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Saturday, March 17, 2012

911-What was the Cause of the WTC Destruction? (4)

911-What was the Cause of the WTC Destruction?

Part 4 of 4: Did Fluorine Cause the WTC Destruction?

By Barry Ball, Barbara Ellis, and Russ Hallberg
WTC Research  Legislative Alliance

Our interest in fluorine as a possible additional theory in agents causing destruction of World Trade Centers 1, 2, and 7 on September 11, 2001, was triggered in November 2008 by Sofia Smallstorm, producer/director/narrator of the film 911 Mysteries. She suggested we read Christopher Bryson’s book The Fluoride Deception. We did and were particularly arrested by three statements about fluorine in it:
• “…[fluorine gas] can vaporize steel.
• [a] ferociously reactive elemental
[pure] gas…”
• After a tank of fluorine fell and exploded at a Manhattan Project contractor’s plant near Cleveland, one witness racing for her life turned and saw victims with “hunks of flesh just coming off them.” (1)
Smallstorm recalled that a 9/11 First Responder once told her they found portions of flesh down at Ground Zero.(2)
Added to that was the recollection of William Rodriguez, then a 20-year chief custodian of the Towers with a master key. When he told his story to a Portland audience last year, he noted that the first victim stumbling toward him after a major explosion in the B-level basement of WTC 1, had flesh hanging from his bones.(3)
Yet any kind of explosion may have the same effect, as natural gas leaks and street bombings demonstrate. But Rodriguez also piqued our interest by his recounting terrible fears of ever entering WTC 1’s 34th floor, particularly on September 11, 2001:
“As I stood there on the 33rd floor, I heard very strange noises on the 34th floor. Now, the 34th floor was an empty floor. A floor that did not have any kind of walls. It was a construction floor. It was totally hollowed out. There was nothing there…not even the elevators stopped there. You had to have a special access key to open the door on the 34th floor.
“As I went back [to his office on the 33d floor …I heard the strangest thing [on Floor 34]…heavy equipment being moved around. You know the dumpsters, when they scratch the floor, those steel dumpsters? It sounded just like that. It was the first time that I felt fear through the whole ordeal [of 9/11]. …it was a hollowed-out floor for construction! There was no walls. There was no ceiling. There was no wires. There was nothing there. It was a floor that was emptied out over eight months before. So there was nobody supposed to be there. And for me to hear that kind of sound really scared me. So much that I bypassed that floor.”(4)
However, people had been on the 34th floor for at least three months. One was the new building security chief, John P. O’Neill, formerly deputy director of the FBI who was forcibly retired, apparently after outspoken warnings of a terrorist attack in the United States.(5)
O’Neill was hired eight days before 9/11 by Kroll Associates, the equally new security company. Kroll had replaced Securacom which had held the contract since the 1993 bombing of WTC 1. Securacom’s CEO was President Bush’s cousin Wirt Walker III and Bush’s brother Marvin was on its board. Its major investor was the Kuwait-American Corporation.(6)
O’Neill was in his office on 9/11 and making cell-phone calls directly after the explosions.(7)
So were nearly 75 workmen on that 34th floor. They were part of Henegan Construction Co which was building offices for Lehman Brothers, a major world financial firm. Rodriquez might have overlooked O’Neill’s quiet arrival, but could scarcely have missed construction noise. And in his rounds on the speaker circuit, he was either unaware of the account given about events on Floor 34 by a workman or given to enhancing his lecture of being the last man out of WTC 1. According to Craig Trykowski, a Henegan employee, in the moments before 9 a.m. that day:
“…I was trying to clear the area of sheetrock and other stuff. And just as I was filling the dumpster, the whole building shook. It swayed back and forth. We saw debris flying. And then there was an explosion. I thought at first it was an earthquake. We hit the stairwell. It was a mass panic. [As they neared the 20th floor, a strong gas smell hit them.] We didn’t know what the gas smell was. I told people to put their hands over their mouths.”(8)
The Towers did have two “enormous” tanks in the basements packed with a collective 200,000 pounds of Freon® refrigerant for the World Trade Center’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. They were on separate levels, however. Freon® contains fluorine in its mix of dichlorodifluoro and methane.(9)
Initially, firefighters’ fears were not that Freon® would explode on contact with fire, but that it would turn into poison gas (chiefly phosgene). Fortunately, despite a small leak in one tank, the rest were not touched. Even so, it is unlikely that the Henegan crew and O’Neill would have noticed the replacement of Freon® for a high-yield explosive such as pure fluorine.(10)
Thus, with literature and Rodriquez’s recollections indicating fluorine might be able to vaporize concrete, steel, combustibles into dust and destroy bodies, our investigation focused on whether fluorine might have been a causal agent or part of other combined causal agents (a redundancy) involving the destruction of the three WTC skyscrapers.
