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Thursday, August 2, 2012

Charles T. Tart-On Being Stoned-A Psychological Study of Marijuana Intoxication (D)


Chapter 27.    Age, Sex, and Educational Level


AGE

    BECAUSE MOST RESPONDENTS were young, only two age ranges could be used for analysis purposes, namely, those younger than 25 (72 percent of the sample) and those 25 or older (28 percent of the sample).
    Overall, the age variable was not particularly significant. Twenty-three analyses were significant at the .05 level, where about 19 would be expected by chance; and 5 were significant at the .01 level, when 4 would be expected by chance. None were significant at the .001 level. This may result from the restricted range. Thus many of the differences summarized below are probably artifactual. These differences must be regarded primarily as possible guides to further research, rather than as solid findings.
    Table 27-1 summarizes significant differences in frequency of occurrence of 18 various effects, and Table 27-2 summarizes 10 significant differences in minimal level of intoxication. General frequency of occurrence data is also presented in the usual type style code.

MALE AND FEMALE

    Forty-nine percent of the respondents were males, 27 percent were females. The rest could not be classified because of a clerical error that omitted the sex blank on some of the questionnaires.
    Overall, the sex variable was not very significant. Twenty-five analyses were significant at the .05 level when about 19 would be expected by chance, and only one was significant at the .01 level, when about four would be expected by chance. The differences summarized in Table 27-3 and 27-4 should be taken only as guidelines for further research.
    Overall frequencies of occurrence are coded in the tables by the usual type style convention.

EDUCATIONAL LEVEL

    Seventy-two percent of the users were in college or had a bachelor's degree of some sort. Twenty-one percent were in graduate school or had advanced degrees (M.A., M.S., M.D., Ed.D., or Ph.D.). These are the College-educated and the Professional groups, respectively, in our analysis. Seven percent of the users were in various educational level groups too small to be analyzable.
    Educational level was a significant background variable. Thirty-four analyses were significant at the .05 level instead of the 19 expected by chance, and 11 at the .01 level, rather than the four expected by chance Thus many of the differences summarized in the following two tables are potentially replicable findings as well as guides to research.
    Tables 27-5 and 27-6 summarize significant differences in frequency of occurrence and minimal level of intoxication, respectively. General frequency of occurrence data is preserved in the type style code.
    Although it is risky to comment on the overall patterning of results when a fair number of them may be due to chance, there is a general pattern of the College-educated having more sensory enhancement types of experiences.

TABLE 27-1
AGE AND FREQUENCY OF VARIOUS INTOXICATION EFFECTS
CATEGORYINTOXICATION EFFECTSIGNIFICANCE
LEVEL

Older users (25+) more frequently experience:
    HearingAUDITORY IMAGERY MORE VIVID.05
    SocialOTHERS HAVEN'T NOTICED I’M STONED.01
    Aftereffects    HARD TO GET ORGANIZED NEXT DAY.05
Older users (25+) less frequently experience:
    VisionAURAS AROUND OBJECTS.05
   THINGS IN PERIPHERY LOOK DIFFERENT.05
   HALLUCINATIONS.01
    HearingQUALITY OF OWN VOICE CHANGES.05
    Paranormal[a]OOBE's after starting to use marijuana.05
    BodyBODY SEEMS VERY HEAVY.05
   PAIN MORE INTENSE IF CONCENTRATED ON.01
   GET PHYSICALLY RESTLESS.05
    ThoughtABSORBED, ATTENTION MUST BE FORCIBLY GOTTEN.05
    MemorySPONTANEOUSLY RECALL THINGS LONG FORGOTTEN.05
   REMEMBER LESS OF WHAT IS READ.01
    EmotionFEEL EMOTIONS MORE STRONGLY.05
    ControlEASILY SIDETRACKED ON TASKS.05
   COMPULSIVE DESIRE TO GET HIGHER.05
   POOR CONTROL OVER FANTASIES.05
    MiscellaneousFEEL WORLD IS IN BAD SHAPE.05

[a]Not coded as to frequency of occurrence by type style. (See Chapter 10.)


TABLE 27-2
AGE AND LEVELS OF INTOXICATION FOR VARIOUS EFFECTS
CATEGORYINTOXICATION EFFECTSIGNIFICANCE
LEVEL

Older users (25+) must be more intoxicated to experience:
    BodyPAIN MORE INTENSIVE IF CONCENTRATED ON.05
    ControlCOMPULSIVE DESIRE TO GET HIGHER.05
Older users (25+) need be less intoxicated to experience:
    BodyLOSE AWARENESS OF BODY UNLESS STRONG
    STIMULUS DEMANDS ATTENTION
.05
   LOSE CONSCIOUSNESS OF BODY, FLOAT IN LIMITLESS SPACE.05
   SENSE OF BALANCE ERRATIC.05
    ThoughtProlonged blank periods.01
    MemoryWORSE LONG-TERM MEMORY.05
    ControlINHIBITIONS LOWERED.05
    IdentityMERGE WITH CONTEMPLATED OBJECT OR PERSON.05



TABLE 27-3
SEX AND FREQUENCY OF VARIOUS INTOXICATION EFFECTS
CATEGORYINTOXICATION EFFECTSIGNIFICANCE
LEVEL

Males more frequently experience:
    Paranormal[a]Multiple OOBE's.05
    BodyBODY GETS NUMB.05
    SocialSTRONGLY INFLUENCED BY COMPANIONS.05
    ControlCAN COME DOWN AT WILL.05
Females more frequently experience:
    VisionVISION BLURRY.05
    TouchOBJECTS SEEM HEAVIER.05
    Paranormal[a]OOBE's per se.05
    Space/TimeTIME PASSES RAPIDLY.05
   TIME STOPS.05
    BodyAWARE OF HEART BEATING.05
   MOVEMENTS EXCEPTIONALLY SMOOTH AND COORDINATED.05
   SENSE OF BALANCE ERRATIC.05
    ThoughtProlonged blank periods.05
   SKIP INTERMEDIATE STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING.05
    MemoryGOOD MEMORY FOR PERIODS OF INTOXICATION.05
    EmotionGIGGLE A LOT.05
    ControlBody parts move by themselves.05
   CAN'T COME DOWN AT WILL.05
    IdentityMORE CHILDLIKE, OPEN TO EXPERIENCE.05

[a]Not coded as to frequency of occurrence by type style. (See Chapter 10.)


TABLE 27-4
SEX AND LEVELS OF INTOXICATION FOR VARIOUS EFFECTS
CATEGORYINTOXICATION EFFECTSIGNIFICANCE
LEVEL

Males must be more intoxicated to experience:
    HearingSYNESTHESIA.05
   MORE AWARE OF INTERNAL ORGANS.05
    BodyBODY GETS NUMB.01
   BODY FEELS SMALLER.05
    MemoryFORGET START OF SENTENCE.05
    IdentityEVENTS BECOME ARCHETYPAL.05
Females must be more intoxicated to experience:
    ControlCAN COME DOWN AT WILL.05



TABLE 27-5
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND FREQUENCY OF VARIOUS
INTOXICATION EFFECTS
CATEGORYINTOXICATION EFFECTSIGNIFICANCE
LEVEL

Professionals more frequently experience:
    ControlCAN COME DOWN AT WILL.01
College-educated more frequently experience:
    VisionSENSUAL QUALITY TO VISION.05
   PATTERNS IN VISUALLY AMBIGUOUS MATERIAL.05
    TouchSURFACES FEEL ROUGH, INTERESTING.01
   NEW QUALITIES TO TEMPERATURE.01
    BodyHYPERAWARE OF BREATHING.05
   BODY FEELS LIGHT.01
   PAIN MORE INTENSE IF CONCENTRATED ON.05
   BODY FEELS SMALLER.05
   PHYSICALLY RESTLESS.01
    SocialHARD TO PLAY ORDINARY SOCIAL GAMES.05
    SexCLOSER TO SEXUAL PARTNER, UNION OF SOULS.05
   NEW QUALITIES TO ORGASM.01
    ThoughtABSORBED, ATTENTION MUST BE GOTTEN FORCIBLY.01
   LOSE MENTAL TRACK OF TASK BUT FINISH IT ANYWAY.05
    MemoryWORSENED LONG-TERM MEMORY.05
   GOOD MEMORY FOR PERIODS OF INTOXICATION.05
    ControlEASILY SIDETRACKED.05
   COMPULSIVE DESIRE TO GET HIGHER.05
   POOR FANTASY CONTROL.05
   GOOD FANTASY CONTROL.05
    SpiritualIN TOUCH WITH A HIGHER POWER.05
    MiscellaneousWORLD SEEMS IN PRETTY BAD SHAPE.05
   MORE INVOLVED IN ORDINARY TASKS.01
   INNER FANTASIES AS REAL AS NOCTURNAL DREAMS.05



TABLE 27-6
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND LEVELS OF INTOXICATION
FOR VARIOUS EFFECTS
CATEGORYINTOXICATION EFFECTSIGNIFICANCE
LEVEL

Professionals need to be more intoxicated to experience:
    VisionColors get duller.05
    TouchOBJECTS SEEM MORE MASSIVE.05
    Space/TimeAIR, SPACE TAKES ON SOLID QUALITY.05
    BodyMOVEMENTS AWKWARD, UNCOORDINATED.05
    MiscellaneousSOME INNER TRIPS SEEM COMPLETELY REAL.05
College-educated need to be more intoxicated to experience:
    HearingSPACE BECOMES AN AUDITORY SPACE.05
    TouchSURFACES FEEL SMOOTHER, SILKIER.05
   SURFACES FEEL ROUGH, INTERESTING.01
    Space/TimeDISTANCES SEEM SHORTER.05
    BodyLOCATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS CHANGES.01
   AWARE OF HEARTBEAT.05
    SocialTALK MORE.05
    SexNeed sex less.05
   BETTER LOVER WHEN STONED.05
    ThoughtProlonged blank periods.05
    MemoryCONVERSE INTELLIGENTLY DESPITE FORGETTING
    START OF WHAT I SAID
.05
    ControlEASILY SIDETRACKED.05
    SleepEASY TO GO TO SLEEP AT BEDTIME.05
    AftereffectsHARD TO GET ORGANIZED NEXT DAY.05
    IdentityMERGE WITH OBJECT OR PERSON CONTEMPLATED.05



Chapter 28.    Alcohol and Marijuana



    THE 150 USERS had been drinking alcohol longer than they had used marijuana, but for the six months preceding their filling out the questionnaire, they had been using marijuana with greater frequency. Given a free choice, 43 percent would never use alcohol, and 37 percent would use alcohol in preference to marijuana less than a quarter of the time (see Chapter 4).
    To the question, "Could you compare the effects of alcohol and marijuana on yourself? When do you prefer to use the one, when the other?" eighty-three percent of the users volunteered answers, from very short ones ("Alcohol makes my mind fuzzy, and I prefer not to use it anymore") to long and detailed comparisons. I shall report the major comparisons in several categories, giving a ratio in each case (M/A) where the first number is the number of users mentioning the effect for marijuana and the second the number mentioning it for alcohol.

