.

.

POSTS BY SUBJECT

POSTS BY SUBJECT

''ESTONIA'' (15) "Hindenburg" (2) “Yom Kippur” War (1) 2017 Westminster attack (1) 20th_Century (3) 7/7 London bombings (38) 911 (392) A.H.M. RAMSAY (2) Abu Ghraib (1) ADL (1) ADOLF_HITLER (23) ADVENTURE (1) Affirmative Action (1) Afghanistan (7) AFRICA (47) African Origins (1) Agriculture (3) AIDS (25) Al Azhar University (1) Alain de Benoist (15) Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (34) Alois Irlmaier (1) AMAZONIA (3) America (4) American Islamization (21) American Universities (2) American_Indian (1) Ancient Egypt (1) ANCIENT_CIVILISATIONS (2) Angels (1) Animal_Rights (6) ANTEDILUVIAN_CIVILISATION (15) Anthony Blunt (1) Anthony Ludovici (3) ANTHROPOLOGY (7) Anti-Semitism (3) Antifa (2) Apartheid (1) AR. LEESE (4) ARCHAEOLOGY (3) Argentina (1) Armenia (4) Armenian Genocide (1) Art (15) Arthur Koestler (1) Astronomy (30) ATHEISM (1) AUSTRALIA (2) AUSTRIA (1) Ayaan Hirsi Ali (3) Baha'i faith (1) BALI (1) Balkans (4) Bangladesh (2) banned_weapons (1) Barbarossa (2) Barcelona Attack (1) BELGIUM (2) Benjamin Freedman (1) BENJAMIN SOLARI PARRAVICINI (11) Beslan (1) Bill Clinton (1) Biological Warfare (2) Black America (2) BLACK RACE (14) BLOOD PASSOVER (12) BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION (16) Book purge (1) Boycottage (1) Brainwashing (1) BRAZIL (1) BREXIT (1) Brigitte Gabriel (1) British politics (1) Buddhism (5) California (1) Cambodia (8) CANADA (10) CANCER (40) Carolina bays (1) Celebrities-Show Business (3) Cell Phone towers (6) Censorship in Europe (7) Central Europe (1) CENTRAL_ASIA (1) Central/South America (1) Ch. Bollyn (30) Charles Tart (8) Charlie Hebdo (1) Che Guevara (2) CHEMTRAILS (13) CHINA (6) Christian Zionism (1) CHRISTIANISM (46) CHRISTIANISM in EUROPE (1) Churchill (7) CINEMA (2) Circumcision (10) CLIMATE (7) Climate Change (8) cluster bombs/mines (2) Cold Fusion (1) COLD_FUSION (1) COLONIALISM (1) Colonization of Europe (29) Commerce (1) Communism (49) CONGO (5) Consciousness (9) Conspiracies (8) Consumerism (1) contemporary society (11) COPTS (1) Cosmogony (1) Crime (5) Criminal_Sciense (1) CRIMINALITY (2) crop circles (5) CUBA (16) Cultural Marxism (8) DARFUR (3) Dead Sea Scrolls (1) Death penalty in ISLAM (1) Death-Bed Visions (1) DECADANT_ART (1) Deir Yassin (8) Democracy (1) DENMARK (3) Depleted uranium (6) DIAMOND CARTELS (1) DIANA (10) DIETRICH ECKART (1) DILUVIUM (5) Disney (2) DOGS (1) Donald TRUMP (7) Dönmeh (1) Doppelgangers (1) Dresden (6) DRUG ADDICTION (1) E.U. (11) Eastern Europe (2) ECHELON (1) ECONOMY (14) EDUCATION (4) Egypt (11) Eisenhower (4) El Inglés (2) Elie Wiesel (1) Elite_Child_Sex_Rings (16) Elizabeth Taylor (1) ENERGY (9) Enoch Powell (1) environmentalism (10) Ernst Zundel (1) EUROPE viz. ISLAM (11) EUROPE's FUTURE (10) European Parliament (1) EUROPEAN UNION (11) EUROPEAN_IDENTITY (4) Eustace Mullins (10) Evidence for the Afterlife (2) EVOLUTION (9) EXPLORATIONS (1) Ezra Pound (1) Facebook (1) FALSE_HISTORY (2) Fascism (4) Fashion industry (1) FATIMA (9) Female Genital Mutilation (2) FEMINISM (17) FINLAND (2) Fjordman (7) Flight 007 (1) Fluoride (1) Food (11) FRANCE (31) FRANCE viz. ISLAM (4) Francis P. Yockey (5) Frankfurt School (2) Franklin D. Roosevelt (6) freedom of speech (1) Fukushima (2) G7 (1) Gas chambers (1) gay marriage (1) Gaza (1) Geert Wilders (9) GENDERISM (1) genetically modified organisms (GMO) (8) Georges Bensoussan (2) German National Socialism (14) GERMANY (45) GERMANY viz. ISLAM (3) Gilad Atzmon (11) Global warming (2) Globalism (5) Great Britain (59) Great Pyramid (16) GREECE (2) GREENPEACE (3) Guatemala (1) Guillaume Faye (1) Gulag (3) Gulf War (1) Gulf War Syndrome (1) Gun control (1) Guylaine Lanctot (2) HAARP (10) Hans Günther (8) Harry Potter (1) HEALTH (114) HEMP (1) Henry Makow (2) Hidden History (15) HIDDEN HYPNOSIS TECHNIQUES (1) Hiroshima (5) Historical Review (67) History_of_IDEAS (3) HMS Hampshire (3) Hollow Earth (22) Hollywood (11) Holocaust (140) HOLODOMOR_1932-33 (17) Homosexuality (6) Horst Mahler (4) Howard Hughes (1) Human Equality (1) HUMAN_ORIGINS (2) HUMAN_RIGHTS (2) Humanitarian politics (1) Humorous (2) HUNGARY (2) HYPERBOREA (7) IAN STEVENSON (13) ICELAND (1) Image of Guadalupe (2) Immigration (18) IMPORTANT (5) INDIA (24) IndoEuropean (12) Indonesia (4) INFECTIOUS DISEASES EPIDEMICS (1) Infrasound Weapons (1) Intellectual_freedom (1) Intelligence (19) Intelligent design (8) International Criminal Tribunal (3) INTERNET (2) INTERRACIAL_RELATIONS (1) INTIMIDATION (3) INVENTIONS (3) IQ (3) IRAN (11) Iranian regime violence (1) IRAQ (22) IRAQ_war (11) IRELAND (2) ISLAM (329) Islam in Europe/America (92) ISLAM in RUSSIA (1) ISLAM propagandists (4) ISLAMIST INTIMIDATION (24) ISLAMIST_VIOLENCE (41) ISLAMIZATION OF EUROPE (72) Islamophobia (6) ISRAEL (129) Israel Supreme Court (1) ISRAEL-ARAB RELATIONS (10) ISRAEL's_ATOMIC_BOMB (4) ISRAEL/EU RELATIONS (1) ITALY (7) J.Kaminski (4) Japan (2) Jewish History (1) Jewish Question (1) JEWS (117) JEWS in GERMANY (1) JEWS/ISRAEL-USA_relations (53) JFK Assassination (28) JFK/RFK (2) Jihad (15) Jo Cox (6) Joe Sobran (4) John Bryant (17) John Lear (3) Journalists (2) Julius Evola (38) Jyllands-Posten newspaper (1) Kafirs (1) Karl Marx (1) Katie King (1) Katyn (11) Kennedys (1) KENYA (1) Kevin MacDonald (38) KHAZARs (1) Knut Hamsun (1) Kurdistan (2) KURDS (2) Lasha Darkmoon (13) Laurel Canyon (4) Layla Anwar (4) LEBANON (3) LEFT (17) Liberalism (1) Lord Kitchener (4) Lord Northcliff (1) Lost Civilisations (2) Lost Technology (1) LYDDA (1) MADELEINE McCANN (4) Magic (1) Magnesium (7) Mahathir (1) Mahatma Gandhi (4) Malaysia (2) Manchester Terror Attack (1) Manchester terrorist attack (11) Manipulation (69) MAPS (1) Mark Weber (10) Mass immigration_Multiculturalism (35) Mass_Media (3) Mass-Psychology (3) Massacres (1) May-June 2017 London Jihadist attacks (4) Medjugorje apparitions (3) METEMPSYCHOSIS (17) MEXICO (1) MH370 (2) MIDDLE EAST (45) Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (11) MIND CONTROL (26) MONEY-Banking (8) Monsanto (9) Morality (1) Mormonism (1) Mortacracy (6) MULTICULTURALISM (5) MUSIC MAFIA (2) Muslim Brotherhood (5) Muslim Honor Killings (1) Muslim Persecution of Christians (2) MUSLIMS IN EUROPE (72) Mussolini (3) Mysterious (69) Mysterious_SKY (1) Nathuram Godse (3) National Memorial and Arboretum (1) Native Americans (1) Neapolis (1) NESSIE (17) Netherlands (10) New World Order (4) NEW_ZEALAND (1) NGOs (2) Nicolai Sennels (1) no-go zones (2) NOAM CHOMSKY (4) Nonie Darwish (13) North Africa (3) NORWAY (2) Norway massacre (5) NUCLEAR (12) Nutrition (20) Obama (2) Occult Symbols (21) Oklahoma City bombing (7) OLYMPIC_GAMES (13) OPINION (9) Orel_Yiftachel (5) Organized Jewry (11) P. Buchanan (26) PACIFISM (1) PAEDOPHILIA (15) Paganism (2) PAKISTAN (2) PALESTINE 1944-1948 (1) Palestinians (19) PARIS (1) Patrice Lumumba (1) PATRICIA HEARST (2) Patton (2) Paul Craig Roberts (1) Paul Weston (9) PEARL HARBOR (1) Persecuted Christians (7) PERSONALITIES (1) Philosophy of Civilization (1) Photographic_Archive (1) Photography (2) Physics (9) POLAND (5) POLAR REGIONS (30) Poliomyelitis (8) Political Thought (52) Pollution (3) Polynesia (25) Pope Benedict (1) Popular Culture (2) POPULATION FORECAST (2) Pornography (2) PORTUGAL (6) PREHISTORY (28) propaganda (3) Prophecies (14) Psychedelics (66) PSYCHIATRY (10) Psychical Research (124) Psychology (6) QATAR (2) QUEBEC (1) Queen Victoria (1) R.R.Rife (10) Race (131) RACE MIXING (1) Racism (4) RAPE statistics (1) RED_Alert (4) Religion (27) René Guénon (1) Revilo Oliver (16) Richard Dawkins (1) Riyadh address to the Muslim world (1) Robert Faurisson (1) Rockefellers (1) Roger Garaudy (6) Roman Catholic Church (12) Ron Paul (7) Rudolph Hess (1) Ruling_by_CORRUPTION (14) RUSSIA (8) RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (1) RWANDA (31) S. H. Pearson (1) Sabra-Shatila massacre (10) Sandy Hook (1) Sanskrit (1) SAUDI ARABIA (6) Savitri Devi (27) Scandinavia (1) SCIENCE (45) Secret Military Technology (14) Secret weapons (10) Sedition Trial (1) SERBIA (1) sexual freedom (6) Sexualization of Culture (6) Sinister sites (11) Skepticism (1) Slave trade (1) SOUTH AFRICA (10) Space/Apollo_Hoax (54) SPAIN (5) Spanish Civil War (1) Spengler (6) Spirituality (1) Srebrenica (1) STALINISM (1) State_criminality (8) Steganography (16) Steven Yates (7) STRANGE SOUNDS (4) Subterranean_world (10) SUDAN (2) SUPERNATURAL (16) Surveillance (1) SWASTIKA (33) Swaziland (1) SWEDEN (15) Switzerland (1) SYRIA (8) Taj Mahal (13) Ted Kaczynski (1) Terrorism (44) TESLA (6) The 1001 Club (1) The Celts (1) The Cultural Integration Initiative (1) THE END OF WHITE RACE (20) The Great Flood (8) The Irish Savant (9) The Mass Rape of German Women by the Red Army (1) The Nuremberg Trials (5) The plutonium injections (4) the Wealth of Nations (2) Theo van Gogh (1) Thought of the Right (63) TITANIC (72) Tommy Robinson (1) Torture (1) Tradition (5) Transatlantic Slave Trade (1) Transcendent Experience (6) TRUMP _Administration (1) Tunguska (1) Tunisia (2) TURKEY (8) TWA flight 800 (1) U.S.A. (143) U.S.A. ARMY CRIMINALITY (18) U.S.A. Foreign policy (14) U.S.A. Military (2) U.S.A._EDUCATION (1) U.S.A._HISTORY (2) U.S.A._POLITICS (13) U.S.A._SOCIETY (10) U.S.A.-CIA (13) U.S.A.-Power Structure (8) U.S.S. Liberty (8) UFOs (166) Ukraine (15) United Church of Christ (1) United Nations (3) UNKNOWN_EARTH (2) USA (3) USA_Press (2) USA/USSR_relations (2) USS San Francisco (1) USSR (55) Vaccination (1) VATICAN (12) Vatican II (3) VELIKOVSKY (2) Vernon Coleman (14) Voynich_manuscript (15) WAFA SULTAN (1) War Crimes (36) water (2) Wayne MADSEN (2) WEST (16) WEST viz. ISLAM (11) WEST/ISLAM Relations (23) Western Masochism (1) WESTERN_ELITES (5) White Guilt (1) White phosphorous (1) White Race (7) WILD_LIFE (1) Wilhelm Reich (4) William Gough (10) wind farms (1) Wm F. Koch (8) Women in Islam (9) World Wildlife Fund (8) WORLD_ORDER (57) WWI (6) WWII (98) WWII Aftermath (42) WWIII (1) Younger Dryas Ice Age (4) Yugoslavia (8) Zimbabwe (1) ZIONISM (12)