What is Fluorine?
On the Periodic Tables, fluorine goes by the symbol of “F.” Its atomic number is 9. And its group is No. 17, listed with the halogens. One source provides further data about fluorine:
“Fluorine occurs naturally in the combined form as fluorite, cryolite, and apatite. Most fluorine compounds are derived from fluorite, and it is mined in the United States. Fluorine also occurs as fluorides in seawater, rivers, and mineral springs, in the stems of certain grasses, and in the bones and teeth of animals.
“It is the 17th most natural abundant element in the earth’s crust.”(11)
Other factors listed about fluorine include:
Atomic mass: 18.998 amu
Melting Point: -219.61° C (-363.30° F)
Boiling Point: -188.13° C (-306.63° F)
Density in natural state: 1.51 g/mL
Structure: 9 protons, 9 electrons, and 10 neutrons; 7 valence electrons; electronic configuration is (He) 2s2 2p5.
“There is only one isotope of fluorine that exists in nature. Data are:
Isotope Abundance Stability
19F 100% 1100%
(in pure form)” (12)
“Fluorine has a cubic crystal structure, and is a gas at room temperature. It is the most chemically active of the nonmetallic elements. It is the lightest member of the halogens. It combines directly with most elements and indirectly with nitrogen, chlorine, and oxygen.
“Nearly all compounds are decomposed by fluorine to form fluorides that are among the most stable of all chemical compounds.
“Common and important compounds involving the element are: Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride, HF or H2F2) is one of the most important fluorine compounds; Sodium Fluoride (NaF); Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6); Boron Trifluoride (BF).”(13)
Characteristics
Fluorine has a pungent odor, a “cubic crystal structure, and a greenish-yellow color. It’s corrosive to materials and humans, and is super toxic, often fatal, if inhaled. Burns to skin and eyes can result without protective clothing. If it penetrates the lungs or other moist tissues, it turns into the highly destructive hydrofluoric acid. Those working around it for long without protective clothing or gear are likely to develop osteosclerosis and calcification of ligaments, according to the Environmental Protection Agency.(14)
Stable when left alone, fluorine becomes violently explosive when mixed with other materials, notably hydrogen. One source notes that if liquid air comes in contact with fluorine “a precipitate is formed which is likely to explode.”Such was its volatility when mixed individually with at least 13 compounds—alcohols and boranes to nitroalkanes and thiols—that it earned emphasis in both David P. Mellor’s 1959 book The Role of Science and Industryand, in 1975 in Leslie Bretherik’s classic (7 editions) handbook about chemical hazards.(15)
A visual sample of its volatility upon being mixed with elements other than hydrogen and oxygen can be seen on one current YouTube film.(16)
As one writer summed up fluorine’s characteristics:
“[Fluorine] is the most reactive an electronegative of all the elements, and readily forms compounds with most other elements. Fluorine even combines with the noble gases krypton, xenon, and radon. Even in dark, cool conditions, fluorine reacts explosively with hydrogen. It is so reactive that glass, metals, and even water, as well as other substances, burn with a bright flame in a jet of fluorine gas.”(17)
So fluorine storage in metal cylinders—long- or short-term periods—would seem to present a significant challenge if moved and stored in the World Trade Center. Yet one physicist, Steven E. Jones, Ph.D. claims he found “large traces” of fluorine in his post-9/11 soil samples, emphasizing it was a marker for thermite, but also admitting it might have been Freon®.(18)
Teflon® is a byproduct of fluorine and resistant to its parent’s explosive quality. In addition, fluorine in the form of cryogenic liquid has been shipped to many destinations. Thus, if the tanks’ interiors were coated with Teflon®, short-term storage without incident may have been possible.(19)
History
Georgius Agricola is credited with being the first to describe fluorine in 1529 then used as a “fluorspar” or “flux” to fuse metals and minerals (flux). He found it was bound up with other compounds Although it had to be mined, so it was not exactly like finding a gold vein in a cave. That is why fluorine, up to World War II, required near-laboratory conditions to be separated from companion material, especially fluorite.(20)
Fluorine was corrosive, limiting its usefulness until 1670 when a man named Schwandhard found he could etch art on glass coated with acid. The fundamental dangers of working with fluorine—death by inhalation, e.g.—were such, however, that its further uses apparently were limited.(21)
It wasn’t until 1886, that the Frenchman Henri Moissan isolated fluorine from its binders for today’s uses by using electrolysis on a mixture of potassium fluoride in hydrofluoric acid; for this discovery (and the invention of the electric-arc furnace), he won the 1906 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Moissan then proceeded to provide the most complete study in that era of fluorine’s properties and reactions.(22)
Interest in fluorine’s explosive qualities grew apace.
