore, becomes the basis, model, or template which is repeated on a larger scale to generate larger objects or series of events all of which exhibit the same or similar underlying pattern. Hence, elementary particles have orbits, planets have orbits, stars have orbits, and it can be assumed that, collectively, galaxies have orbits which would mean the "known" Hubble length universe, is also in orbit as all share similar patterns (Joseph 20010a).


The entire field of mathematics is the "Science of Patterns" and any sequence of numbers that may be described by a mathematical function has a pattern (Wille 2010). Recurring decimals are among the most common repeating patterns, in which sequences of digits repeat infinitely. For example, 1 divided by 81 will result in the answer 0.012345679012345679... the numbers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 repeat onward forever and into infinity. Likewise, numbers can be counted, added, or multiplied infinitely into ever larger sums with no end, or subtracted or fractionated infinitely into ever smaller sums. It is a one way journey into forever.
Infinity is a common feature of the patterns found in math, physics, and nature; and thus infinitely repeating patterns must also be a characteristic of the entire cosmos which could then be said to have infinite symmetry.
For example, in geology, a mineral's crystal structure and fixed chemical composition are composed of a recurring pattern in a repeating arrangement. Plants consist of cells which repeat the same pattern and with each repetition the plant will grow.


In Euclidean geometry, a pattern known as a translation involves movement of every point a constant distance in a specified direction and the same can be said of rotation and reflection (Johnson 2007). A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system. Some plants, like Ferns, consist of patterns which combine translation, scaling, rotation and reflection.

These same principles can be applied to the genetic foundations of life, the structure of DNA, the double helix.

A helix, or helix-like object consists of a pattern which repeats itself infinitely, and thus has infinite symmetry as well as translation along the long axis (Johnson 2007; Libeskind, 2007). Therefore, as it spins or coils, it always returns to its original appearance. That its cross sections may consist of increasing complexity is not a violation of the pattern so long as the same cross section exists after every spin along every point up and down its length. Simple examples include evenly coiled springs, drill bits, and augers. It is this infinite helical symmetry that creates the illusion of expansion and contraction along the length of an auger or screw bit that is being rotated.
The same could be said of the symmetry of the cosmos which creates the illusion not just of expansion but acceleration. The symmetry of the cosmos is based on the repetition of patterns found throughout nature, from sea shells to spiral galaxies.


Cochlea
For example, snail shells, sea shells, vortices, the cochlear nucleus of the inner ear, etc., show similar repeating patterns around an eye. The patterns intrinsic to the shell of a snail are replicated repeatedly in nature and typify the structure of a cyclone and the Milky Way galaxy and every spiral galaxy so far observed.
Likewise, whirlpools, cyclones, hurricanes, and spiral galaxies, display similar repeating patterns and symmetry. They also orbit a hole at their center. Therefore, just as elementary particles smaller than a planck length orbit black holes (Joseph 20010b), and the stars of spiral galaxies orbit black holes, since patterns repeat, then the galaxies of the HL Universe also orbit a black hole, with the galaxies closest to the hole accelerating rapidly toward the hole, and this accounts for the illusion of an accelerating universe (Joseph 20010a).

Repeating patterns, because they repeat, have no beginning or end; they do not emerge out of nothing. Likewise, there is no reason to suspect that evidence of patterns in nature are indications of a big bang creation event, but rather, of an infinite universe where the same patterns repeat themselves in infinite directions, i.e. from the micro (sub-atomic) to the macro-atomic to the macro-macro atomic, and from the micro-atomic to the micro-micro-atomic and so on (Joseph 2010a,b). Therefore, just as sub-atomic particles orbit and comprise atoms, and just as particle accelerators can produce hundreds of sub-atomic particles (Halper 2010; Martin 2010; Schwarz 1996), these smaller particles are likely orbited by even smaller particles, and the pattern repeats itself infinitely into ever smaller spaces. Likewise, the pattern continues at the macro-level (Khlopov and Rubin 2010), with planets and solar systems orbiting and constituting galaxies, and galaxies which orbit and give rise to macro-superstructures which orbit and constitute macro-macro-superstructures, and this pattern repeats itself infinitely (Joseph 2010a,b). This repeating pattern when applied to the cosmos, from the micro- to the macro- gives rise to a perfect symmetry.
2. SYMMETRY, REPEATING PATTERNS & THE COSMOS
Patterns found in nature can be said to have the capacity to repeat themselves to infinity and can give rise to symmetry; that is, patterned self-similarity. In physics and math, symmetry can refer to time, space, scaling, rotation, and functional transformations (El-Batanouny and Wooten 2008; Haywood 2010) .