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Why are so many primitive stars observed in the Galaxy halo?

Why are so many primitive stars observed in the Galaxy halo?

Carl H. Gibsona1, Theo M. Nieuwenhuizenb and Rudolph E. Schildc
a University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093.0411, USA
b Institute for Theoretical Physics, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
c Harvard.Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA


ABSTRACT

Small values of lithium observed in a small, primitive, Galaxy-Halo star SDSS J102915 +
172927 cannot be explained using the standard cold dark matter CDM theory of star
formation, but are easily understood using the Gibson/Schild 1996 hydrogravitationaldynamics
(HGD) theory. From HGD, primordial H-4He gas fragments into Earth-mass
planets in trillion-planet proto-globular-star-cluster (PGC) clumps at the 300 Kyr time of
transition from the plasma epoch, soon after the big bang. The first HGD stars formed
from pristine, frictionally-merging, gas-planets within the gently stressed clumps of the
early universe, burning most available lithium in brown-dwarfs and hot-stars before
creating metals that permit cooler burning. The Caffau halo star is a present day
example. CDM first stars (Population III) were massive and promptly exploded, re-
ionizing the gas of the universe and seeding it with metals, thus making the observed star
unexplainable. From HGD, CDM and its massive first stars, and re-ionization by Pop III
supernovae, never happened. All stars are formed from planets in primordial clumps.
HGD first stars (Pop III) were small and long-lived, and the largest ones were hot. We
suggest such small HGD (Pop III) stars still form in the gently stressed Galaxy halo.

Keywords: Cosmology, star formation, planet formation, astrobiology.