A peer-reviewed publication—The Journal of Fluorine Chemistry—appeared in 1918 and is still published.And the International Symposium on Fluorine Chemistry has been held every fall since 1990, though stratification of fluorine’s byproducts such as fluoride are far removed from uses foreseen by Moissan.(23)
Civilian Uses
Three of fluorine’s commercial chemical uses have earned notoriety: chlorofluorocarbon, and fluoride. The first, a form of fluorochlorohydrocarbon, has been banned from the marketplace by the federal government because of its apparent relationship to increasing the ozone hole in the Earth’s atmosphere.Fluoride, heavily used in toothpaste, has come under fire because of current research relating it to dental and bone damage.(24)
If a negative view is held about nuclear energy and its waste dumps, uranium hexafluoride is still in use as a gaseous separator for fuel in nuclear power plants.(25)
The list of other fluorine-based commercial products is considerable. Among those listed by one source are:
• Atomic fluorine and molecular fluorine are used for plasma etching in semiconductor manufacturing, flat panel display production and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) fabrication[2]. Xenon difluoride is also used for this last purpose.
• Hydrofluoric acid (chemical formula HF) is used to etch glass in light bulbs and other products.
• Fluorine is indirectly used in the production of low-friction plastics such as Teflon, and in halons such as Freon®.
• Along with some of its compounds, fluorine is used in the production of pure uranium from uranium hexafluoride and in the synthesis of numerous commercial fluorochemicals, including vitally important pharmaceuticals, agrochemical compounds, lubricants, and textiles.
• Fluorochlorohydrocarbons are used extensively in air conditioning and in refrigeration.
• Sulfur hexafluoride is an extremely inert and nontoxic gas, very useful as an insulator in high-voltage electrical equipment. It doesn’t occur in nature so is a useful tracer gas, though as an exceptionally potent greenhouse gas its use in unenclosed systems is inadvisable.
• Sodium hexafluoroaluminate (cryolite), is used in the electrolysis of aluminium.
• In much higher concentrations, sodium fluoride has been used as an insecticide, especially against cockroaches.
• Fluorides have been used in the past to help molten metal flow, hence the name.
• Some researchers including US space scientists in the early 1960s have studied elemental fluorine gas as a possible rocket propellant due to its exceptionally high specific impulse. The experiments failed because fluorine proved difficult to handle, and its combustion products proved extremely toxic and corrosive.
• Polytetrafluoroethylene, also known as the non-stick Teflon surface in baking pans.
• Compounds of fluorine such as fluoropolymers, potassium fluoride and cryolite are utilized in applications such as anti-reflective coatings and dichroic mirrors on account of their unusually low refractive index.
• Many important agents for general anesthesia such as sevoflurane, desflurane, and isoflurane are hydrofluorocarbon derivatives.
• Fluconazole is a triazole antifungal drug used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections.
• Fluoroquinolones are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
• SSRI antidepressants, except in a few instances, are fluorinated molecules. These include citalopram, escitalopram oxalate, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine maleate, and paroxetine. A notable exception is sertraline. Because of the difficulty of biological systems in dealing with metabolism of fluorinated molecules, fluorinated antibiotics and antidepressants are among the major fluorinated organics found in treated city sewage and wastewater.