"It is only slightly overstating the case to say that physics is the study of symmetry." -PW Anderson, Nobel laureate. Symmetry in physics can refer to invariance under any kind of transformation. Since it appears practically all laws of nature originate in symmetries, this concept has become one of the most powerful tools of theoretical physics (El-Batanouny and Wooten 2008; Haywood 2010). For example, the Yang-Mills "Standard Model" is a theory which rests upon symmetry (Scheck et al., 2010). According to this model, the interactions of elementary particles, such as quarks and leptons, have definite symmetrical patterns. In fact it could be said that the properties of all the particles found in nature are based on symmetries which obey the laws of physics (Scheck et al., 2010; Wille 2010).

"Nature seems to take advantage of the simple mathematical representations of the symmetry laws. When one pauses to consider the elegance and the beauiful perfection of the mathematical reasoning involved and contrast it with the complex and far-reaching physical consequences, a deep sense of respect for the power of symmetry laws never fails to develop"--C. N. Yang, Nobel laureate.
The symmetry and patterns exhibited by elementary particles, atoms, snail shells, sea shells, whirlpools, cyclones, solar systems, and galaxies (Ball 2009; El-Batanouny and Wooten 2008; Khlopov and Rubin 2010; Wille 2010), can and should be applied to the micro-micro-atomic world, and to the macro-macro-atomic world. Therefore, the basic patterns of symmetry found in nature should be applied to the Hubble Length Universe. There is no logical or scientific reason not to. Hence, once applied, it can be predicted that the "known" Hubble length universe is also repeating a pattern as exhibited by its elemental parts, and is also in a spiral orbit and that these patterns continue giving rise to ever great superstructures which repeat themselves infinitely (Joseph 2010a,b). The search for a "theory of everything" could be likened to the search for a unifying symmetry; the discovery of which is only possible if unifying symmetry is applied to the entire cosmos. Unifying symmetry, based on repeating patterns, leads to an infinite universe which is eternal and has no beginning and no end.

3. BIG BANG: WHEN RELIGION MASQUERADES AS SCIENCE
An infinite universe conflicts with the basic tenants of the Jewish-Christian religion which has had a strangle-hold on scientific thought for almost 2,000 years. Thus, in western culture, students and scientists alike, are taught the universe is finite and was created. To maintain this dogma requires that all experimental evidence be interpreted as supporting creationism, i.e. the theory of a big bang. Therefore, when it comes to the ultimate nature of the universe, the mainstream scientific community refuses to consider or apply the basic laws of nature and the laws of math and physics, and instead embraces "religion masquerading as science." According to the mainstream view preached by the scientific community, nature is wrong, and patterns do not repeat themselves, but come to a sudden halt with individual galaxies. Symmetry and the patterns of nature should not be applied to the known universe, and this is because the patterns observed in nature are not really repeating patterns, but emerged out of chaos, from a big explosion, where nothingness, or a point of singularity existed in-itself, like a primal seed which had no origin. And then this primal singularity exploded for unknown reasons which can't be explained by any branch of physics, including "relativity", "quantum physics" or the "Standard Model"; and this creation event produced an opaque light and created a finite universe--exactly as described in the Jewish-Christian Bible.
The Jewish and Christian religion and their Bible, has dictated scientific thought for almost 2,000 years. In the Bible's opening chapter, Genesis, we are told that in the beginning there was nothingness, and then: a miracle! God creates the heavens and the earth but which are without form and all was a void (Genesis 1.1-1.2).
Likewise, according to the acolytes of the Big Bang, at first there was nothing (or a singularity), and then, a miracle! The heavens are created, but they are without form and there was a void. And then, about 400,000 years after the Big Bang creation event, there was light; a “wall of light“ and the universe became opaque, and then, light was separated from the darkness, and the universe became transparent. And then, matter began to form--exactly as detailed in Genesis of the Jewish-Christian Bible.
In Genesis sections 1.3 to 1.4, of the Jewish-Christian Bible:

3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. 4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. However, the scientific community call this creator god, "the big bang." They have dressed religious dogma in the language of science.
"...there is no doubt that a parallel exists between the big bang as an event and the Christian notion of creation from nothing." -George Smoot, 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics. "Now we see how the astronomical evidence leads to a biblical view of the origin of the world. The details differ, but the essential elements in the astronomical and biblical accounts of Genesis are the same: the chain of events leading to man commenced suddenly and sharply at a definite moment in time, in a flash of light and energy. That there are what I or anyone would call supernatural forces at work is now, I think, a scientifically proven fact." -Robert Jastrow, director of the Mount Wilson observatory, First chairman of NASA's Lunar Exploration Committee.
"The universe was created out of nothing...and one which has an underlying, one might say 'supernatural' plan." -Arno Penzias Nobel Prize for Physics in 1978 for discovery of the cosmic background radiation of the 'big bang."
The entire theory of the Big Bang was in fact invented by a Catholic Priest, (Lemaître (1927, 1931a,b) a member of the Pope's Council of scientists who wished to make the Bible scientific. The theory of the big bang not only has its roots in Genesis of the Jewish-Christian Bible, but the Jewish holy book, the Torah (also known as Pentateuch, the five books of Moses).
In his book, Genesis and the Big Bang, Dr Gerald Schroeder (1991), a former professor of nuclear physics at MIT and member of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, has detailed how the theory of the Big Bang confirms the creation account as explained in Genesis and the Torah. According to Schroeder the theory of the big bang and the age of the universe was detailed in the Torah which provides evidence the universe was created around 15 billion years ago. According to the Jewish-Christian Bible, god created the universe and Earth in a matter of days. However, echoing arguments put forward by both Christian and Jewish scholars (including Moses Maimonides from the 12th century) Schroeder explains that a "day" (yom echad) as stated in Genesis, and then the second day (yom sheni,) third day (yom shlishi) and so on, does not refer to a 24 hour day, as time did not exist at the moment of the big bang, whereas a 24 hour day can only be applied to Earth, which, according to the Bible was not yet formed until several days had passed. Thus, in the Bible, where it states that on this day and on that day, god created this and that, these days following the big bang, actually correspond to billions of years. According to Schroeder, the Jewish Torah provides a date of 15 billion years, for the creation of the universe.
Should we be surprised then that the acolytes of the Big Bang have come up with a similar creation date?
There is a considerable body of evidence which does not support a big bang origin of the cosmos, or the mainstream interpretation of red shifts (Arp et al., 2004; Eastman, 2010; Lal 2010; Lerner 1991; Mitchell 1997; Hoyle et al., 2000; Ratcliffe, 2010; Sidharth and Joseph 2010; Van Flandern 2002). As noted, leading acolytes of big bang theology brazenly admit they accept a "supernatural explanation"; and they, and much of the scientific community, reject the scientific method when it comes to questions about the ultimate nature of the universe. Instead, they begin with a conclusion (the big bang) and then interpret any and all evidence as supporting a theory which is based on the supernatural and the Biblical book of Genesis. The theory of the big bang rests upon religious teachings which preach creationism, and which place Earth at the center of a finite universe which was created. Thus, the age and nature of the universe are determined, in part, based on how far away galaxies are from Earth and in accordance with Biblical teachings.
It is precisely because the universe was not created, that classical physics, relativity, quantum physics, or the Standard Model which is the most successful theory of physics yet devised, is completely unable to provide an explanation for any supposed origins, or why there should have been a big bang, or how or where symmetries originated. And this is because these symmetries and repeating patterns are without an origin but are infinite and eternal and have no beginning and no end.
An infinite uncreated universe can be summed up with this simple math formulation: E = Mc2.
4. MATTER & ENERGY HAVE NO BEGINNING AND NO END
Einstein showed that time and space can be unified in the 4th dimension, and that energy and mass, quantities measured by time and space, can also be unified. Space-time are two aspects of the same quantity, such that space can be converted into time, and time into space in the 4th dimension. Likewise, energy can be converted into mass and mass into energy.
Time, mass, and energy are also linked to movement in space, such that time can slow down and mass will increase depending on how fast one is moving. Mass increases because it is gaining energy. However, at the same time the increasing mass becomes more compact and will shrink like an accordian just as clocks slow down as movement speeds up. In consequence, objects which are nearby but moving close to the speed of light, might appear to be further away due to the decrease in size, reductions in energy released and absorption of energy (making them appear less luminant, dim, and distant as they decrease in size). This also means that objects with the smallest masses have the most energy.
Matter is condensed energy. As matter is destroyed, decays, disintegrates, or disappears it releases energy as summed up by this famous formula: E=Mc2. The speed of light squared means a very small amount of matter can release vast amounts of energy.
Because matter is energy and energy is matter, neither can be truly created or destroyed. This means that matter and energy have no beginning and no end and could not have been created in a big bang. Instead, their transformation can be likened to a spiraling pattern through space where one becomes the other. Matter and energy have no beginning and no end.
5. STRING THEORY, PYTHAGORAS & THE BENDING OF SPACE-TIME
A fundamental principle of physics is that a beam of light takes the shortest path between two points. Hence, light beams are straight (Fermat's least time principle). However, light bends due to the influence of gravity, which means the path is not straght, but curved. Therefore, the shortest distance between 2-points is a curved line. Based on this realization, Einstein concluded, therefore that space is curved. However, that curvature would not be a round circle, but a curvature which continues a repeating pattern of curvature, curving forever inward and spiraling onward to infinity; which leads to PythagorAs and the "golden ratio."