1. INTRODUCTION
The standard model of cosmology .CDMHC is in trouble on all sides. It fails to permit
life to form by natural causes (Gibson, Wickramasinghe, Schild 2011; Gibson, Schild,
Wickramasinghe 2011). It fails to include basic fluid mechanical processes crucial to
gravitational structure formation of the various astrophysical fluids; that is, the kinematic
viscosity, turbulence and stratified turbulent mixing. It requires non-physical entities
such as persistent anti-gravity dark energy .
and weakly interactive cold-dark-matter
CDM particles that clump rather than diffuse in ways that are repudiated by astronomical
measurements (Kroupa et al. 2011) and fluid mechanical theory (TMN declines to
criticize .). CDM clumps have never been convincingly observed, and neither are the
numerous small galaxies that are expected within CDM-clump gravitational potential
wells as precursors to normal galaxies by hierarchical clustering (HC). .CDMHC fails
most miserably in its predictions about star and planet formation. As predicted by hydrogravitational-
dynamics HGD cosmology (Gibson 1996), and as observed by quasar
microlensing (Schild 1996), for every star in a galaxy there should be 30 million planets,
not 8-10 as expected from .CDMHC. In particular, the primitive Galaxy-Halo stars and




1 Corresponding author: Depts. of MAE and SIO, CASS, cgibson@ucsd.edu, http://sdcc3.ucsd.edu/~ir118


1



their Lithium abundances observed by Caffau and her colleagues (Caffau et al. 2011) are
easily explained and expected from HGD cosmology, but are quite impossible to explain
from .CDMHC cosmology and its CDM-halo models of star and galaxy formation,
which are accepted and taken to be standard in astronomy. The “impossible” Caffau star,
as it has come to be known, is shown in Figure 1.





Figure 1. Spectroscopic studies using the Very Large Telescope (VLA) reveal distant Galaxy-Halo stars that cannot be
explained using the standard model of cosmology and the standard model of star formation (Caffau et al. 2011). From
HGD cosmology, all stars form in PGC clumps of gas planets, the dark matter of galaxies, and burn lithium and tritium
while the Pop III stars are small. Small Pop III stars are impossible according to .CDMHC cosmology (Bromm and
Loeb 2003).

As shown in Fig. 1, the Caffau star appears very ordinary until examined by the large
VLT telescope in Chile for its chemical composition using standard (.CDMHC) models
and the sensitive, precise, and extensive spectroscopic evidence the VLT produces.
Using the data and the standard .CDMHC model, the Caffau star is impossible.

The difficulty is with the lithium abundance, which is far below levels observed in the
Galaxy disk and the expected primordial levels, as shown in Figure 2 (adapted from Fig.
2a of Caffau et al. 2011). The small levels of lithium in halo stars, compared to disk
stars, is illustrated using the Spite plateau (Spite & Spite 1982), shown by the light
dashed line, which is less than primordial levels (dark dashed line) by a factor of 2-3.
Such large differences can no longer be attributed to errors in the primordial lithium
abundance. Experts in the field admit that the problem worsens (Cyburt et al. 2008).

A more likely explanation is that Galaxy disk stars have been seeded with metals
produced by supernovae that are more frequent for tidally-agitated disk-PGCs compared


2



to pristine gentle-halo-PGCs. This makes a difference from HGD cosmology, where
stars are formed from planets in clumps that isolate their supernova chemicals, but does
not for .CDMHC cosmology, where stars and galaxies condense from gas and dust in
>1021 m CDM halos that incubate and contaminate internal stars and galaxies, diameters
much larger than <1018 m PGCs. Galaxy-halo planet-clumps (PGCs) can remain
relatively uncontaminated by metals until their first supernova. All their stars burn
lithium, starting with brown dwarfs. From HGD, star brightness increases with tidal
agitation of the PGC, which increases the planet accretion rate. The more pristine the
planets the hotter the largest stars that they create (~0.8 solar in globular star clusters).


Figure 2. Spectroscopic studies using the Very Large Telescope VLA reveal distant Galaxy-Halo stars that cannot be
explained using the standard model of cosmology and the standard model of star formation (Fig. 2a Caffau et al. 2011).
The heavy dashed blue line is the primordial gas lithium abundance. The light red dashed Spite plateau (Spite & Spite
1982) is lower by a factor of two, but the Caffau and Schneider halo stars (green) are lower by orders of magnitude.
The HGD interpretation (asterisks) is that halo stars in their PGC dark matter clumps are less likely to be seeded by
supernovae metals than disk stars in their more tidally agitated, and therefore explosive, PGCs.