18F, a radioactive isotope that emits positrons, is often used in positron emission tomography, because its half-life of 110 minutes is long by the standards of positron-emitters.(26)
Military Uses
Military use of fluorine would seem to blur the lines between fluorine, atomic energy, and plasmoid gas theories, by shifting the focus from fluorine as an explosive agent in and of itself to something very different. This is not to say that fluorine gas was never considered to be a chemical explosive, for it was thoroughly investigated by the Germans in 1940 at Gottow for its incendiary capacity.(27)
Fluorine’s explosive character seems to have found an American home in the late 1930s with the Manhattan Project, the crash effort to design and detonate an atomic bomb when rumors circulated that Nazi Germany that scientists were working on nuclear-based weapons. Fluorine, in the form of hexafluoride, was used by U.S. scientists in the gaseous diffusion process of separating the two forms of uranium ore (Uranium 235, 238) to produce the atomic bombs dropped on Japan’s Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end the Pacific theater portion of WWII. That ushered in the era of nuclear weapons terrifying most of the civilized world.(28)
Yet even fluorine’s small role was perceived as a major one in the new arsenal of post-war munitions. It might explain why intensive research was soon begun on it and thermochemistry and reported in 1949 Pentagon literature and, starting in 1971, as a component of rocket propellant fuel. Too, considerable research was expended from 1957-65 to study fluoro-nitro compounds by experts in fluorine and explosives, working for California’s Aerojet-General Corporation.(29)
Guessing about fluorine’s roles appears to be a pastime of armchair observers in the civilian world. One such guess was in a February 27, 2004 Internet post and its brief thread (“Fluorine-based chemical explosives”) on the website Naked Scientists—though anyone can post anything on the Internet. With that caveat, we quote this poster:
“The question is: can fluorine atoms be used to oxidized explosives instead of oxygen atoms?
“Fluorine is commonly called ‘the strongest known oxidizer’, so it will oxidize materials even more exothermically than oxygen does. The nitro group (-NO2) is present in explosives and can fully oxidize a carbon atom. What if we replaced these nitro groups with difluoroamino groups (-NF2)? The resulting optimum explosive would detonate like this:
Explosive –> CF4 + N2 + HF
“These molecules are also highly stable and gaseous, which would cause any such explosive to be very powerful. Although twice as many NF2 groups would be needed to fully oxidize a carbon atom in the explosive, the resulting CF4 is more stable than CO2, which should give more energy than a CO2 generating explosive.
“A possible fluorine-based explosive would be didifluoroaminofluoromethane (CHN2F5). Another might be tridifluoroaminomethylamine (CH2N4F6). Although I doubt explosives like this have been synthesized, might they be possible? Would they be stable enough to be practical?” (30)
The immediate response from another poster noted that fluorine weapons have been used, but weren’t as common as nitro-based explosives because of “synthesis, environmental hazard to both personnel (and civilians…) near blast areas, stability, and cost.”(31)
There seemed to be promise that fluorine gas (or in its salt derivation fluoride) was helpful in rocket propulsion, but was ruled out and abandoned because of its “toxicity,” even though initially it “produced very impressive engine performance.”Fluorine today has applications in bio-chemical warfare, laser weapons, and in rocket technology. Fluorine by itself does not create molecular dissociation of the type noted in the dust elements found in the destruction of the two WTC towers.(32)
The most promising military use of fluorine surprisingly has been in the area of lasers.