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS

Sensory and Bodily Effects

    Alcohol was more frequently reported to worsen sensory perception and appreciation (0/29), produce unpleasant physical sensations such as nausea (2/19), and have negative aftereffects (0/27). Marijuana was more frequently reported as enhancing sensory perception (27/3). Effects mentioned with about equal frequency were pleasant physical sensations (4/4), relaxed or sleepy feelings (17/20), or energetic feelings (5/6).

Interpersonal Relations

    Alcohol was reported to more frequently induce chatter and laughter in groups (1/7), as well as boisterous aggression and violence (0/9) and childishness (1/15). Group effects mentioned with about equal frequency for marijuana and alcohol were extroversion (9/12), serious conversation (2/1), and enhanced sexual desire (6/5).

Cognitive Effects

    Marijuana was reported to improve cognitive processes (31/1), and lead to personal and spiritual insights ( 17/0), while alcohol was reported to worsen cognitive processes (2/11).

Emotional Effects

    Marijuana and alcohol were mentioned as inducing pleasant emotions equally frequently (16/15), and unpleasant emotions equally frequently (3/4).

Control

    Marijuana was generally praised because the user did not lose control of himself and could "sober up" immediately if necessary (9/1).

Situations

    The users indicated that alcohol was best used in large or impersonal groups as a social lubricant (3/25), but that marijuana was best for getting intoxicated alone or in small, intimate groups (14/4).

Legal Consequences

    Concern with being arrested was mentioned as an effect of marijuana intoxication but not for alcohol (9/1).

OTHER DATA

    Several years before the present study, with the aid of Carl Klein, I carried out a survey of the incidence of marijuana use at a West Coast university. Many of the users of the present study were later obtained from the same university. These students were asked, in the questionnaire of the earlier study, to describe the major effects of alcohol and marijuana on themselves. As they were rustled for time, most of them gave very brief answers. Comparisons of qualities reported for alcohol and marijuana in that (unpublished) study are summarized in Table 28-1. The table summarizes answers from 150 students who had used alcohol, 86 of whom also had used marijuana at least once.
    These older data are generally consistent with the present data.

SUMMARY

    People who have used both alcohol and marijuana to intoxicate themselves perceive the effects as different in a number of ways.
    Marijuana is preferred for becoming intoxicated alone or in small intimate groups, and reportedly leads to enhancement of sensation, pleasant physical sensations, both improved and worsened interpersonal relations, improved cognitive processes, personal and spiritual insights, and fears about being arrested more frequently than for alcohol.
    Alcohol is preferred for large and impersonal group situations and reportedly leads to worsened sensory perception, unpleasant physical sensations, childishness and lowering of inhibitions, violence, worsened cognitive processes, and more unpleasant aftereffects than marijuana.
    Users generally choose marijuana if given a free choice and/or tend to restrict their use of alcohol to small amounts.

TABLE 28-1
COMPARISON OF ALCOHOL AND MARIJUANA INTOXICATION
Tart-Klein Study, 1968
EFFECTALCOHOLMARIJUANASIGNIFICANCE OF
DIFFERENCE[a]

Sensory & Bodily Effects:
    Sensory enhancement1%35%.001
    Sensory worsening13%0%.001
    Pleasant physical sensations2%8%.05
    Unpleasant physical sensations13%7%NS
Interpersonal Relations:
    Improved3%9%.05
    Worsened1%10%.01
    Inhibitions lowered15%2%.01
Cognitive Effects:
    Improved cognitive processes2%21%.001
    Worsened cognitive processes10%5%NS
    Personal insights1%8%.01
    Spiritual experiences0%2%NS
Emotional Effects:
    Pleasant mood18%31%NS
    Unpleasant mood5%13%NS
    Fear of being arrested0%6%.01

Note.—The percentages in this table do not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding errors and/or some users skipping the question.
[a] Because of the brief answers given in this earlier study, the figures in the various categories represent one answer per student
and were therefore amenable to statistical tests of the significance of the differences.


Chapter 29.    More Powerful Psychedelics (LSD) and Marijuana



    MANY USERS of both marijuana and the more powerful psychedelic drugs such as LSD believe that the drugs are qualitatively different. Others believe that all or some of the effects from marijuana can also be experienced with the more powerful psychedelics along with many other effects, which cannot be experienced with marijuana.
    This chapter provides some data on similarities and differences between marijuana intoxication effects and those of more powerful psychedelics.
    The instructions for the questionnaire (Chapter 3) explained that:
... There is one other category on the "How Stoned" scale marked "LSD." You are to circle this category only if you have experienced that effect after having taken one of the very powerful psychedelic drugs like LSD, DMT, DET, mescaline, peyote, psilocybin, or STP. Thus there will probably be a number of things described that you've never experienced with pot but have with one of the more powerful psychedelics (if you've had one of the more powerful psychedelics).

    Seventy-two percent of the sample (108 users) had used more powerful psychedelics at least once, and of this group, 54 were classified as heavy psychedelic users in that they had used one or more of the more powerful psychedelic drugs at least half a dozen times. This heavy psychedelic use group may be presumed to have had reasonable opportunity to experience a variety of effects with the more powerful psychedelics. The percentage of them experiencing the various effects while intoxicated with the more powerful psychedelics provides some interesting data to compare with the marijuana data.
    Note that these data cannot be more than suggestive, for two reasons. First, the measure of percentage of users experiencing something at all for the more powerful psychedelics is not the same as the frequency of occurrence ratings of the same effects for marijuana. Second, Users of Psychedelics differed from Non-users on frequency of occurrence on marijuana for many items (Chapter 25), so there is a lack of statistical independence between the measures.[1] Nevertheless, a look at what effects are frequent for the more powerful psychedelics while infrequent for marijuana, and vise versa, is of considerable interest.
    Complete data of this sort of users of psychedelics per se as well as the heavy users of psychedelics are presented in Appendix l. Here we shall deal only with the heavy psychedelic user group.
    Table 29-1 lists the common and characteristic effects of marijuana intoxication, which are not frequent for more powerful psychedelics in that less than 10 percent of the heavy psychedelic user group reports them as having been experienced while intoxicated on the more powerful drugs.
    Many of these effects may not be frequent with the more powerful psychedelics because the user intoxicated on them avoids many ordinary situations and tasks that seem too trite or too difficult for his state of consciousness. Eating, going to parties, working on tasks, seem a waste of time to many users; if they are intoxicated with LSD, they are too involved in feelings of profound insights and the like to waste time on such things.
    The difficulties with sleep probably are due to the much longer lasting effects of most of the more powerful psychedelics, so the user is still experiencing many drug effects at his usual bedtime, which prevent him from sleeping well.
    Table 29-2 presents 25 effects, which at least 20 percent of the Heavy user group have experienced with more powerful psychedelics, hut which are infrequent or rare effects for marijuana intoxication. These include a variety of more exotic effects, such as telepathy, hallucinations, and feelings of contact with a Higher Power, as well as several effects reflecting concern about control.

TABLE 29-1
COMMON AND CHARACTERISTIC EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA INTOXICATION
NOT FREQUENT WITH MORE POWERFUL PSYCHEDELICS
INTOXICATION EFFECTPERCENTAGE OF USERS
EXPERIENCING THIS WITH
MORE POWERFUL
PSYCHEDELICS

CONVERSE INTELLIGENTLY DESPITE FORGETTING (Q155)9%
FINISH PHYSICAL TASK EVEN THOUGH LOSE TRACK
    OF IT MENTALLY Q130)
9%
PAIN MORE INTENSE IF CONCENTRATED ON (Q89)9%
ENJOY EATING AND EAT A LOT (Q44)9%
GET MORE INVOLVED IN ORDINARY TASKS (Q217)7%
DREAMS MORE VIVID (Q201)7%
GOOD MEMORY FOR PERIODS OF INTOXICATION (Q158)7%
PLAY VERY ELABORATE GAMES WITH OTHERS (Q147)7%
LESS NOISY AT PARTIES THAN WHEN STRAIGHT
    (Q109)
7%
VIVID VISUAL IMAGERY WITH READING (Q22)6%
EASY TO GO TO SLEEP AT BEDTIME (Q197)6%
WORK LESS ACCURATELY BY LATER EVALUATION (Q144)6%
OBJECTS SEEM HEAVIER (Q35)6%
RECALL LESS OF MATERIAL READ (Q21)6%
SLEEP PARTICULARLY REFRESHING (Q199)4%
EARLY EVENING DROWSINESS (Q198)4%
EXTRA ENERGY, ABSORPTION IN TASKS (Q179)4%
HIGHER PEOPLE GET ME HIGHER (Q121)4%
LESS NOISY AT PARTIES THAN WHEN DRUNK (Q110)4%
CRAVE SWEET THINGS TO EAT (Q46)4%
VIVID TASTE IMAGERY (Q45)2%