As shown in Fig. 2, HGD cosmology gives a straightforward explanation for the small
lithium abundances observed (Caffau et al. 2011, Schneider et al. 2008) in small halo
stars. Because all stars are formed by planet mergers within PGC clumps, and because
PGC clumps in the halo of galaxies are more likely to consist of pristine primordial gas
planets that those in the disk, the stars formed are likely to burn all of their lithium during
formation rather than the cooler population II stars of the disk that have been seeded with
supernovae metals. Because the first .CDMHC stars are so large and their supernovae
so violent, stars from uncontaminated primordial gas become rare or nonexistent. The
abundance of metal A compared to B is found from the expression [A/B] = log(NA/NB) .
log(NA/NB)solar.


Nieuwenhuizen (2011a,b) examines the effects of 3He concentrations on star formation
and death, as well as the formation of early galactic central black holes and bulges from


3



Jeans clusters (PGCs) of .BDs (micro-brown-dwarfs). In the following we will discuss
the star formation theories of .CDMHC versus HGD cosmologies, and make comparison
to observations. Conclusions are presented.

2. THEORY
Gravitational structure formation in hydro-gravitational-dynamics HGD cosmology
depends on kinematic viscosity, turbulence, and molecular diffusivity, quantities that are
neglected entirely by .CDMHC cosmology. The two cosmologies give very different
predictions with respect to the formation of stars and the formation of planets. How do
these predictions affect the interpretation of the Caffau star? What is the evidence
supporting the two cosmologies?

Cold Dark Matter is in trouble for several reasons. The only known non-baryonic dark
matter material is neutrinos, and the most popular alternative candidate, the neutralino, is
failing all tests using the Large Hadron Collider, as shown in Figure 3.


Figure 3. Preliminary results from the Large Hadron Collider show departures of the Observed radiation measured by
the LCHb detector (blue) compared to that expected using the standard model of particle physics (red). The Figure is
taken from a slide presented (Raven 2011) in August at the Lepton-Photon particle physics meeting in Mombai, India.

Neutralinos are predicted by supersymmetry as cold dark matter particles because they
are massive, about a hundred times a proton mass, and weakly collisional, with expected
collision cross sections as small as 10-49 m2. The LCHb strategy is to look for collisions
of bottom quark related particles with massive supersymmetry CDM candidates. The
preliminary results reported by Gerhard Raven (LP meeting Mombai 2011) so far show
no evidence that such particles exist.

Star formation by the standard .CDMHC cosmology (Bromm and Loeb 2003) is very
different than HGD star formation. CDM seeds that form by the Jeans 1902 instability
theory somehow hierarchically cluster (HC) to form CDM halos of larger mass. Stars
form as the primordial gas falls into the resulting potential wells. A period of 400 Myr or
more called the “dark ages” is required before any stars appear. Gravity pulls all the gas


4



to the center of the CDM halo, so the first stars were enormous, metal free, Population III
stars that rapidly exploded to form metals. The supernova were so powerful they
completely re-ionized and contaminated all the gas of the universe. Attempts to detect
this “first starlight” have failed, probably because it never happened (Madau 2006).
.CDMHC assumes that a threshold mass fraction of metals Z > 10-7 is required to form
stars smaller than 0.8 solar mass (Schneider et al. 2003). HGD claims star brightness
shows the rate of planet accretion, not the star mass, and that Z is irrelevant to star
brightness. The first stars were small Population III stars of the old globular star clusters
(OGCs).

All .CDMHC stars after re-ionization should be contaminated by metals from the
supernovae. They should burn cooler than the small Population III stars that are expected
in the Galaxy halo from HGD (Fig. 1). It is a mystery to .CDMHC how any small
Population III stars could be formed (Bromm & Loeb 2003), let alone the very large
numbers of small Population III halo stars observed, such as the Caffau star of Fig. 1 and
Fig. 2 (Frebel et al. 2008).