While initially it seemed to be irrelevant to this study, because the “eximer lasers” mentioned were only small applications in lighting-tube fixtures for industrial and domestic use, fluorine weaponry experiments were conducted with in the 1960’s as a “death ray,” and then abandoned, said one of its researchers, Joseph Connaughton, because “it was too cruel.” (33)
However, those uses laid the foundation for continuing development of more lethal uses of lasers until an abrupt and official, halt—so far as he knew:
“…although this early army chemical lasers effort died at the time, theresults were a significant contribution to the Air Forces’ airborne laser and fixed installation lasers developed by the armed services…[An Army contractor’s previous] device used gaseous fluorine.”(34)
As usual, the Department of Defense merely removed laser experimentation from public view by assigning it a top-secret classification. The Pentagon vendors went on experimenting with laser beams they called “directed-energy weapons” (DEWS) and “high-energy lasers” (HELS).(35)
Glimpses of contractors’ work to the public were permitted seemingly via movies and television when officials felt earlier generations of “ray guns” gave away no military secrets about the latest laser efforts. After all, filmgoers had been seeing beam-like “ray guns” for years: Flash Gordon (1936), Buck Rogers (1939), Star Wars (1977), Real Genius (1985), Syriana (2005). Not to mention television’s super-popular StarTrek series begun in 1964 and still in re-runs. Interestingly, many script writers used the 19th century ideas of Nikola Tesla, the world-famous genius of electricity, electromagnetism—and “death rays”.(36)
One aspect Connaughton noted was that electrical energy to drive the fluorine gas was not needed in the amount originally forecast because they discovered that the chemical combinations themselves accelerated the energy needed. Seeking the right combination of chemicals became the focus in the 1990’s. It produced the hydrogen-fluoride laser, an infrared chemical laser. Said one official: “It is capable of delivering continuous output power in the megawatt range.”(37)
This development graduated to substituting pure hydrogen to its isotope deuterium, creating the deuterium-fluoride weapons: The MIRACL laser, the Pulsed Energy Projectile and Tactical High Energy Laser.Apparently, the next stage of development has been to move to atomic-driven lasers. Actually these were already beginning to be experimented with by 1977, using “atomic fluorine.”(38)
Boeing, TRW, and Lockheed Martin have put fluorine in the forefront of a new high-energy gas with atomic means.This technology now has been developed as a mobile weapon by Israeli scientists in conjunction with Northrup Grumman’s Josef Shwartz in a METHEL laser. This beam employs a steady state of deuterium-fluoride (known as DF) “to destroy targets.”(39)
As to delivery systems, the teenagers inadvertently creating a laser-armed gunship for the U.S. Air Force 24 years ago in the film Real Genius were on target, but undoubtedly far behind Boeing engineers and scientists. Boeing may well have been doing preliminary designs then for today’s pair of “flying laser cannons” that carry chemical payloads.
Prototypes are being tested now for 2013 production. Boeing’s Airborne Ballistic Laser (ABL) is filled with a mix of “potassium, peroxide, chlorine, iodine and other stuff.” It’s designed to knock down incoming missiles at supersonic speeds.(40)
Boeing’s Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) fires the same chemicals against ground-based targets five miles away from 10,000 feet with “pinpoint accuracy” to reduce civilian deaths, military reviewers were told. One writer said the ATL: “Can cook trucks, tanks, radio stations—the kind of things hit with missiles and rockets today.“(41)
The U.S. Navy also is involved with its Laser Induced Plasma Channel (LIPC) produced by the Ionatron company. Its website says LIPC is a: “short-pulse laser that can be directed at a target with ferocious intensity.”(42)
It’s noteworthy for the 9/11 movement that if the payload is plasma, the laser could turn a target into dust, as happened to WTC 1 and 2. This phenomenon was demonstrated in 1991 to U.S. Air Force officials by the Soviets demonstrated at Weimar, Germany. A German physicist who had been a researcher with the Soviet counterpart to the CIA reported they witnessed two cross-fixed infrared beams slowly transform a small solid object (a plate) to dust. The Soviets told their guests that in 1969 this technology destroyed a wall where the Ussuri river divides China from their country.(43)
The physicist intimated that a pair of infrared beams were responsible for the WTC buildings’ destruction. However, he did not say the payload included fluorine.(44)
Fluorine as a Causal Agent in WTC Destruction
Did fluorine play a role in laser beams to “oxidize” WTC 1, 2? Were DEWs used to fire huge, concentric holes from roofs to basement in WTC 5 and 6, or in exactly slicing WTC 4’s north wing from the south wing and destroying the latter?
The unclassified data on the Internet indicates the latest supposition about those effects indeed may have merit, particularly with lasers, possibly with fluorine in a chemical mix. To prove it, however, requires declassification of data—a highly unlikely prospect until generations have passed. Or in sleuths ferreting out the truth the hard way: an independent investigation by international and national experts in science and technology.
Given the holocaust-like events that followed 9/11—in Iraq and now Afghanistan—underwritten by American blood, treasure, reputation, and Constitutional violations, such a probe should be mandatory—let the chips fall where they may.