All modern versions of "string theory" are based on discoveries made by Pythagoras over 2000 years ago. However, whereas Pythagoras taught that the universe was eternal, and could be understood by the infinitely repeating patterns of the "golden rectangle" and "golden ratio" (Ferguson 2008; Guthrie and Fideler 1987; Stanley, 1687/2010) modern string theorists are wedded to the religious belief that the universe was created (Becker et al., 2007; Greene 2000; Kaku 1994; Yau and Nadis 2010). Modern string theoriests have in fact invented 10 and 26 imaginary dimensions to support this supernatural belief, completely corrupting the very basis of string theory and what it demonstrates. Pythagoras, the great Greek mathematician, argued almost 2,000 years ago that music was numerical, the expression of number in sound (Ferguson 2008; Stanley 1687/2010). Long before the advent of digital recordings, Pythagoras and his followers translated music into number and geometric proportions. For example, by dividing a vibrating string into various ratios they discovered that several very pleasing musical intervals could be produced. Hence, the ratio 1:2 was found to yield an octave, 2:3 a fifth, and 3:4 a fourth, 4:5 a major third, and 5:6 a minor third.
These same musical ratios, the Pythagorians discovered, also have the capability of reproducing themselves in a pattern which continues for all infinity (Ferguson 2008; Guthrie and Fideler 1987; Stanley 1687/2010). That is, the ratio can reproduce itself within itself and form a unique geometrical configuration which Pythagoras and the ancient Greeks referred as the the "golden ratio" and "golden rectangle."
In fact, the first cosmologies, such as those developed by the ancient Egyptians, Hindus, Babylonians, and Greeks, were based on musical ratios (Durant, 1939; McClain, 1978). Pythagoras and Plato applied these same "musical proportions" to their theory of numbers, planetary motion, and to the science of stereometry --the gauging of solids. Indeed, Pythagoras attempted to deduce the size, speed, distance, and orbit of the planets based on musical ratios and the sounds generated (e.g., pitch and harmony) by their movement through space, i.e. "the music of the spheres." Thus we see that the spiral shape of the inner ear is ideal for perceiving sound and music, and in fact boosts sensitivity to low frequencies.
This same golden rectangle is found in nature, e.g., the chambered nautilus shell, the shell of a snail, the cochleus of the inner ear, whirlpools, cyclones, and spiral galaxies.
The geometric proportions of the golden rectangle were also employed in designing the Parthenon in Athens, and by Ptolemy in developing the "tonal calender" and the "tonal Zodiac" -the scale of ratios "bent round in a circle."

Modern string theory is based on an identical concept, i.e. vibrating musical strings. As summed up by Kaku (1994), "Matter is nothing but the harmonies created by this vibrating string... By understanding how a violin string vibrates, we immediately understand the properties of an infinite number of musical notes...Since there are an infinite number of harmonies that can be composed for the violin, there are an infinite number of forms of matter that can be constructed out of vibrating strings." String theory, as first advanced by Pythagoras, leads to infinity.
6. STRING THEORY, GOLDEN RATIO, INFINITY
Strings can also be broken apart into infinitely smaller strings and each musical note can produce a particle according to modern string theorists. For example, it is argued by string theorists that strings are 100 billon billion times smaller than a proton, and each vibration represents a distinct resonance or particle. Hence, particles are not particles, they are vibrating strings (Becker et al., 2007; Greene 2000; Kaku 1994).
Despite attempts to by modern sting theorists to place these strings in other dimensions, string theory as formulated by Pythargoras, indicates the universe is infinite, and this infinity continues into the subatomic world, and not into other dimensions. When the nucleus of an atom is smashed by particle accelerators, hundreds of particles are produced (Halpern 2010), and this has led to the likelihood that there may be an infinite number of strongly interacting particles.
Pythagoras, however, applied his string theory, that is, the golden ratio, to the subatomic and the macro-atomic world (Ferguson 2008; Guthrie and Fideler, 1987; Stanley 1687/2010). In one direction the golden triangle grows infinitely smaller. In the opposite direction it grows infinitely larger, with the same spiraling pattern repeating itself forever. Pythagoras also taught that these patterns, as exemplified by the golden ratio and the golden triangle, are repeated throughout nature and describes the nature of the universe.

We see the same spiral pattern in a sea shell, snail shell, the inner ear, a whirlpool, cyclone, and galaxy. However, there is absolutely no reason to conclude the patterns suddenly stop with galaxies. Rather we should deduce that collectively, galaxies, as a whole, also move in a spiral pattern such that collectively, the Hubble Length Universe is also in a spiral orbit. And just as the patterns on snail shells and sea shells spiral around an eye, and cyclones and galaxies spiral around a hole at their center, the Hubble Length Universe also spirals around a hole --a universe-in-mass black hole at the edge of the known universe (Joseph 2010a).
7. CYCLONES, GALAXIES & BLACK HOLES There are a variety of "black holes" most of which, at the macro-atomic level, are believed to be the remnants of collapsed stars following supernova. According to Einstein’s general theory of relativity, once a star has collapsed it will create an intense supermassive gravitational field. As additional gravity-mass falls into it, the collapse will continue such that the star implodes and forms a "black hole" in the universe and creates a depression, or cavity in space-time. In consequence, anything which falls into this gravity-laden cavity, including light, cannot escape (Hawking 1990; Thorn 1994).
The point of no-return is the event horizon (Bo and Wen-Biao, 2010; Melia, 2003b; Hawking 1990; Thorn 1994; Thakur, 1998), which emits thermal and non-thermal radiation as entire stars are consumed and disappear inside, (Giddings, 1995; Hawking, 2005; Preskill 1994; Russell and Fender, 2010).