TABLE 29-2
EFFECTS FAIRLY FREQUENT WITH MORE POWERFUL PSYCHEDELICS
BUT INFREQUENT OR RARE WITH MARIJUANA
INTOXICATION EFFECTPERCENTAGE OF USERS
EXPERIENCING THIS WITH
MORE POWERFUL
PSYCHEDELICS

PULSING OF VISION (Q17)56%
FACE OF ANOTHER CHANGES AS WATCHED (Q16)52%
VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS (Q23)48%
LOSE TOUCH WITH BODY, FLOAT IN LIMITLESS SPACE (Q93)46%
CAN T COME DOWN AT WILL (Q205)43%
DIFFICULT TO GET TO SLEEP (Q196)41%
AURAS AROUND PEOPLE (Q6)41%
ACT DIFFERENTLY ACCORDING TO OTHERS (Q211)39%
AURAS AROUND OBJECTS (Q7)39%
FEEL IN TOUCH WITH A HIGHER POWER (Q211)37%
MERGE WITH OBJECT OR PERSON CONTEMPLATED (Q186)37%
AWARE OF INTERNAL ORGANS NORMALLY UNAWARE OF
    (Q75)
30%
Feel dizzy, nauseated (Q74)30%
FELT SHAPE DOESN T CORRESPOND TO ACTUAL BODY (Q69)30%
VISUAL JIGGLE (Q15)30%
POOR CONTROL OF FANTASIES (Q177)26%
Worry about losing control (Q171)26%
Sleep following intoxication poor, restless (Q200)24%
TELEPATHY (Q65)24%
PERSONALITY CHANGES A LOT TEMPORARILY (Q185)22%
Prolonged blank periods (Q132)20%
MUSCLES DEVELOP VISUALLY OBSERVABLE TREMORS (Q86)20%
AWARE OF INTERNAL ORGANS WHEN DEFECATING (Q78)20%
BODY NUMB (Q76)20%
SPACE, AIR SOLID, "FILLED" (Q56)20%

Footnotes

    [1]This relation would seem practically impossible to avoid as it would be difficult to find people with much experience with more powerful psychedelics and little with marijuana.


Chapter 30.    Factor Analysis: Dimensions of Intoxication



    ALL THE DATA on marijuana intoxication presented so far have been based on how experienced users describe their experiences; i.e., it is primarily descriptive. One naturally wonders if there are more basic dimensions of the intoxication experience that could account for the many different specific effects, that would reduce many effects to a smaller, more basic number.
    Factor analysis is a statistical technique that begins to answer such questions. All the different items of information are correlated with each other; a factor analysis then ascertains whether some sets of items form natural groupings that might represent more basic dimensions.
    The data format of the present study is not well suited to factor analysis; the five-point frequency scale is rather limited, is not normally distributed, and does not constitute an interval or ratio scale. Thus the data given below are the weakest of the present study and are presented only for the sake of completeness and the guidance of other investigators.
    In order to reduce the number of items to a level the computerized factor analysis program of the University of California at Berkeley's Computer Center could handle, every other item, starting with Q1, was selected. This included two items (Q67 and Q167) that were not answered in the same form as the others and so are not considered in interpreting the factors. Thus the analysis is based on 104 frequency of occurrence items.

RESULTS

    The principal components analysis revealed one main factor (Eigenvalues for the first twelve factors were 13.953, 4.842, 3.956, 3.489, 3.191, 2.927, 2.758, 2.673, 2.443, 2.377, 2.255, and 2.171). Items loading .400 or greater on this first factor are presented in Table 30-1. The usual type-style code for overall frequency of occurrence is used. AS principal component rotations are primarily of mathematical rather than psychological interest, no interpretation of this factor will be made.
    A Varimax rotation for 12 factors revealed one small-sized factor and eleven others that were not too much smaller. The proportion of the total communality accounted for by each factor was .078, .048, .044, .035, .033, .032, .031, .030, .028, .028, and .025. Each factor is described in Table 30-2.
    Factor I seems to consist mainly of feelings of competence, perceptiveness, and intuitive-archetypal approaches to the environment. We might call it "Being High," as it fits many descriptions by users of the virtues of marijuana intoxication.
    Factor II reflects enhancement of touch, taste, and smell sensations and imagery. It has been tentatively called "Enhancement of Nondominant Senses," as these senses generally play a minor role compared to vision and hearing in most of our transactions with the world. One could also consider these as close-up or "intimate" senses, as contrasted with the functioning of vision and hearing at much greater distances.
    Factor III deals primarily with increased awareness of various internal processes, such as body tensions, dreams, feelings of the location of consciousness, and thoughts. It has tentatively been named "Enhanced Internal Awareness."
    Factor IV consists of items describing increased absorption in internal processes and a (consequent) loss of contact with the external world. It has tentatively been called "Internalization of Awareness."
    Factor V does not Seem to have a common theme, and Factor VI has only three items loading heavily enough to define it. It seems to represent unpleasant, dysphoric effects. Factor VII seems to represent perceptual instability in the visual system.
    Factor VIII does not show any clear pattern, unless it he memory decrement. Factor IX also seems to represent memory decrement, although it is defined by only two items. The remaining three factors that were analyzed for in the Varimax rotation show no particular patterns that can readily be named.

TABLE 30-1
FIRST FACTOR, PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS
LOADING    Q#   BRIEF DESCRIPTION

.613191EVENTS BECOME ARCHETYPAL
.612111SAY MORE PROFOUND THINGS
.610141MIND FEELS MORE EFFICIENT IN PROBLEM SOLVING
.58715VISUAL JIGGLE
.582133SKIP INTERMEDIATE STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING
.56365TELEPATHY
.560151BETTER LONG-TERM MEMORY
.538113INSIGHTS INTO OTHERS
.5273SENSUAL QUALITY TO VISION
.52649Different smell components at different locations
.51945VIVID TASTE IMAGERY
.51437VIVID TACTUAL IMAGERY
.514147PLAY ELABORATE GAMES
.506139SPONTANEOUS INSIGHTS INTO SELF
.49895FEEL STRONGER
.48617PULSING OF VISION
.484163MORE AWARE OF BODILY COMPONENTS OF EMOTION
.471143WORK MORE ACCURATELY ON PROBLEMS
.486145IDEAS MORE ORIGINAL
.46789PAIN MORE INTENSE IF CONCENTRATED ON
.46213PATTERNS, MEANING IN AMBIGUOUS VISUAL MATERIAL
.459149THOUGHT MORE INTUITIVE
.45963DEJA VU
.45947NEW QUALITIES TO SMELL
.45285VIBRATION IN BODY THAT IS NOT MUSCLE TREMOR
.445125CLOSER CONTACT WITH PARTNER IN MAKING LOVE
.444135NEW SIGNIFICANCE TO COMMONPLACE CONVERSATIONS
.43891BODY FEELS SMALLER
.431216SYNESTHESIA
.424218INNER VISIONS AS REAL AS NOCTURNAL DREAMS
.421189AT ONE WITH WORLD
.404193MEDIIATE MORE EFFECTIVELY
.40227AUDITORY IMAGES MORE VIVID


TABLE 30-2
VARIMAX ROTATION FACTORS
LOADING    Q#   BRIEF DESCRIPTION

Factor I. "Being High"
.698191EVENTS BECOME ARCHETYPAL
.682111SAY MORE PROFOUND THINGS
.599113INSIGHTS INTO OTHERS
.592151BETTER LONG-TERM MEMORY
.553141MIND FEELS MORE EFFICIENT IN PROBLEM SOLVING
.547115MORE SOCIABLE
.526147PLAY ELABORATE GAMES
.520189AT ONE WITH WORLD
.511135NEW SIGNIFICANCE TO COMMONPLACE CONVERSATIONS
.489143WORK MORE ACCURATELY ON PROBLEMS
.487117TALK MORE
.48395FEEL STRONGER
.482133SKIP INTERMEDIATE STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING
.481145IDEAS MORE ORIGINAL
.440127BETTER LOVER THAN WHEN STRAIGHT
.430163MORE AWARE OF BODILY COMPONENTS OF EMOTION
.42465TELEPATHY
.411125CLOSER CONTACT WITH PARTNER IN MAKING LOVE
.40127AUDITORY IMAGES MORE VIVID
.400161FEEL EMOTIONS MORE STRONGLY
 
Factor II. "Enhancement of Non-dominant Senses"
.70731NEW QUALITIES TO TOUCH
.64933SURFACES FEEL SMOOTHER, SILKIER
.59947NEW QUALITIES TO SMELL
.53937VIVID TACTUAL IMAGERY
.55345VIVID TASTE IMAGERY
.43249Different smell components at different locations
.43039NEW QUALITIES TO TASTE
 
Factor III. "Enhanced Internal Awareness"
.552193MEDITAIE MORE EFFECTIVELY
.534183LOSE CONTROL OVER THOUGHTS
.469197EASY TO GO TO SLEEP AT BEDTIME
.44875MORE AWARE OF INTERNAL ORGANS GENERALLY
.448201DREAMS MORE VIVID
.444163MORE AWARE OF BODILY COMPONENTS OF EMOTION
.435216SYNESTHESIA
.41977LOCATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN BODY CHANGES
 
Factor IV. "internalization of Awareness"
.543129ABSORBED, ATTENTION MVST BE FORCIBLY GOTTEN
.52155SO ABSORBED IN THOUGHT NEED TO REORIENT AFTERWARDS
.49193LOSE TOUCH WITH BODY, FLOAT IN LIMITLESS SPACE
.46289PAIN MORE INTENSE IF CONCENTRATED ON
.43773VERY AWARE OF BREATHING
.429123Less need for sex
.41623VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS
 