Conclusions:
1. Judy Wood, Ph.D., an engineer and a 9/11 expert, has helped define DEWS as an energy field from electrical power. Her research, while important, may have limited itself in defining what happened on 9/11. If DEWS also include linking chemical and atomic power, referred to as such in the use of fluorine in lasers, and if other sources are discovered in this (e.g., plasmoids), we may have at least two or more explanations for the twin towers destruction.
2. Much more research needs to be done on fluorine’s role, especially if these laser technologies mentioned in this report about military uses of fluorine.
3. Finally, fluorine probably plays a “supporting role” in other theories in the destruction of WTC 1,2, and 7, just as it has played in the past with the Manhattan Project in dissociating uranium from other minerals. It has to be a
“powerful role” if it is being functional in laser technology (especially possible in plasmoid technology, one can only speculate as to its possible use in creating the large, concentric holes—roofs to basements—in WTC 5 and 6 and an exact clean cut separating WTC 4’s northern wing from the rest of the structure.
Again, as in the first conclusion above, one needs to have a firm grasp on the damage any kind of state-of-the-art lasers may cause, particularly if the Pentagon is exploring atomic beams. Have Department of Defense vendors created methods to cause dissociation of molecules? Or, as the damage to the WTC suggests, have they created weapons that work in concert with other energy sources? Was the WTC a dryrun for DEWs?
Sooner or later, the truth of what happened that day in mid-September will be unmasked. Sooner is preferable.
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The three authors are founders of the Portland 911 Legislative Alliance. Barry Ball has been a Portland 911 group facilitator/activist and co-author of the 9/11 investigation bill and its presenter House members and the research director of the House Science & Technological Committee in Washington last September.
Barbara Ellis, Ph.D, is a long-time journalist (LIFE magazine, Washington, D.C. Evening Star, Beirut Daily Star) and was a technical-journalism professor (Oregon State University/Louisiana’s McNeese State University). She was a 2004 nominee for the Pulitzer Prize in history (The Moving Appeal) and, now, the principal of a writing/editing/pr firm.
Russ Hallberg is a Portland activist (impeachment/911/depleted uranium, low-level radiation studies). He says: “My history-teacher mother taught me well about false-flag operations and the 1898 sinking of the USS Maine.”


Endnotes
(1) Bryson, Christopher, The Fluoride Deception (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004), 47, 55, 60.
(2) Smallstorm, Sofia, Conversations with Barry Ball, December 17, 2008; Barry Ball, Barbara Ellis, and Russ Hallberg, Dec. 19, 2008.
(3) William Rodriquez, Statement at Berbati’s Pan, Portland OR, November 7, 2007.
(4)“Cleveland Ohio Gas Explosion,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleveland_East_Ohio_Gas_Explosion, passim. Ahmed, Ashfaq, “Human flesh scattered everywhere,” Gulf News, October 20, 2007. Rodriquez,Statement at Los Angeles 911 Conference, 2006.
(5) Wright, Lawrence, “The Counter-Terrorist,” The New Yorker, January 14, 2002; Clarke, Richard A, Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror (New York: Barnes & Noble, 2004), 14.
(6) “Who Killed John O’Neill?” http://www.libertyforlife.com/eye-openers/911/who_killed_john_oneill.htm, 1.
John P. O’Neill, SourceWatch, http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=John_P._O’Neill, 2, 3.
(7) “Suspicious Activity on the 34th Floor?”http://911stories.googlepages.com/suspiciousactivityonthe34thfloor%3F, 3.
(8) Ibid., 3-4.
(9) “A Dangerous Worksite,” U.S. Department of Labor, May 17, 2005, http://www.osha.gov/Publications/WTC/dangerous_worksite.html. “FREON 12: Composition/Information on Ingredients,” DuPont Fluoroproducts, http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:UVq3CVHHivgJ:win14.american.edu/safety/au/vault/000/000625.pdf+Freon+ingredients&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us, 1.
(10) Vincoli, Jeffrey W., Black, Norman H., and Burkhammer, Stewart C., “Disaster Response: SH&E (Bechtel Group, Inc.) at Ground Zero,” http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/wtc/analysis/asse_groundzero1.htm.
(11) Cary Academy, “What Is Fluorine?” http://web1.caryacademy.org/chemistry/rushin/StudentProjects/ElementWebSites/fluorine/fluorineinfo.htm.