A supermassive black hole at the center of Centaurus A radiates jets of energy which streams over 13,000 light years into space and which travel at about half the speed of light. Credits: NASA


All spiral galaxies are believed to orbit a super massive black hole at their center.
The hole (eye) at the center of a cyclone functions similarly. Although the hole at the center can be considered relatively calm, it also contains an event horizon, an outward curving of the area just outside the hole is produced, described as the stadium effect (Pasch and Avila 1999). This curved outer wall surrounding the eye produces tremendous energy, including lightning, as well as the most powerful winds. Anything and everything which is sucked up toward the eye may be destroyed, and may contribute the power and energy which is released such that the cyclone becomes more powerful and energetic (Longshore 2008l Randall 2000). And just as black holes at the center of galaxies are believed to release tremendous thermal energy, cyclones release tremendous amount of thermal energy, up to 200 exajoules (1018 J) per day (Longshore 2008; NOAA 2001; Randall 2000), equivalent to the explosion of a 10-megaton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes (NOAA 2001).

And just as black holes at the center of galaxies not only consume stars, but may eject them as they approach the event horizon, the center of the cyclone can suck in clouds, or expel them such that some clouds will spiral away from the center (Longshore 2008; Macks 2003).
In some respects, a cyclone can be compared to a titanic heat engine which are driven by physical forces such as the rotation and gravity of the Earth (Barnes and Powell 1995; Longshore 2008; Randall 2000) and powered by hydrogen and oxygen. The rotation of the Earth causes the system to spin, an effect known as the Coriolis effect, giving it a cyclonic characteristic and affecting the trajectory of the cyclone (Longshore 2008; Randall 2000).

However, the eye and event horizon of the cyclone also produces hydrogen and oxygen, which leads to cloud formation; and the same principle can be applied to supermassive black holes which release tremendous amounts of energy including hydrogen plasma which targets nebular clouds and can produce new stars. That is, the consumption of stars by a supermassive black hole, leads to the creation of stars (Joseph 2010a and references therein), and the consumption of hydrogen and oxygen by a cyclone results in the release of hydrogen and oxygen and the creation of clouds which may then condense (Longshore 2008; Randall 2000).

M87. Black Hole radiating gas.


Quasar Triggering Star Formation. Left: optical wavelengths (HST/ACS, I-band), Right: near-infrared (HST/NICMOS, H-band). Top row panels (a)+(c) show the full HST images, while in panels (b)+(d) the quasar emission is removed. The VISIR image only shows a single point source, the quasar, plus a very faint signature of the companion galaxy. From Jahnke, Elbaz et al. 2009. Further the more energy it consumes the more powerful the cyclone becomes, producing even more clouds which condense (Longshore 2008; NOAA 2001) thereby creating a positive feedback loop, called the Wind-induced surface heat exchange. A similar feedback loop characterizes the black holes at the center of galaxies, which consumes stars to produce stars.

Again, we see that pattern repeat themselves in nature, from the eye at the center of cyclones to black holes at the center of a galaxies. Stars which approach a black hole will accelerate due to the gravitational pull (or depression) created by the supergravity of a black hole, and this increased speed of movement is reflected by the doppler effect, that is, a change in the wavelengths of the light emitted by the movement of the star, which becomes dimmer and red shifted until reaching an infinite red shift as it falls into the hole. This exact same phenomenon, i.e. dimming light and increased red shift have been observed in distant (vs nearby) stars, and has led to the claim the outer edge of the universe is accelerating (Kirshner 1999; Perlmutter et al., 1998; Schmidt, et al., 1998); when the more likely explanation is these distant galaxies are falling into a black hole.
8. BLACK HOLES & ACCELERATING STARS
The existence of black holes and their formation was predicted in 1939, by Robert Oppenheimer who argued that stars above approximately three solar masses would collapse into black holes and create singularities in the fabric of space-time (Oppenheimer, et al., 1939). Further it was predicted that because of the incredible gravity, time stopped within a black hole --at least from the point of view of external observers, but not for infalling observers (Hawking 1990; Ruffini and Wheeler 1971; Thakur 1998; Thorne 1994; Wald 1992). Thus, black holes may be timeless; and this presumption is based on the hole's effect on light.