The mystery is easily solved by HGD cosmology (Gibson 1996, Schild 1996). Rather
than cold dark matter condensation during the plasma epoch, structure formation begins
when the viscous forces match the gravitational forces at the Schwarz viscous scale LSV =
(../.G)1/2, where .
is the rate-of-strain, .
is the kinematic viscosity, .
is the density and
G is Newton’s gravitational constant. Structure formation is prevented by the photon
viscosity of the plasma until time 1012 seconds, when LSV > LH first matches the
increasing scale of causal connection LH = ct, where c is the speed of light and t is the
time. The computed mass of the first structures found in this way closely matches the
observed mass of superclusters (Gibson 2000), about 1046 kg.

The last structures formed in the plasma are protogalaxies, with mass about 1043 kg and
linear morphology caused by fragmentation along vortex lines of weak turbulence
produced by expanding protosuperclustervoids (Gibson, Schild and Wickramasinghe
2011). Rather than condensing into CDM halos, the non-baryonic dark matter is super-
diffusive. It forms the halos of clusters and superclusters and a negligible part of galaxy
mass. A substantial portion of the non-baryonic dark matter appears to be neutrinos
(Nieuwenhuizen & Morandi 2011) from gravitational lensing by a galaxy cluster. A
permanent form of anti-gravity (dark energy) is not needed by HGD cosmology (TMN
reserves judgement), since big bang turbulence supplies the large anti-gravity negative
stresses (10113 Pa) required for mass-energy extraction at Planck scales, by vortex
stretching (Gibson 2010).

The phase transition from plasma to gas occurs at t = 1013 seconds. Because heat is
transferred at the speed of light and pressure at the speed of sound, the protogalaxies
fragment at two length scales: the Jeans scale LJ = VS.g and LSV, where VS is the speed of
sound and .g= (.G)-1/2 is the gravitational free fall time. Each protogalaxy fragments
into 1018 m Jeans mass clumps (PGCs) of primordial gas planets (now frozen-solidhydrogen
107 m .BD microBrownDwarfs) that have persisted as the dark matter
(Nieuwenhuizen, Schild and Gibson 2011). As the universe cooled, more and more


5



planets froze and their PGCs diffused from the central core to form the galaxy halo and
galaxy accretion disk. Most of the PGCs of the halo remain as clumps of a trillion,
pristine, primordial-gas-planets in metastable equilibrium, with no stars whatsoever.
Whatever stars form are most likely to be similar to the Caffau star of Fig. 1 and Fig. 2,
with the small Pop III stars of old globular clusters. There should be many such stars,
with very low lithium abundance, as observed (Sbordone et al. 2010).

In a future work we will show how the long-standing .CDMHC mystery of 7Li
abundance (Cyburt et al. 2008) can be addressed using HGD cosmology.

3. CONCLUSIONS
Large numbers of primitive halo stars revealed by the VLT (Very Large Telescope) and
its very sensitive spectrographs are easy to understand using HGD cosmology, but are
impossible to explain using standard .CDMHC cosmology. The reason is that the
standard cosmology is wrong about how stars are formed. Stars are not formed from gas
that falls into CDM gravitational potential wells, they are formed within proto-globularstar-
cluster (PGC) clumps of primordial gas planets, by mergers of the planets to form
larger planets and finally stars. PGCs that freeze and diffuse into the galaxy halo are
generally pristine, with no stars at all and no metals besides traces of lithium. Their
planets merge to form larger planets, brown dwarfs and hot small stars that burn all traces
of primordial lithium. Lithium abundances in Population II disk stars are only a factor of
three or less smaller than primordial gas values, compared to more than a factor of ten for
many halo stars observed.

No observations support the existence of CDM halos. The LHC experiments of Fig. 3
show no evidence that the leading CDM particle candidates exist. Even if they did, they
would be irrelevant because they are weakly collisional and would simply diffuse away
from the baryons, just as neutrinos do. A host of new observations, including those of the
Caffau star, suggest it is time to abandon .CDMHC cosmology in favor of HGD.