(12) Ibid.
(13) Ibid.
(14) “Fluorine,” Cameo Chemicals, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, http://www.cameochemicals.noaa.gov/chemical/764.
(15) “Fluorine—History,” Global Oneness, http://www.experiencefestival.com/fluorine_-_history., 1. “Fluorine,” Cameo Chemicals, op.cite.Mellor, David Paver, The Role of Science and Industry (Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1958). Mellor’s litany of fluorine’s volatility with other materials is extensive:
•Antimony is spontaneously flammable in fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. With iodine, the reaction produces heat, which can cause flame or even an explosion if the quantities are great enough, [Mellor 9:379(1946-1947)].
•The oxides of the alkalis and alkaline earths are vigorously attacked by fluorine gas with incandescence, [Mellor 2:13(1946-1947)].
•Fluorine causes aromatic hydrocarbons and unsaturated alkanes to ignite spontaneously, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:55(1956)].
•Fluorine vigorously reacts with arsenic and arsenic trioxide at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 9:34(1946-1947)].
•Bromine mixed with fluorine at ordinary temperatures yields bromine trifluoride, with a luminous flame, [Mellor 2:12(1946-1947)].
•Calcium silicide burns readily in fluorine, [Mellor 6:663(1946-1947)].
•The carbonates of sodium, lithium, calcium, and lead in contact with fluorine are decomposed at ordinary temperatures with incandescence, [Mellor 2:13(1946-1947)].
•A mixture of fluorine and carbon disulfide ignites at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 2:13(1946-1947)].
•The reaction between fluorine and carbon tetrachloride is violent and sometimes explosive, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1, 198(1956)].
•The uncontrolled reaction between fluorine and chlorine dioxide is explosive, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1, 532(1956)].
• Fluorine and silver cyanide react with explosive violence at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:63(1956)].
• Fluorine and sodium acetate produce an explosive reaction involving the formation of diacetyl peroxide, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:56(1956)].
• Selenium, silicon, or sulfur ignites in fluorine gas at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 2:11-13(1946-1947)].
•Each bubble of sulfur dioxide gas led into a container of fluorine produces an explosion, [Mellor 2:1(1946-1947)].
•Fluorine and thallous chloride react violently, melting the product, [Mellor, Supp. 1:63(1956)].
Bretherik, Leslie, Bretherik’s Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards, 2nd, (Oxford UK: Academic Press, 1979) 174.
(16)http://www.experiencefestival.com/forum/vBTube.php?do=search&search=Fluorine&page=1&per_page=24.
(17) “Fluorine—History,” Global Oneness, op. cite, 2.
(18) “Fluorine at the WTC,” 911 Myths…Reading between the lies, http://www.911myths.com/html/fluorine_at_the_wtc.html. In April 2009, an article by Steven Jones and colleagues, now claiming nano-thermite traces were found, appeared in a pay-to-publish online peer-journal mill, one of 92 publications issued by Bentham Science Publishers (“Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe,” The Open Chemical Physical Journal, Vol. 2, http://www.bentham.org/open/tocpj/openaccess2.htm, 7-31).
(19) “Fluorine,” http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761567459/fluorine.htm, 2.
(20)“Fluorine,” Cameo Chemicals, 1. “Fluorine History,” Global Oneness, op. cite, 1-2.
(21)Ibid.
(22)“Moissan, (Ferdinand-Frederic-) Henry,” Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed. , Vol. 6 (Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1979), 971.
(23)www.turpion.org/php/reference.phtml?journal_id=rc&paper_id= 2192&volume=46&issue=11&type=xrf.
The 19th symposium is scheduled for August 23-28, 2009 in Jackson Hole, Wy., http://www.chm.colostate.edu/shs/General_Conference_Information.htm.
(24) “Encyclopedia > Fluorine,” NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Fluorine, 3. The Gale Group, “Ozone hole reemerges above the Antarctic,” TheFreeLibrary, October 14, 1995, http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Ozone+hole+reemerges+above+the+Antarctic.-a017466940, 1. Bryson, passim.
(25) “Fluorine,” Encarta, op. cite, 2.
(26) “Fluorine,” NationMaster Encyclopedia, 3-4.