Black holes exert an organizational and gravitational effect on matter. Holes smaller than a Planck length, attract objects in local space (Joseph 2010b). Supermassive black holes attract and organize stars which then circle and orbit around them, much in the same manner that water is drawn toward and then circles 'round a drain before disappearing inside.
Black holes have spin (Nemiroff, 1993). They are in motion (Zhang 2010). General relativity predicts that any rotating mass will "drag" and pull space-time which also begins to circle around it. Hence, the stars of a galaxy also begin to spiral toward the supermassive black hole at the galaxy's center. A spinning black hole will drag surrounding space time with it (Nemiroff, 1993) such that stars closest to the black hole have a greater orbital velocity compared to those further away (Ghez et al., 2005; Petrovskaya, 1994; Teerikorpi, 1989). Their velocity will increase and they will appear to be accelerating as they come even closer to the hole.
Earth and our solar system, located on an outer arm of the Milky Way galaxy, orbits the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy, at a speed of approximately 155 miles/sec (250 km/sec) (or from 965,600 km/h, to 804,672 km/h), taking approximately 240 million years to complete an orbit. However, those stars closest to the black hole at the galactic center, rather than moving more slowly (relative to the stars on the outer rims), are moving more rapidly (Ghez et al., 2005; Petrovskaya, 1994; Teerikorpi, 1989). At the event horizon, the spin is so fast that it equals the speed of light (Nemiroff, 1993).

Energy, quanta, are being stripped from the star as it approaches the black hole (Hawking 1990). As the star continues to accelerate it would also grow smaller, and the light associated with the star would simultaneously become redder and dimmer until the object can no longer be seen--and this is known as "gravitational red shift." This exact same red shift / faint light phenomenon has been used to claim that distant stars, and thus, the known universe, is accelerating (Kirshner 1999; Perlmutter et al., 1998; Schmidt, et al., 1998).
9. EARTH CENTERED UNIVERSE: ACCELERATION & DISTANT GALAXIES
The theory of the big bang was proposed by a Catholic priest, Lemaître (1927, 1931a,b), to make the Bible scientific. Lemaître's (1927, 1931a,b) relativistic cosmology was based on the belief that the universe was created from a "primeval atom" and the radius of the universe increases over time because of the explosion from the creation event. Further, in creating the big bang hypothesis, it was theorized that red shifts (the changes in the wavelengths of light as an object moves toward or away from an observer) were indications of distance (from Earth) and "apparent velocity" (from Earth) and therefore could be considered proof the universe is expanding in all directions following a creation event (Lemaître (1927, 1931a,b; Hubble 1936a, 1937a; Hubble and Tolman 1935). The concept of "red shift" is based on the Doppler effect; i.e. wave lengths of light contract or expand as they approach and then speed toward or away from Earth. Hence, for red shifts to have any meaning, the Earth becomes the center of the universe; which, of course, is absurd.
Lemaître derivation antedated Hubble's formulation by two years. Even so, it became known as Hubble's law and provided the numerical value of the Hubble constant which in turn has been employed to describe the hypothetical expansion rate and age and size of the universe (Hubble 1936a, 1937a,b, 1953).
Hubble's Law/Constant, and estimates as to the age and supposed expansion rate of the universe not only place Earth as ground zero and the measure of all things, but are predicated on a complete and purposeful misinterpretation of a phenomenon referred to as "standard candles" (distant galaxies whose absolute luminosity supposedly does not vary with distance) and "red shifts" (Hubble 1929, 1930, 1936a,b; Hubble and Humason, 1931, 1934; Hubble and Tolman 1935). Lemaître (1927, 1931a,b) proposed, therefore, that the expansion of the universe explains the redshift of galaxies following the "creation."
Assumptions about red shifts and the dimness or brightness of galaxies or supernova as pertaining to the concept of an expanding, accelerating universe, are based upon the pre-Copernican belief in an Earth centered universe. For example, it is assumed that all stars or type IA supernova (SN IA) are, on average, equally bright and only fade with distance as they move away from where the Earth is now (Kirshner 1999; Perlmutter et al., 1998; Schmidt, et al., 1998). Earth-centrism is the standard which is used to determine the age of the universe and if stars are receding and accelerating as they speed away; that is, as they speed away from Earth (Perlmutter et al., 1998; Schmidt, et al., 1998).
When the Hubble Law was formulated it was based on Vesto Slipher's (1915) measurements of the speed at which stars recede from the Earth! The Earth is placed smack dab in the center of the Universe.
For thousands of years it has also been the Christian-religious view that Earth is the center of the universe. Despite the Copernican revolution, in modern cosmology, an Earth-centered universe remains the standard and Earth is still the measure of all things. The consensus view among astronomers is that red shifts, and the Hubble constant can be used to calculate the age, velocity, and distances for stars that are assumed to be extremely far away as based on how faint or bright they appear relative to other stars and from the vantage point of Earth (American Astronomical Society 2010; Hubble 1953; Perlmutter et al., 1998; Schmidt et al., 1998). Therefore, the general view is the universe was created around 13.8 billion, and that various galaxies were created right after they big bang as they are over 13 billion light years distant from where Earth is now.
The preCopernican geocentric view of Earth as the center of the galaxy, and thus, ground zero is in fact the basis for claims that the universe is not just expanding, but accelerating (Perlmutter et al., 1998; Schmidt et al., 1998). As succinctly stated by Saul Perlmutter (2003) one of the discoverers of acceleration:
"In principle, the expansion history of the cosmos can be determined quite easily, using as a “standard candle” any distinguishable class of astronomical objects of known intrinsic brightness that can be identified over a wide distance range. As the light from such beacons travels to Earth through an expanding universe, the cosmic expansion stretches not only the distances between galaxy clusters, but also the very wavelengths of the photons en route. By the time the light reaches us, the spectral wavelength has thus been redshifted... That time interval is the speed of light times the object’s distance from Earth, which can be determined by comparing its apparent brightness to a nearby standard of the same class of astrophysical objects... A collection of such measurements, over a sufficient range of distances, would yield an entire historical record of the universe’s expansion" ....relative to Earth (Perlmutter et al., 1998; Schmidt et al., 1998), which becomes "ground zero" and is placed smack dab in the center of the known universe; exactly where the Catholic Church put it over a thousand years ago. A premise of the big bang theology is that light was produced about 400 million years after the creation event--exactly as described in chapter 1 of the Jewish-Christian Bible. Hundreds of attempts have been made to locate the opaque beginnings by aiming the Hubble telescope at what is believed to be empty patches of sky. However, contrary to theory, instead of the expected light, only fully formed galaxies have been detected as far as the Hubble eye can see. And yet, rather than taken as evidence disproving the big bang, the discovery of those galaxies which are furtherest from Earth, are interpreted as evidence of a big bang (Bouwens et al. 2011).
For example, in a report published by Bouwens et al. (2011) based on data collected by the Hubble Ultra Deep Field telescope over a two year period, it was claimed that galaxies with a red shift z ≈ 10, were 13.2 billion years in age, because they appear to be 13.2 billion light years from Earth, and were formed "only 500 Myr after the Big Bang."
However, if the same Earth-centered principles were applied to the Andromeda Galaxy, which is 2.5 million light-years away from Earth, this would mean Andromeda was formed 13.5 billion years after the Big Bang and is 2.5 million years old. The claims and conclusions of Bouwens et al. (2011) are nonsense. Distance from Earth is not an indication of age or proof of a big bang.