Factor V. No common theme apparent
.673171Worry about losing control
.579208SOME INNER TRIPS SEEM REAL, EVEN THOUGH THEY
    COULDN'T BE REAL
.544137ACCEPT CONTRADICTIONS MORE READILY
.48761EVENTS FLOW MORE SMOOTHLY
.468165INVARIABLY FEEL GOOD WHEN STONED
 
Factor VI. "Dysphoria"
.6005World looks flat
.534101MOVEMENTS AWKWARD, UNCOORDINATED
.531119People seem dead, like robots
 
Factor VII. "Visual Instability"
.5759PERIPHERAL VISION CHANGES
.450103SENSE OF BALANCE ERRATIC
.4107AURAS AROUND OBJECTS
-.423185DIFFERENT PERSON WHILE STONED
 
Factor VIII. No common theme apparent
.680175EASILY SIDETRACKED
.565105PLAY CHILDISH GAMES
.458210Gotten nauseated, vomited
.420153FORGET START OF CONVERSATION
 
Factor IX. No common theme apparent
.65021REMEMBER LESS OF WHAT IS READ
.462153FORGET START OF CONVERSATION
 
Factors X, XI, and XII. No common themes apparent
Factor X:
.61259TIME PASSES RAPIDLY
.44411VISION BLURRY
.42885VIBRATION IN BODY THAT IS NOT MUSCLE TREMOR
 
Factor XI:
.47025UNDERSTAND WORDS OF SONGS BETTER
.452205CAN'T COME DOWN AT WILL
.44099PHYSICALLY RELAXED, DON'T WANT TO MOVE
-.468121HIGHER PEOPLE GET ME HIGHER (CONTACT HIGH)
 
Factor XII:
.513214FEEL WORLD IS OK
-.495177POOR CONTROL OVER FANTASIES
-.40019EASIER TO READ



Chapter 31.    Summary


THE NATURE OF MARIJUANA INTOXICATION

    ALTHOUGH MARIJUANA has been known to man for countless centuries, our scientific knowledge of its effects is meager. A major source of confusion that has hindered research has been the general failure to recognize that most effects of marijuana are potential effects rather than inherent properties of the drug itself. That is, a variety of non-drug factors can markedly influence which potential effects manifest at any given time (see Chapter 2). Thus most laboratory studies and personal anecdotes are of limited value, because the limited range of laboratory conditions and the particular personality characteristics of the writers, acting on the state of consciousness produced by marijuana, produced only some of the potential effects and inhibited others. The personal anecdotes often tell us more about the writer than anything else, and the laboratory studies have produced effects generally unrepresentative of those found in ordinary marijuana use.

THE PRESENT STUDY

    The aim of the present study was to find out the total range of potential effects that could be experienced and described by experienced users of marijuana. By systematically asking them about their experiences over a six-month period, the non-drug factors, which determine the manifestation of potential effects, would have assumed practically all possible combinations of values many times, thus eliciting the total range of effects. By asking the users about the frequency of various effects, it was possible to classify various potential effects as characteristic, common, infrequent, or rare, under conditions of ordinary marijuana use. Similar questioning about minimal level of intoxication (see Chapter 2 for details of this model) allowed rough classification of effects by the level of intoxication above which most experienced users could experience them (if the various non-drug factors assumed the right configurations).

THE USERS

    The 150 experienced users who returned satisfactory questionnaires (see Chapter 4) had all used marijuana at least a dozen times in order to be eligible for the study. Thus the effects of learning to cope with the unfamiliarity of marijuana intoxication were deliberately eliminated from the present study (although worthy of study in their own right), and the results presented here should not be applied to naive users.
    Our 150 users are a predominantly young, highly educated group of Californians, primarily students, but with a fair number of older persons and professionals among them. Overall they have a high interest in self-improvement (meditation or therapy), considerable experience with more powerful psychedelic drugs like LSD, and little experience with hard narcotics. Most of them used marijuana once a week or more during the six-month period of the present study. By combining various self-reports on marijuana use, we can estimate that they have used marijuana about 37,000 times, for a total of 421 years of experience.
    The remainder of this summary chapter will cover the major effects of marijuana intoxication (in terms of the users' self-reported experiences) under five major headings, namely, the perception of the external environment, interpersonal relations, internal mental processes, the perceiver (self-concept and identity of the user), and levels of intoxication. To keep this chapter brief, I shall not summarize the various miscellaneous effects of Chapters 20 to 23 nor the analyses of various relationships and background factors covered in Part III.

PERCEPTION OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

Vision

    With respect to vision, seeing forms, meaningful patterns in visual material that normally is ambiguous, and finding visual imagery more vivid than usual are characteristic effects. Common effects include contours seeming sharper, seeing new shades of color, having visual imagery automatically accompany thoughts and reading, being able to see a third dimension in pictures, and experiencing a sensual quality to vision.

Hearing

    For hearing, hearing more subtle qualities of sound is one of the most characteristic effects found, as well as understanding the words of songs better and finding a greater spatial separation between sound sources. Common effects include auditory images being more vivid, finding that space becomes organized according to sound characteristics rather than visual characteristics, and synesthesia, or sounds producing visual images in the user's mind.

Touch, Taste, Smell

    The sense of touch taking on new qualities and becoming more sensual are characteristic, and experiencing vivid tactual imagery is common.
    New qualities to taste and enjoying eating very much are characteristic effects. Again, taste imagery is markedly enhanced is a common effect, as well as craving for sweet things. It is also common for the sense of smell to become enhanced and richer.

The Senses in General

    In looking at the sensory changes, we should remember that sensory perception is not, as we commonly assume, a passive process of "seeing what's there," but an active process of constructing percepts from the physical stimuli that come in. The level of this constructive or pattern-making process is generally optimal in terms of providing a good signal-to-noise ratio; i.e., we make few mistakes about what is there. I suspect what marijuana is doing is increasing the level of functioning of this patterning activity, making it work in a more active way. This may result in a genuine increase in the ability to pick signals out of noisy backgrounds, but it probably also increases the number of mistakes; i.e., it organizes things that are not actually related in the real world into a coherent percept.

The Space/Time Matrix

    Perceptions of the external environment are not isolated percepts; they occur in the context of the space/time matrix. This space/time matrix is normally background for perceptions—we take it for granted. Marijuana intoxication can cause some radical changes in the way the space/time matrix is perceived. For example, greater separation between sound sources as, say, a pair of stereo speakers, has already been mentioned as a characteristic effect, and the distance experienced in walking some place being radically changedis also characteristic. Common effects on space are for distances per se to seem greater or shorter, and for near things to seem even nearer and for far things to seem even farther, a depth-magnification effect. Infrequently, air or space may take on a "solid" quality, or the user may completely lose track of his physical body and seem to float in limitless space.
    Changes in time perception are striking. Characteristically, time seems to pass more slowly, and the user feels much more in the here-and-now, totally immersed in the present situation without thinking about its relation to the past or its possible future developments. Commonly, events seem to flow more smoothly in time, although they may flow ratherjerkily at higher levels. Deja vu, the feeling that one has done this before, may be experienced, and time may seem to stop, i.e., it's not just that things take longer but certain experiences are simply timeless; they seem to occur "outside" of time. At high levels of intoxication, particularly, the users' experiences are less and less structured by the ordinary physical space/time matrix. Events and experiences become more and more difficult to communicate as their relationship to the usual space/time matrix is lost.

Paranormal Perception

    Another mode of perceiving the environment is by experiences of ostensible extrasensory perception, phenomena such as telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition. The users believed that they had experienced a great many ostensible paranormal phenomena. Seventy-six percent of them believed in the reality of extrasensory perception. Feeling so aware of what other people were thinking that the users thought it was telepathy was a fairly frequent effect, with only 30 percent of the users saying they had never experienced this.Precognition, foretelling the future by more than a logical inference, was a rare effect, but not absent.
    An even more exotic ostensible paranormal phenomenon was out-of-the-body experiences, which 44 percent of the users indicated they had experienced at least once, although not always in conjunction with marijuana. This incidence of out-of-the-body experiences is much higher than has ever been reported for any other population sample, so marijuana use is probably instrumental in promoting this experience.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

    Marijuana intoxication is seldom a solitary activity, where the user just sits around perceiving the external world and his own body. Users feel it is a social drug par excellence. What does it do to social interaction?

Social Interaction

    Characteristic effects on social interaction are being less noisy at parties than when either straight or drunk on alcohol, finding ordinary social games hard to play, picking up on and saying much more subtly humorous things, and having feelings of great insights into others. Other common effects are feeling more sociable at low levels of intoxication, less sociable at higher levels, talking more at low levels and talking less at higher levels, having more feeling of group solidarity, playing either very childish or very elaborate and involved games with others, saying things that seem more profound and appropriate, and having a great deal of empathy with others. Giggling a lot is also a common effect.
    It seems as if marijuana acts as a potentiator of social interaction from Low to Moderate levels of intoxication. At high levels, marijuana may have two quite different effects on social interaction because of the great intensification of inner experiences. The user may become less social and withdraw from group interaction in order to fully appreciate his inner experiences. If, on the other hand, he continues to interact with others, he may feel this interaction to be particularly profound, occasionally including such things as feelings ofmerging with the other person or feeling so aware of them that he believes it to be a kind of telepathic interaction.