(27) Meiers, Peter, “Fluoride History,” December 6, 2008, http://www.fluoride-history.de/literature.htm, passim.
(28)Gosling, F.G.,The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb (DOE/MA-0001; Washington: History Division, Department of Energy, January 1999), 3-10, 15-66.
(29) Luft, N. W., Wiseman, L.A., Skinner, H.A., and Springall, H.D., “A Note on the Thermochemistry of Fluorine and Its Compounds,” Report No. A010474, Ministry of Supply, London (United Kingdom Directorate of Materials and Explosives Research and Development, June 1949, http://www.stormingmedia.us/1/0104/A010474.html?searchTerms=fluorine, 1. Baum, Kurt, “Research in Fluoro-nitro Compounds, 1957-65,” Storming Media, http://stormingmedia.us/authors/BAUM_K_.html, 1-5. Interestingly, the lead researcher and his constant cohort at A-G C in Azusa were Kurt Baum and Vytautas Grakauskas, both considered expert enough in fluorine and explosives to be cited in a recent book on chemical explosives [Agrawal, Jai Prakash and Hodgson, Robert Dale, Organic Chemistry of Explosives (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2006)].
(30) “Fluorine-based chemical explosives,” The Naked Scientists Forum, February 27, 2004,http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?PHPSESSID=83801fb190b301427fbdfe2fdf086afa&action=printpage;topic=692.0, 1-2.
(31)Ibid., 2.
(32)Braeunig, Robert A., Ed. “Rocket Propellants,” Rocket and Space Technology, 2008,http://www.braeunig.us/space/propel.htm, 2. Wheeler, Michael D., “Spectroscopy Reveals Fluorine’s Role in Rocket Propellant,” Photonics.com., April 1, 2000, http://www.photonics.com/printerFriendly.aspx?ArticleID=5998&Publication=5. Goliath Companies, http://www.ecnet.com. Wood, Judy D., “Molecular Dissociation: from Dust to Dirt,” July 10, 2007, http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/dirt4.html, passim.
(33) Connaughton, Joseph, “The First Laser Gun Was Considered Too Cruel to Use,” Strategy Page, September 30, 2008, http://www.strategypage.com/dls/articles/2008930224134.asp, 2-3.
(34) Connaughton, 3, 1.
(35) Souder, J. K. and Langille, D. B., “How Directed Energy Benefits the Army,” Storming Media, No. A903334, December 2004, http://www.stormingmedia.us/90/9033/A903334.html, 1.
(36) “Rayguns,” Wikipedia, March 7, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ray_gun, passim. Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) invented the alternating current (AC) form of electricity that changed the energy sources of the industrial world. He also worked in electromagneticism, introduced theories of terrestrial stationary waves, and theorized a death ray that “could destroy 10,000 planes 250 miles away,” foreshadowing the Boeing laser beam (Hunt, Inez Whitaker, “Tesla, Nikola,” Encyclopaedia BritannicaMacropaedia, 15th Ed. [Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1979], Vol. 18, 161-62).
(37) Connaughton, 1. “Hydrogen fluoride laser,” Wikipedia, February 3, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_fluoride_laser, passim.
(38)Ibid. Webb, Dave, “Star Wars-The Next Generation: The Space Based Laser,” Scientists for Global Responsibility, July 23, 2001, http://www.sgr.org.uk/ArmsControl/StarWarsNG_NL23.htm, 3.
(39)Ibid., 4-5. Ackerman, Robert K., “Mobile Laser Offers Tactical Defense,” Signal Online, ND, http://www.afcea.org/signal/articles/anmviewer.asp?a=94&print=yes, 1-4.
(40) Layer 8, “Boeing’s 12,000lb chemical laser set to fry targets from aircraft,” NetworkWorld.com, December 12, 2007, http://www.networkworld.com/community/print/22975, 1.
(41) Adams, Eric, “How It Works: The Flying Laser Cannon,” Popular Science, March 13, 2008, http://www.popsci.com/military-aviation-space/article/2008-03/how-it-works-airborne-laser-cannon?page=, 1-2.
(42)Ibid., 2.
(43) Bollyn, Christopher, “Laser Beam Weapons and the Collapse of the World Trade Center,”American Free Press, February 14, 2002, http://www.serendipity.li/wot/bollyn1.htm, 3, 4.
(44)Ibid.

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