10. ACCELERATION AND UNIVERSE-IN-MASS BLACK HOLES

According to the acolytes of the Big Bang, a star 8 billion light years away from Earth is 8 billion years old, and if it is dimmer and its red shift greater than expected as based on the illumination of a star 3 billion light years from Earth, not just it, but the universe must be accelerating as it speeds away from Earth (Kirshner 1999; Perlmutter et al., 1998; Schmidt, et al., 1998). Therefore, we are to conclude stars are old because they are far away. And if they are fainter than predicted, and if they have an extreme red shift, they are speeding up, and this is the basis for claims that the universe is accelerating.
As detailed by Robert Kirshner (1999), a member of the team which made the acceleration discovery:
"The distant supernovae are not brighter than expected in a coasting universe, they are dimmer. For this to happen, the universe must be accelerating while the light from the supernova is in transit to our observatories.... Could there be some other reason... that makes the objects found at a redshift z = 0.5 approximately 25% fainter than the SN Ia we see nearby? While both teams have tried hard to identify and rule out systematic problems, both are using a slender (and common) database of local supernovae to correct the observed fluxes for the effects of the supernova redshift and spectral details as observed through fixed filters. These “k-corrections” conceivably could produce some problems for particular supernova ages and redshifts... the supernovae are sampled over a significant range of redshifts and through a variety of filters....the distant supernovae are explosions that took place 8 billion years ago. There are younger objects than nearby SN Ia. This could affect the properties of the stars that led to SN Ia long ago compared with the present and also could affect the chemical composition of the white dwarfs that explode, both near and far. Because the present-day understanding of SN Ia is incomplete, we don’t know exactly how changes in the stellar population or the composition would affect the luminosity....Even more sinister could be the effects of cosmic dust, which could absorb light from distant supernovae, and lead to their apparent faintness."
Therefore, it is believed that distant supernovae are unexpectedly dim as based on their red shift. This is interpreted to means they are farther away from Earth than expected based on the linear increase of red shift with distance. From the perspective of Earth the velocity of the more distant stars is faster as compared to differences in the red shifts and illumination of stars which are closer to the Earth which is interpreted to mean this region of space (closer to Earth) is moving more slowly. Therefore, the rate of velocity is increasing for certain groups of distant stars in the known Hubble length universe, but only from the perspective of and relative to Earth.
If we restrict our interpretations only to the measure of light, then it is equally valid to say that the speed of light of distant stars may be slowing down even as the velocity of these stars appears to be increasing. A slowdown would make distant stellar objects appear fainter than what would be expected.
It is also valid to ask, what could cause the light of a star to grow dim, and effect its red shift to make it appear the star is accelerating and rapidly moving further away? What could affect the speed of light and alter the redshift and illumination of stellar objects so as to make it appear their velocity is increasing relative to where the Earth is now? What could cause these stars to increase their velocity? The answers lie in the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy. A black hole.
A star accelerates as it falls toward the black hole and reaches infinite acceleration as it falls inside the hole. Yet, from the perspective of an outside observer, the light associated with that star would become dimmer and red shifted as it approached the event horizon until reaching an infinite red shift at the horizon. If the observer did not know there was a black hole, it would appear as if that distant star (based on the dimness of light) was accelerating (based on its red shift) and given its dimness (due to the black hole's capture of light) there would be an illusion that it is rapidly increasing its distance, becoming further and further away as it speeded up. However, although it is speeding up, it is not speeding further away. This is an illusion produced by the hole's effect on light.
Energy, quanta, are being stripped from the star as it approaches the black hole (Hawking 1990). The light associated with the star simultaneously become redder and dimmer until the object can no longer be seen--and this is known as "gravitational red shift." This exact same red shift / faint light phenomenon has been used to claim that distant stars, and thus, the known universe, is accelerating (Kirshner 1999; Perlmutter et al., 1998; Schmidt, et al., 1998).
Gravitational red shift due to a universe-in-mass black hole, is responsible for the illusion of an accelerating universe. This universe-in-mass black hole model not only explains why distant galaxies have a greater velocity than those closer to Earth, but the dim illumination and red shifts of those distant stars.
In the inner galaxy, the rotation speed rises with the radius. By contrast, in the outer galaxy the rotation speed remains constant (Petrovskaya, 1994; Teerikorpi, 1989). Therefore, Earth and our solar system orbit the Milky Way at a constant speed and those stars closest to the black hole increase their speed as they come closer to the Black Hole. General relativity predicts that any rotating mass will "drag" and pull space-time which also begins to circle around and speeding up as it approaches the black hole. Therefore, the stars closest to the black hole have a significantly higher velocity and will in fact be accelerating as compared to stars which are further away.