Sexuality

    One of the most intimate kinds of interaction possible with another person is sexual love. The majority of the users indicated that marijuana greatly enhances sexual pleasure. Relevant characteristic effects were: new qualities to touch and taste (with new smell qualities being common)—what one might consider the intimate senses—and new, pleasurable qualities to orgasm. It was common for the user to feel more need and desire for sex, and, particularly, to feel more sexual desire if the situation was appropriate. That is, marijuana is not an aphrodisiac in the sense of forcing sexual drive, but rather it makes sex more desirable if there is already an initial attraction. It was common for the users to feel that they were better lovers when intoxicated, to have much closer contact with their partner in making love, it being much more a union of souls rather than just of bodies, and to be much more responsive to the sexual partner. Some users described making love at high levels of marijuana intoxication as so ecstatic as to be beyond words in many respects, a blending and fusing of essence and energy that took them beyond the bounds of space and time, and into one another.
    It should be noted, however, that one quarter of the users thought they were worse lovers when intoxicated than when straight, for, they reported, they became so immersed in their own intensified and pleasurable sensations that they paid little attention to their lovers.

INTERNAL MENTAL PROCESSES

Memory

    A characteristic effect of marijuana intoxication on memory is to forget the start of a conversation; that is, there is a decrement in memory for things occurring over the last few minutes. Nevertheless, it is a common effect for users to feel that they can converse intelligently despite this shortening of their memory span. It is also common to have a good memory for events in general occurring during the period of intoxication, but poor memory for this period is also just as common, depending on unknown psychological factors.Long-forgotten events commonly pop into memory. At high levels of intoxication it is common to forget even the start of one sentence, and thoughts may slip away before being fully grasped. Users often make special efforts, apparently successfully, to continue to function well in spite of this large loss of memory.
    State-specific memory occurs; intoxication experiences apparently forgotten can be recalled the next time the user is intoxicated.

Thought

    There are many effects of marijuana on thought processes. Characteristic effects are: accepting contradictions more readily, not getting upset just because things do not make immediate sense, and having spontaneous insights into one's own personal functioning, as well as being more here-and-now. It is also characteristic to find it harder to read, and toappreciate more subtle humor, as mentioned earlier. It is common to feel that one has ideas that are much more original than usual, to feel thinking is more intuitive, to find thought automatically accompanied by visual images, to see new significance in things that ordinarily seem dull or commonplace, to skip intermediate steps in problem-solving, and to get so absorbed in thought that one's attention must be forcibly gotten. At Low levels of intoxication, it is common for the user to feel his mind is working more efficiently on problem-solving activities, but at higher levels it is common to feel that the mind begins to work less efficiently.

Emotion

    The only characteristic effect of marijuana on emotional mood is to almost invariably feel good, which is what we would expect in a group of experienced marijuana users. It is common to feel emotions more strongly, to be more aware of bodily components of emotion (muscle tensions, heartbeat, etc.), and to have one's mood just before becoming intoxicated considerably amplified. For these experienced users, there is a generally good emotional tone to being intoxicated that can override mildly negative emotions just before becoming intoxicated. If they are in a very negative mood, however, there is a chance of this emotion being greatly amplified and producing a very bad trip. Most of the users had never had a severe negative emotional crisis while intoxicated. Of those users who had experienced such a crisis, most indicated it had subsided by itself or that they had been talked down by friends, with only one user needing professional help. In retrospect, some of the users felt their emotional crises had been a good thing in making them aware of aspects of themselves they had not wanted to face.

Control

    To what extent can experienced users control the effects of marijuana intoxication sufficiently well to generally avoid negative experiences? It is characteristic that users feel less need to be in control of things, and that they can come down at will, i.e., suppress most of the effects of intoxication when necessary. Experienced users have a wide variety of psychological techniques for increasing their level of intoxication at will. Experienced users feel that most of the instances of strong negative effects of marijuana are due to rigid, over-controlled, or unstable people trying it and not being able to tolerate the change in their experiences.

THE PERCEIVER

    Experiences do not just happen; they happen to and are caused by a unique individual with likes and dislikes, a past and hopes. How might a user's feeling of who he is change during marijuana intoxication?

The Body

    One of the most important sources of sensory input that provides a frame of reference for our identity is our own body. Although there are many effects here, only two were characteristic: the user gets very physically relaxed and is disinclined to move about, and if he does move about, his movements seem exceptionally smooth and coordinated. The direction of attention is important in how the body is perceived, a common effect being "if I am paying attention to some particular part of my body the rest of my body fades awaya lot...." Getting so absorbed in thinking or fantasies that all perception of the body is lost is also common. With respect to pain, it is common for pain to be easier to tolerate if attention is turned elsewhere and for pain to be more intense if concentrated on. It is also common for the body to feel particularly light.
    A number of common effects deal with becoming aware of internal processes in the body to a greatly enhanced extent, such as feeling a pleasant warmth in the body, being very aware of the beating of one's heart, and being hyper-aware of breathing. Another common experience that does not seem to be simply an enhancement of ordinary sensations is getting feelings in the body that are described as energy or force of some sort flowing.

Sense of Identity

    Marijuana intoxication has a number of effects on a person's feeling of identity per se. For example, a characteristic effect is for the user to feel more childlike, more open toexperience, more filled with wonder and awe at the nature of things than he is ordinarily. Common effects on identity include feeling particularly powerful, capable, and intelligent, feeling a lack of separation between oneself and the world, an at-one-ness with the world, and feeling that one's actions and events become archetypal. That is, instead of John Smith doing a particular thing with Mary Jones at a certain time, it becomes Man interacting with Woman in the Way Man has always interacted with Woman.

Spiritual Experiences

    This shift in identity to archetypal levels takes us to a number of experiences, which may be considered spiritual, that is, dealing with the ultimate nature and destiny of man. Some of the users have had important spiritual experiences take place while they were intoxicated, others have had experiences occurring later but considered a result of their marijuana use. Some of these were spontaneous, others were deliberately sought through meditation techniques practiced while intoxicated. Thus 22 percent of the users felt thatusing marijuana had acquired a religious significance for them. Particular experiences included visions, ostensible paranormal experiences, the infrequent experience of feeling directly in touch with a Higher Power, and some other experiences already discussed but given a spiritual connotation, such as sexual love seeming a union of souls, being more childlike and open to the universe, and the space/time matrix radically changing.

LEVELS OF INTOXICATION

    Practically all the potential effects of marijuana intoxication seem to fit the model (Chapter 2) of the minimal level of intoxication; i.e., after a certain threshold of intoxication has been reached for a given effect, it is potentially available at all levels above that. One consequence of this is that more and more variability as to which effects are experienced at a given time occurs with higher levels of intoxication. Most of the characteristic effects, for example, have common minimal thresholds in the Fair to Strong range (See Chapter 24).
    Categories of potential effects available as we go from Fair up toward Maximal levels of intoxication may be described as follows (these are graphed in Figure 24-3).
    Beginning at fair levels of intoxication, there may be a number of phenomena, which depict a sort of restlessness. This is one of the few categories of phenomena which does not seem to meet the minimal level model noted earlier; these phenomena generally seem to disappear once the user gets more strongly intoxicated rather than staying potentially available at all levels above the minimal one.
    Going somewhat higher, the user may experience a variety of effects that we might call relaxing, quieting, or opening. These involve a general calming down and being receptive to things. Sensory enhancement in the various senses may begin at this level, as well as feelings of greater sensitivity to others and subtlety in interpersonal relationships. At these Low-to-Moderate levels, we may also have the beginnings of feelings of efficiency, being able to focus well on things, being centered in oneself, and being able to work well. This last category is the one other type of effect that also does not seem to meet the minimal level model, but rather to exist only at these Moderate levels and to be later replaced by feelings of inefficiency. Insights into oneself, realization of changes in cognitive processes, and aftereffects, such as finding it somewhat hard to get organized the next day, may begin at this Moderate to Strong intoxication level.
    As the user smokes enough to get up to the Strong levels of intoxication, alterations in his perception of the space/time matrix of existence may begin to occur. Imagery in all sensory modalities may be greatly intensified, fantasy may become extremely real, and it may be possible to experience fantasies so real as to almost be hallucinations. At the Strong level and above we may also begin to get feelings of drifting, losing control of the situation, and, if problem-solving activity is pressed upon a user, feelings that the mind works inefficiently. Greatly enhanced awareness of internal body processes that normally cannot be sensed may start to come in at this level also.
    As the user becomes even more intoxicated, he may begin to experience alterations in memory functions, such as forgetting what he started to talk about, remembering things other than what he is trying to recall, or state-specific memory. Loss of contact with the environment becomes possible, and the user may become absorbed in internal experiences.Identity may change in the ways discussed above, and the infrequent mystical and paranormal experiences may occur at this level.
    Jumping up to the Maximal level, nausea may occur, albeit very rarely. Note again that practically all lower-level phenomena are potentially available at higher levels as well.

IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    What are some major questions for future research?
    First, how can we get an even better understanding of the nature of marijuana intoxication? Replication and extension of the present study is called for. With such a design, we could devise better questions to ask, better in terms of having more specific meaning to both users and investigators and better in terms of psychometric properties that would allow more sophisticated statistical analyses. Similar studies could be carried out with different populations and tell us valuable things about how cultural factors shape experience; I doubt that the young black in the ghetto has the same spectrum of effects with marijuana as the white college student or professional.
    Still within the systematic questioning format, we could investigate the interrelationships of intoxication phenomena within a single individual, trying to do justice to the uniqueness of individual experience. From such case studies one could then compare individuals and possibly find similar types of users, i.e., there might be very little overlap between the experiences of some users, even though all their experiences fall within the total spectrum of potential effects of marijuana intoxication. The reasons for these individual differences could tell us a good deal about the functioning of the mind.
    The results of the present study and replications of it can also be used to guide laboratory research and perhaps avoid many of the pitfalls that have plagued previous laboratory studies. Many questions can be studied in the laboratory that are not very suitable for the field study approach. For example, how well do users' ratings of their level of intoxication correlate with actual amount of marijuana or THC consumed? Which is more useful for predicting other aspects of intoxication, experience or behavior, self-report of level or knowledge of amount of chemical consumed? Undoubtedly, some users will not be able to rate the amount of THC well, whereas others will do so very well. What makes for good raters and poor raters? Does the ability to "come down at will" or have a "contact high" make knowledge of THC levels meaningless? How does a new user "learn" to become intoxicated? How do experienced users "learn" new effects? Could completely new effects be produced under the special conditions possible in a laboratory setting? Could a "disciplined" use of drugs be taught, say in conjunction with bio-feedback techniques, making entirely new intoxication effects available?
    A second important direction for future research is understanding other states of consciousness in general and eventually, consciousness itself. The type of overall look presented in this book for the phenomenology of marijuana intoxication has not been carried out for the other states of consciousness, yet many people make facile assertions such as, "Meditation is just a form of self-hypnosis," based only on surface knowledge of different states of consciousness.
    This lack of data on other states of consciousness makes it impossible to answer some important questions about marijuana intoxication, e.g., what effects of marijuana intoxication can be identically experienced in other states of consciousness? Might we learn to experience some of the desirable effects of being stoned in our ordinary state?
    A third important direction for future research is on the practical uses and benefits of marijuana intoxication. Obviously, pleasure is the main benefit of marijuana for most users most of the time. But does it really aid creative thinking? Might it have specific applications in personal growth or psychotherapy through its many effects on thought, emotions, memory, identity? Might there be useful medical applications in selected cases, such as a tranquilizer or sedative in low doses?
    Finally, a good deal of research is needed on what the real costs or dangers of occasional or chronic marijuana use might be. So much propaganda has been put out, officially and unofficially, on this question that the waters are very muddied. I think it unlikely that we ever get something for nothing, but let's find out the actual physiological or psychological costs of marijuana use so we can weigh them against the benefits and make an intelligent decision about whether the benefits are worth the cost.

===========================

 APPENDIX A.    Effects of More Powerful Psychedelic Drugs



    For each possible effect description, users were asked to circle "LSD" if they had also experienced that effect at least once while intoxicated with one of the more powerful psychedelic drugs (LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, STP, MDA, harmaline, etc.).
    The table below presents, for every question, two items of information: (I) the percentage of all users of the more powerful psychedelics who circled "LSD" on this question; and (2) the percentage of heavy users of the more powerful psychedelics who circled the "LSD" response. Heavy users were defined as those who had had a more powerful psychedelic drug six or more times.

[a] For "Total Users" note that these are percentages of the 108 respondents who had
used psychedelic drugs, not of the total 15O marijuana users.
N.A., not applicable, indicates that information about LSD was not asked for on tis question.
 
  QUESTION
NUMBER
% PSYCHEDELIC USERS
WHO CIRCLED LSD
HEAVY
USERS
TOTAL
USERS[a]

12732
259
31617
42626
51011
63641
72939
81822
91220
101517
111117
121520
132432
141313
152030
163852
174756
181322
1932
2034
2136
2277
233948
241620
25815
261013
27815
281928
291017
301622
311928
321420
331320
341217
3566
36711
371013
381219
391724
40813
4169
4269
4324
4479
4522
4624
47915
48813
4959
5046
511922
521422
531115
54713
552937
561520
571017
582026
591013
603750
611324
62913
631313
64N.A.N.A
651924
66711
67AN.A.63
67BN.A.N.A.
67C2433
6834
692430
701522
711320
72813
731219
  QUESTION
NUMBER
% PSYCHEDELIC USERS
WHO CIRCLED LSD
HEAVY
USERS
TOTAL
USERS[a]

742330
751830
761120
77711
781520
791319
80711
81917
822537
831119
84915
851726
861220
8712
881113
8979
9044
9177
92915
933546
942935
951013
961013
9746
981924
991117
100811
101813
102711
1031619
104N.A.N.A.
105811
1061720
1071015
1081213
10957
11034
111713
112811
1131320
1141219
115815
1161420
117813
1181119
11957
12024
12134
122711
123915
124813
1251219
12679
127611
1281730
1291322
13079
1311015
1321020
133815
1341928
1351522
1361924
1371119
1381726
1391928
1401520
1411324
1421120
14367
14446
1451522
146713
14757
1481015
  QUESTION
NUMBER
% PSYCHEDELIC USERS
WHO CIRCLED LSD
HEAVY
USERS
TOTAL
USERS[a]

1491320
1501522
151917
15259
1531117
1541522
15589
1561015
157715
15877
159715
160811
1611319
16259
163711
164611
165915
16634
167N.A.N.A.
167BN.A.N.A.
168N.A.N.A.
169AN.A.N.A.
169B12N.A.
1701220
1712226
17269
1731220
1741017
1751120
17656
1771746
178711
17934
180811
1811111
182915
1832333
1843637
1851822
1862637
18759
188913
1893750
1901119
1913043
1922637
19377
1944248
1953343
1962941
19736
19824
19924
2001324
20157
20236
203N.A.N.A.
204-130N.A.
204-23741
2054143
2063241
2072026
2082432
2091817
2101215
2112939
2121824
213N.A.N.A.
214915
215713
2162635
21767
2182230
21947
220N.A.N.A.

APPENDIX B.    Questionnaire Used in This Study*

*This is a reproduction of the questionnaire used for collecting the data of the present study. The instructions for filling out the questionnaire and the covering letter that went out with it are reproduced in Chapter 3.

NO NAMES!
Age_____Occupation_______________ (if a student, what do you plan?)
Sex_____Marital Status_____
Education: degree or highest grade completed__________________________________________
Do you have any children?_____Political affiliation_____________________________________
Religious affiliation______________________
Ever been arrested?_____For what?___________________________________________
Were you convicted?__________________________________
Do you regularly practice any sort of meditation or other non-drug discipline for spiritual
or personal growth?______________
If so, what?_____________________________________________________________________
How long have you been smoking pot or hash?_______________________
In all this time, what has been
your average frequency of use?
(ignore this question if you've been
turning on less than 6 months)
 
_____Almost every day or more
_____Once/week or more
_____Once/month or more
_____Occasionally
During the last six months, what
has been your frequency of use?
 
 
_____Almost every day or more
_____Once/week or more
_____Once/month or more
_____Occasionally
How often have you used any of the following major psychedelics: LSD, mescaline, peyote,
psilocybin, DMT, or DET?
Before you started
smoking pot?
 
_____More than 6 (how many?)
_____One to five times
_____Never
After you started
smoking pot?
 
_____More than 6 (how many?)
_____One to five times
_____Never
Within the last
six months?
 
_____More than 6 (how many?)
_____One to five times
_____Never
Please make the same ratings (before, after, last 6 months) by putting three numbers
(N-N-N) after each of the drugs below you have tried:
Amphetamine or methedrine (by mouth)
Amphetamine or methedrine (by injection)
STP
PEACE
MDA
Others (what?)
Do you think your experiences (if any) with any of these other psychedelic drugs have affected or changed the quality of your experiences with pot? If yes, how?
How long have you been drinking alcoholic beverages in sufficient quantity to change your consciousness (i.e., drinking to get "tipsy" or drunk, rather than just having a little wine or beer with meals for the taste)?
In all this time, what has been your average frequency of use?
During the last six months, what has been your average frequency of use?
If pot were as available legally as alcohol. about what percentage of the time would you choose alcohol to alter your state of consciousness rather than pot?

[HTML editor's note: To save space and transmission time, the following change has been made: With a few exceptions, all the following questions should have the same list of choices following them as question number 1. The exceptions are followed by the choices as contained in the original publication.]

VISION SENSE:

1. I can see new colors or more subtle shades of color than when I'm straight.
Frequency?NeverRarelySometimesVery OftenUsually
How Stoned?JustFairlyStronglyVery StronglyMaximumLSD
2. Colors get duller, not as vivid.
3. There is a sensual quality to vision, as if I were somehow "touching" the objects or people I am looking at.
4. When I look at pictures they may acquire an element of visual depth, a third dimensional aspect that they don't have when straight.
5. The world looks flat; it lacks the third dimension of depth.
6. I see fringes of colored light around people (not objects), what people have called the "aura."
7. I see fringes of colored light around objects (not people), what people have called the "aura."
8. If I try to visualize something, form a visual image, I see it in my mind's eye more intensely, more sharply than when straight.
9. Things outside the center of my visual field, things in the periphery of my vision look different when I'm not looking directly at them than when I look directly at them. E.g., I might see a door as open when I'm not looking directly at it but when I look directly at it, it is closed.
10. Things seen are seen more sharply in that their edges, contours stand out more sharply against the background.
11. My vision tends to be somewhat blurry, if I try to examine something visually, I can't focus quite as sharply as when straight.
12. My visual perception of the space around me is changed so that what I'm looking at is very real and clear, but everything else I'm not focusing on visually seems further away or otherwise less real or clear.
13. I can see patterns. forms, figures, meaningful designs in visual material that does not have any particular form when I'm straight, that is just a meaningless series of lines or shapes when I'm straight.
14. Visual depth perception changes, so that near objects seem much nearer and far objects seem much further away.
15. Objects or people may seem to get visually nearer or further as I look at them without their actually moving at all.
16. The face of another person will change even as I watch it, so he keeps changing from one different person to another.
17. Everything I look at seems to vibrate or pulse, as if it had a life of its own.
18. I find it difficult to read while stoned.
19. It is easier to read than usual while stoned.
20. If I read while stoned, I remember more of what I've read hours later than if I had been straight.
21. If I read while stoned, I remember less of what I've read hours later than if I had been straight.
22. I have more imagery than usual while reading; images of the scenes I'm reading about just pop up vividly.
23. With my eyes open, I can see things that aren't there, i.e., for which there is no real visual basis. For example. if you look at stains on a wall and see a design, that's an illusion; you are altering something there. This question deals with seeing something when there's nothing there, such as seeing a pattern or object on a perfectly blank wall.

