Journal of Cosmology, 2011, Vol 13, 4187-4190.
Associate, Climate & Solar Science Institute 833 Broadway, #104, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701
Former NASA Principal Investigator for Apollo Moon Samples
Emeritus Professor, Nuclear and Space Sciences University of Missouri, Rolla, MO 65401
Keywords: Expansion of universe; Big Bang; neutron repulsion; gravity; evolution of subatomic particles, life, stars, and galaxies; solar energy.
Atomic weight measurements on the elements persuaded Prout (1815, 1816) almost two centuries ago that hydrogen is the fundamental building block of all other elements because their atomic weights appeared to be integral multiples of the atomic weight of hydrogen. Prout's hypothesis was later found to be inconsistent with more precise measurements of the atomic weights of some elements, like neon and chlorine. This dilemma was resolved by discoveries of the neutron (Chadwick, 1932a,b) and of isotopes like – 20Ne, 22Ne, 35Cl and 37Cl – with atomic weights that are individually close to integral multiples of the atomic weight of hydrogen's most abundant isotope, 1H (Aston, 1920). After Hoyle (1946) adopted and promoted the idea that other elements are made in stars from hydrogen, the concept of primordial hydrogen became an integral part of the story of stellar nucleosynthesis (e.g., Burbidge et al., 1957).
Baade and Zwicky (1934) suggested that ordinary stars might collapse and transition into neutron stars. Oppenheimer and Volkoff (1939) advanced this idea and predicted that a neutron star of mass (m) would be stable only in the mass range of 1/3 Mo < m < 3/4 Mo, where Mo is one solar mass.
Nuclear rest mass data and other data from measurements of solar neutrinos and variations in the abundances of chemical elements and their isotopes in meteorites, planets, the Moon and solar emissions over the past five decades have been interpreted as evidence that solar luminosity, solar neutrinos and the solar wind are produced by a series of four reactions, triggered by neutron repulsion in the solar core (Manuel, 2011 and references therein):
2. Neutron-decay to hydrogen;
3. Partial fusion of hydrogen into helium; and
4. Discharge of solar wind hydrogen and helium with traces of severely mass-fractionated heavier elements from the Sun's iron-rich mantle.
2. The process that powers the Sun - dynamic competition between the attractive force of gravity and the repulsive force between neutrons – is reversible in nature (Baade and Zwicky, 1934; Oppenheimer and Volkoff, 1939; Manuel et al., 2006; Manuel, 2011).
Since one referee commented that nobody knows what most stars are like, I will explain next why observations on the Sun - an ordinary star - may imply the behavior of other ordinary stars and an overall expansion of the universe. For decades university and college textbooks on astronomy have suggested that the Sun is an ordinary star that conveniently serves as a model for more distant stars (Strobe, 2010; Zeilik, 1982):
The restless universe and all ordinary matter in it appear to consist of two different forms of one fundamental particle, compacted and expanded:
Nuclear Form <=> Atomic Form
Acknowledgments This manuscript has benefited from comments by two anonymous reviewers and by members of the Yahoo discussion group on neutron repulsion. The author is deeply indebted to the kindness of Fate and the encouragement and support of family members and friends in the lifelong quest to understand the origin and operation of the solar system.
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