4. REFERENCES


Bromm, V. & Loeb, A., The formation of the first low-mass stars from gas with low
carbon and oxygen abundances. Nature 425, 812–814, 2003.

Caffau, Elisabetta, Piercarlo Bonifacio, Patrick François, Luca Sbordone, Lorenzo
Monaco, Monique Spite, François Spite, Hans-G. Ludwig, Roger Cayrel, Simone
Zaggia, François Hammer, Sofia Randich, Paolo Molaro & Vanessa Hill, An
extremely primitive star in the Galactic halo. Nature 477, 67-69, 2011.

Cyburt, R. H., B. D. Fields & K. A. Olive, A Bitter Pill: The Primordial Lithium
Problem Worsens. arXiv:0808.2818v1 [astro-ph], An update on the big bang
nucleosynthesis prediction for 7Li: the problem worsens, JCAP, 11 (012), 2008.

Frebel, A., Collet, R., Eriksson, K., Christlieb, N. & Aoki, W. HE 1327–2326, an
unevolved star with [Fe/H] < -5.0. II. New 3D–1D corrected abundances from a
Very Large Telescope UVES spectrum. Astrophys. J. 684, 588–602, 2008.


6



Gibson, C.H., Turbulence in the ocean, atmosphere, galaxy and universe. Appl. Mech.
Rev. 49, no. 5, 299–315, 1996.

Gibson, C. H., Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids, Physica Scripta,
Turbulent Mixing and Beyond 2009, T142 (2010) 014030 doi: 10.1088 /00318949
/2010 /T142/0140302010, arXiv:1005.2772v4, 2010.

Gibson, C. H., Schild, R. E. & Wickramasinghe, N. C., The origin of life in primordial
planets, International Journal of Astrobiology 10 (2), 83–98, doi:10.1017/
S147355041 0000352, arXiv:1004.0504, 2011.

Gibson, C. H., Wickramasinghe, N. C. & Schild, R. E., The Biological Big Bang: The
First Oceans of Primordial Planets at 2-8 Myr Explains Hoyle-Wickramasinghe
Cometary Panspermia and a Primordial LUCA. Journal of Cosmology, 16, pp
6500-6518, 2011.

Kroupa, P., B. Famaey, K. S. de Boer, J. Dabringhausen, M.S. Pawlowski, C.M.
Boily, H. Jerjen, D. Forbes, G. Hensler, and M. Metz,
Local-Group tests of dark-
matter concordance cosmology, Towards a new paradigm for structure formation.
A&A 523, A32, pp 1-22, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014892, 2010.

Madau, Piero, Astronomy: Trouble at first light. News and Views, Nature 440, 10021003
(20 April), 2006.

Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M., Explanation of the Helium-3 problem. arXiv:1103.6284v1,
2011a.

Nieuwenhuizen, Theo, Model for common growth of supermassive black holes, bulges
and globular star clusters: ripping off Jeans clusters. arXiv:1108.1697v1, 2011b.

Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M. & Andrea Morandi, Prediction for the Neutrino Mass in the
KATRIN experiment from lensing by the galaxy cluster A1689. Journal of
Cosmology, Vol. 15, 6004-6016, 2011.

Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M., Rudolph E. Schild and Carl H. Gibson. Do Micro Brown
Dwarf Detections explain the Galactic Dark Matter?. Journal of Cosmology, Vol.
15, 6017-6029, 2011.

Sbordone, L. et al. The metal-poor end of the Spite plateau. I. Stellar parameters,
metallicities, and lithium abundances. Astron. Astrophys. 522, A26, 2010.

Schild, R., Microlensing variability of the gravitationally lensed quasar Q0957+561
A,B. ApJ 464, 125, 1996.

Schneider, R., Ferrara, A., Salvaterra, R., Omukai, K. & Bromm, V. Low-mass relics
of early star formation. Nature 422, 869–871, 2003.

Spite, M. & Spite, F., Lithium abundance at the formation of the Galaxy. Nature 297,
483–485, 1982.

No comments:

Post a Comment