HEARING SENSE:

24. I can hear more subtle changes in sounds; e.g.. the notes of music are purer and more distinct, the rhythm stands out more.
25. I can understand the words of songs which are not clear when straight.
26. I have difficulty hearing things clearly: sounds are blurry and indistinct.
27. If I try to have an auditory image, hear something in my mind, remember a sound, it is more vivid than when straight.
28. The sound quality of my own voice changes, so that I sound different to myself when I talk.
29. When listening to stereo music or live music, the spatial separation between the various instruments sounds greater, as if they were physically further apart.
30. With my eyes closed and just listening to sounds, the space around me becomes an auditory space, a place where things are arranged according to their sound characteristics instead of visual geometrical characteristics.

TOUCH SENSE:

31. Touch sensations take on new qualities that they don't have when straight.
32. My sense of touch is more exciting, more sensual, when stoned.
33. Some surfaces feel much smoother, silkier than when straight.
34. Some surfaces feel much rougher, more irregular, than when straight; the
35. Objects seem heavier, more massive, when I lift them when stoned.
36. Objects seem lighter, less massive, when I lift them.
37. I can experience vivid tactual imagery, imagine what things feel like and feel their texture very vividly in my mind.
38. The temperature of things, their warmth or coldness, takes on new qualities.
39. Taste sensations take on new qualities that they don't have when straight.
40. Tastes become divided into several components. instead of an overall taste. E g., a bite of bread may taste salty on one part of your tongue and sour on another part at the same time.
41. There is an exceptionally long time delay between starting to chew food and the time the taste actually reaches my consciousness.
42. I salivate quite a lot when stoned.
43. If I belch, I retaste the food in my stomach. and it tastes very good.
44. I enjoy eating very much and eat a lot.
45. If I try to imagine what something tastes like, I can do so very vividly.
46. I crave sweet things to eat, things like chocolate, more than other foods.

SMELL SENSE:

47. Smell sensations take on new qualities that they don't have when straight.
48. Smells become much richer and more unique when stoned.
49. When I smell something, different components of the smell seem to register at different physical locations in my nose.
50. If I try to imagine what something smells like, I can do so much more vividly than when straight.
51. When I walk someplace my experience of the distance covered is quite changed (e.g., not being aware of the space between. just seeming to suddenly be there or, conversely, feeling that it takes an immense number of steps to cover the distance).
52. Distances between me and things or me and other people seem to get greater: they are further away.
53. Distances between me and other things or people seem to get shorter; they are closer.
54. Objects seem to tilt toward the left.
55. I get so lost in fantasy or similar trips in my head that I completely forget where I am, and it takes a while to reorient after I come back and open my eyes.
56. The space or air around me takes on a solid quality; it is no longer "empty" space.
57. The force of gravity seems to alternate between pushing me up and pushing me down.
58. Time passes very slowly; things go on for the longest (e.g., one side of a record seems to play for hours).
59. Time passes very rapidly; things finish almost before they seem to have gotten started.
60. Time seems to stop; it's not just that things take longer, but certain experiences seem outside of time, are timeless.
61. Events and thoughts flow more smoothly; the succession of events in time is smoother than usual.
62. Events and thoughts follow each other jerkily; there are sudden changes from one thing to another.
63. While something is happening, I get the funny feeling that this sequence has happened before. in exactly the same way. Even though I logically know it couldn't have happened before, it feels strange, as if it's repeating exactly (this is called a deja vu experience and should not be confused with a false memory).

EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION:

64. I believe in the existence of extrasensory perception (ESP), i.e., that people can sometimes acquire knowledge about things happening at a distance in space or time, or about other people's thoughts, when there is no possibility of this knowledge having been acquired through the known senses (sight, hearing, etc.).
      _____Believe strongly
      _____Believe somewhat
      _____Haven't made up my mind
      _____Disbelieve somewhat
      _____Disbelieve strongly
65. I feel so aware of what people are thinking that it must be telepathy, mind reading, rather than just being more sensitive to the subtle cues in their behavior. Frequency?
66. I can foretell the future by some kind of precognition, more than just predicting logically from present events.
67. Have you ever had the experience of feeling "located" outside your physical body, i.e. of you being at a different location in space than the one you knew your body was at? Dreams aren't included here, or situations where you just lose consciousness of your body. This is where you consciously feel located at a different place and know at the time that you are conscious but at a different location. Has this happened to you:
      At all____ (if so please describe on rear)
      While stoned? ____happened before/after started smoking grass.
68. I can perform magical operations that will affect objects or people while stoned. (Please describe on rear)

PERCEPTION OF THE BODY:

69. My perception of how my body is shaped gets strange; the "felt" shape or form doesn't correspond to its actual form (e.g., you may feel lopsided, or parts of your body feel heavy while others feel light).
70. I lose awareness of most of my body unless I specifically focus my attention there, or some particularly strong stimulus demands my attention there.
71. If I am paying attention to some particular part of my body, the rest of my body fades away a lot so the part I'm attending to stands out more sharply.
72. When there is any trembling in my body, the upper half of my body trembles much more than the lower half.
73. I become very aware of my breathing and can feel the breath flowing in and out of my throat as well as filling my lungs.
74. I get dizzy or nauseated, so much so that I wonder if I will get sick.
75. I become aware of parts of my body that I am normally unaware of! can't become aware of when straight, such as internal organs.
76. My body gets very numb, without feeling.
77. The location of my consciousness, the physical locale of the part of me that seems most me, has moved to different parts of my physical body from those it occupies while straight.
78. When defecating or urinating, I become aware of the internal organ processes involved that I can't be aware of when straight.
79. With my eyes closed, my body may feel very light or even feel as if I float up into the air when stoned.
80. My body feels abnormally heavy, as if it weighed much much more.
81. I feel a lot of pleasant warmth inside my body.
82. I get feelings in my body that are best described as energy, force, power of some sort flowing.
83. I become very aware of my spine and feel energy flowing through it.
84. I become aware of chakra centers along my spine and feel changes in my state of consciousness as energy flows through the chakras.
85. I feel a vibration or tingling sensation in some or all of my body that I can tell is not an actual muscle tremor by looking at my body.
86. My muscles develop actual physical tremors (large enough to see visually).
87. My scalp itches a lot if I have smoked too much grass.
88. Pain is easy to tolerate if I keep my attention elsewhere.
89. Pain is more intense if I concentrate on it.
90. My body feels larger than usual.
91. My body feels smaller than usual.
92. I am much more aware of the beating of my heart.
93. I have lost all consciousness of my body and the external world, and just found myself floating in limitless space (not necessarily physical space).
94. I have lost all consciousness of my body during fantasy trips, i.e., gotten so absorbed in what was going on in my head that my body might as well not have existed for a while.

MOVEMENT:

95. I feel much stronger when stoned (regardless of whether actually physically stronger or weaker).
96. I feel much weaker when stoned (regardless of whether actually physically stronger or weaker).
97. My non-dominant hand (left if you're right-handed and vice-versa) becomes partially paralyzed, unusable.
98. I get physically restless so that I want to move around a lot.
99. I get physically relaxed and don't want to get up or move around.
100. When I move about or dance, my motions seem exceptionally smooth and well coordinated.
101. When I move about or dance, my motions seem awkward and uncoordinated.
102. I tremble a lot in my hands for a while after having been stoned.
103. My sense of balance gets very erratic, making it seem difficult to walk or even maintain a sitting position.
104. Smoking grass makes me cough hard while inhaling and holding my breath.

RELATIONS WITH OTHER PEOPLE:

105. When stoned with others, I play "childish" games; i.e., we interact with each other in ways which are very enjoyable but which people would ordinarily consider childish.
106. I find it very hard to play ordinary social games when stoned.
107. I feel isolated from things around me, as if there were some kind of barrier or glass wall between me and the world, muting everything coming in and partially isolating me.
108. I get somewhat paranoid about the people with me; I am suspicious about what they're doing.
109. I am less noisy and boisterous at parties than when straight.
110. I am less noisy and boisterous at parties than when drunk or tipsy on alcohol.
111. I feel the things I say in conversation when stoned are more profound, more appropriate to the conversation, more interesting.
112. When stoned with a group of people, the group takes on a much greater sense of unity, of real social relationship, than when straight; i.e., I feel much more part of a groupinstead of one person simply in the presence of other people.
113. I have feelings of deep insights into other people, how they tick, what their games are, when stoned (regardless of whether they check out later).
114. I empathize tremendously with others; I feel what they feel; I have a tremendous intuitive understanding of what they're feeling.
115. I become more sociable; I want to be with and interact with people more.
116. I become less sociable; I want to be by myself.
117. I talk a lot more than when straight.
118. I talk a lot less than when straight.
119. Other people seem dead, lifeless, as if they were robots when I'm stoned.
120. I am very strongly influenced by the social situation set up by my companions, so I will do whatever they are doing even if it is something I don't want to do or wouldn't do normally.
121. Being with people who are much higher than I am (as from their being on acid or much more stoned on grass) gets me higher even though I don't smoke any more grass.

SEXUAL ACTIVITY:

122. My sexual drive goes up when stoned; I have more need for sex.
123. I have much less sexual drive when stoned; it's difficult to arouse me even in a situation which would normally arouse me.
124. I have no increase in sexual feelings unless it's a situation that I would normally be sexually aroused in, and then the sexual feelings are much stronger and more enjoyable.
125. When making love, I feel I'm in much closer mental contact with my partner; it is much more a union of souls as well as bodies.
126. When making love, I feel rather isolated from my partner; I'm wrapped up in my intensified sensations and not really very aware of my partner's reactions and feelings.
127. I feel as if I'm a better person to make love with when stoned. Why? (Please answer on back.)
128. Sexual orgasm has new qualities, pleasurable qualities, when stoned.