Therefore, the distant stars identified by the teams led by Schmidt, et al., (1998) and Perlmutter et al., (1998) are nearer to the universe-in-mass hole than those galaxies closer to Earth. This explains the presumed increases in the velocity of distant stars and galaxies: they are repeating a spiral pattern found throughout nature. The most distant galaxies are not speeding up because they are orbiting and falling inside a universe-in mass-sized black hole.
Robert Kirshner (1999) asks: "Could there be some other reason... that makes the objects found at a redshift z = 0.5 approximately 25% fainter than the SN Ia we see nearby?" And the answer is: yes, this red shift / faint light phenomenon is caused by a Hubble length universe-in-mass black hole on the outskirts of the observed universe, giving rise to the illusion that the distant universe is accelerating when in fact these distant galaxies are in the grip of a universe-in-mass black hole (Joseph 2010).
The universe is not expanding. Distant stars are not rapidly increasing their distance. They are accelerating as they fall into the infinity of a universe-in-mass black hole located at the edge of the Hubble Length Universe.
11. CONCLUSIONS
The long sought "grand theory of everything" must begin where there is no beginning and end where there is no ending: patterns which infinitely repeat in nature and which give rise to infinite symmetry.
Patterns repeat. This is the nature of patterns. Thus, the symmetry and patterns exhibited by elementary particles, atoms, snail shells, sea shells, whirlpools, cyclones, solar systems, and galaxies, do not stop with individual galaxies, but characterize, collectively, all galaxies, and the cosmos. Patterns repeat and this is the key to understanding the ultimate nature of the universe. It is these same repeating patterns within and throughout the Hubble Length Universe which creates the illusion of expansion and acceleration as it spirals and orbits a universe-in-mass black hole.
The universe is not expanding as this is an illusion created by symmetry. Nor is the universe accelerating. There is a universe-in-mass black hole dragging distant galaxies toward it and which increase their velocity as they approach this supermassive hole at the edge of the Hubble Length Universe. As distant galaxies accelerate the light associated with those galaxies develops a red shift pattern indicative of that acceleration. Moreover, as they accelerate they grow smaller in size, and appear to dim thereby creating the illusions that they are speeding off faster and further away into the distance, when in fact they are falling into the infinity of a universe-in-mass black hole.

There was no big bang creation event. Patterns repeat themselves in nature from the micro-atomic to the macro-atomic, from snail shells to spiral galaxies.
The discovery of a unifying symmetry and a theory of everything, will be possible only if the repeating patterns of symmetry found throughout nature and the universe, are applied to the entire cosmos.
Unifying symmetry, based on repeating patterns, leads not to a big bang creation event, but to an infinite universe which is eternal and has no beginning and no end.



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