THOUGHT PROCESSES:

129. I can get so wound up in thoughts or fantasies that I won't notice what's going on around me or won't hear someone talking to me unless they attract my attention forcibly.
130. I can get so wound up in thoughts or fantasies while doing some physical task or job that I lose awareness of doing it, yet suddenly find that I have finished the physical task even though I lost track of it mentally.
131. I do things with much less thought to possible consequences of my actions than when straight, i.e., I go ahead and do things without thinking first about "What will people think? How will this effect me?" etc.
132. My mind goes completely blank for long periods (15 minutes or more); even though I'm not asleep, I have no thoughts or images or anything going on m my mind.
133. In thinking about a problem of the sort that normally requires a series of steps to solve, I can get the answer without going through some of the usual intermediate steps; i.e., I start to think about the problem and then just arrive at what is clearly the answer, without being aware of the steps in the thought process I would normally be aware of.
134. I can't think clearly; thoughts keep slipping away before I can quite grasp them.
135. Commonplace sayings or conversations seem to have new meanings, more significance.
136. I give little or no thought to the future; I'm completely in the here-and-now.
137. I am more willing to accept contradictions between two ideas or two views of the situation than when straight. I don't get up tight because the two things don't make immediate sense.
138. I learn a great deal about psychological processes, what makes people tick, i.e., general knowledge about how the mind works (as opposed to specific insights about yourself).
139. Spontaneously, insights about myself, my personality, the games I play come to mind when stoned, and seem very meaningful.
140. If I deliberately work on it I can have important insights about myself, my personality, the games I play.
141. If I try to solve a problem, it feels as if my mind is working much more efficiently than usual (regardless of how you evaluate your solution later).
142. If I try to solve a problem it feels as if my mind is much less efficient than usual (regardless of how you evaluate the solution later).
143. If I work on some problem while stoned, I work more accurately than straight, as judged by later real-world evaluation.
144. If I work on some problem while stoned, I work less accurately than straight, as judged by later real-world evaluation.
145. The ideas that come to my mind when stoned are much more original than usual.
146. I appreciate very subtle humor in what my companions say, and say quite subtly funny things myself.
147. I can play elaborate games and get very involved in the games.
148. When thinking about things while stoned, there are visual images that just automatically go along with the thinking; i.e., I think much more in images instead of just abstract thoughts.
149. I think about things in ways that seem intuitively correct, but which do not follow the rules of logic.

MEMORY FUNCTIONING:

150. I spontaneously remember things I hadn't thought of in years, more so than straight (does not apply to consciously trying to remember things.)
151. My memory for otherwise forgotten events is much better than straight when I consciously try to remember.
152. My memory for otherwise forgotten events is much worse than when straight when I try to remember.
153. My memory span for conversations is somewhat shortened, so that I may forget what the conversation is about even before it has ended (even though I may be able to recall it if I make a special effort).
154. My memory span for conversations is very shortened so that I may forget what the start of a sentence was about even before the sentence is finished (although I may be able to recall it if I make a special effort).
155. I can continue to carry on an intelligent conversation even when my memory span is so short that I forget the beginnings of what I started to say; e.g., I may logically complete a sentence even as I realize I've forgotten how it started.
156. I think I've said something when actually I've only thought about saying it, more so than when straight.
157. I think something is a memory when it turns out to be a fantasy, something I just made up, but fooled myself into thinking was a memory at the time. (not the same as deja vu.)
158. My memory of what went on while I was stoned is good afterwards, better than if I had been straight all the time.
159. My memory of what went on while I was stoned is poor afterwards compared to what I would have remembered had I been straight.

EMOTIONS:

160. Whatever mood I was in before turning on becomes greatly amplified, so if I felt down I really feel bad and if I felt good I really feel very good.
161. I feel emotions much more strongly when stoned, so they affect me more.
162. I feel emotions much more weakly when stoned, so they have little effect on me.
163. I am more aware of the body tensions and feelings that are part of emotions when stoned.
164. I am less aware of the body tensions and feelings that are part of emotions when stoned.
165. I almost invariably feel good when I turn on, regardless of whether I felt bad before turning on.
166. I almost invariably feel bad when I turn on, regardless of how I felt before I turned on.
167. How many people have you seen "freak out" on grass, i.e., have such a catastrophic emotional upset that they needed help of some sort? (Not counting yourself.) _____No. of People
What percentage is this compared to all the times you've seen people get stoned?
168. What sort of help did they get? How effective was it?
169. Have you ever freaked out in this way? _____Yes _____No
How many times?_____
What sort of help did you get, and how effective was it?

SELF-CONTROL:

170. I find it easy to accept whatever happens; I don't need to control it or feel in control of it.
171. I worry about losing control, such that I might do something I wouldn't want to do (regardless of whether you actually lose control).
172. I lose control of my actions and do antisocial things (actions that harm other people) that I wouldn't normally do.
173. My inhibitions are lowered so that I do things I'm normally too inhibited to do (Note: this does not apply to antisocial acts but to acts that are generally acceptable, but that you can't normally do through shyness or the like).
174. I giggle a lot when stoned; I am silly, even though the situation is not that funny.
175. I often forget to finish some task I've started, or get sidetracked more frequently than when straight.
176. I get a rather compulsive desire to get even higher after a certain stage; I will smoke much more if I can
177. I have little or no control over my fantasies; i.e., they flow along spontaneously
and even If I try I can't change what I'm fantasying about.
178. I have excellent control over my fantasies; I can make them go in whatever
direction I want.
179. I can work at a necessary task with extra energy, absorption, and efficiency.
180. I have lost control and been "taken over" by an outside force or will, which is hostile or evil in intent, for a while.
181. I have lost control and been "taken over" by an outside force or will, which is good or divine, for a while.
182. Parts of my body have moved on their own volition, have done something which I did not will.
183. I feel as if I lose control over my thoughts; they just go on regardless of what I want (without reference to whether you like this or not).
184. I can "come down" at will if I need to be straight for a minute to deal with some complicated reality problem (circle the point of highness above which you can't do this).

IDENTITY:

185. My personality changes a lot temporarily while I'm stoned, so that in many important ways I am a different person for that time.
186. I have burn so absorbed in looking at or contemplating an object or person that I felt as if I were that object or person, i.e.. temporarily the split between it-and-me or they-and-me was transcended.
187. When stoned I lose most of my sense of ego identity and usually take on 3; the identity of my like-sexed parent (father for males, mother for females).
188. I feel completely unique; there is no one like me; I feel as if I am much better than ordinary people when stoned.
189. I lose all sense of self, of being a separate ego, and feel at one with the world.
190. I feel very powerful, capable, and intelligent when stoned.
191. Some events become archetypal, part of the basic way Man has always done things. That is, instead of me (John Doe, ego) doing something, it is just Man Doing What Man Has Always Done. That is, my actions become part of the pattern that man has always been part of, instead of me, a particular individual, carrying out a particular act at a particular moment in space/time.

SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCES:

192. I feel in touch with a Higher Power or a Divine Being to some extent when stoned, I feel more in contact with the "spiritual" side of things.
193. I am able to meditate more effectively than when straight (if yes, please describe what sort of meditation you do on the back of this page).
194. I have spiritual experiences, discrete experiences which have had a powerful, long-term religious effect on me while stoned. (If so, please describe on rear.) ____Yes _____No
195. Getting stoned has acquired a religious significance for me. ____Yes _____No (If yes, in what way? Explain on back.)

SLEEP:

196. I find it very difficult to get to sleep if I'm stoned, even if it's my usual bedtime.
197. I find it very easy to go to sleep at my usual bedtime when stoned.
198. I get very drowsy even though it's not late or otherwise close to my usual bedtime.
199. My sleep is particularly refreshing if I go to bed stoned.
200. My sleep is restless and poor if I go to bed stoned.
201. My dreams are more vivid if I go to bed stoned.
202. My dreams are less vivid or forgotten if I go to bed stoned.

SPECIAL TECHNIQUES:

203. Since taking LSD (or mescaline, peyote, psilocybin, or another major psychedelic drug), I am able to get much higher on grass than I was before.
    _____Yes
    _____No
    _____Not applicable haven't had LSD
204. I have special ways of getting higher besides smoking more grass with:
    1. Other drugs + grass     _____Yes _____No
    2. Special mental techniques         _____Yes _____No
    (Please explain any yes answer on rear)
205. There is a certain degree of being stoned from above which I cannot come down quickly if I must come down to deal adequately with reality. (circle level)
206. I have special technique(s) for coming down rapidly if I need to be straight quickly.
    _____Yes _____No (If yes, please describe on rear)

MISCELLANEOUS:

207. I feel more childlike, more open to experience of all kinds, more filled with wonder and awe at the nature of things.
208. Some of my inner trips, eyes-closed fantasies have been so vivid and real that, even though I know logically they couldn't be real, they feel real; they are as real as ordinary waking-life experience.
209. I find it very hard to get organized or accomplish anything I want to the day after smoking grass (Circle lowest level at which this occurs.)
210. I have gotten very nauseous and vomited.
211. Others (who were straight at the time) have told me that I act very differently when I'm stoned. (Circle highest level at which this has happened.)
212. Others (who were straight at the time) have not noticed that I've been stoned (applies to other people who were your friends and would have told you if they'd noticed). (Circle highest level at which this has happened.)
213. Could you compare the effects of alcohol and marijuana on yourself on the back of this page? When do you prefer to use the one, when the other?
214. I feel that the world is all right. that everything is pretty much the way it should be when stoned (except for the marijuana laws)
215. I feel the world is in pretty bad shape, that all sorts of changes need to be made in the social order to make it a decent place to live in (for things besides the marijuana laws).
216. Sounds have visual images or colors associated with them, synchronized with them.
217. I get much more involved in ordinary tasks than when I'm straight: they're completely absorbing.
218. With my eyes closed, my inner visions and fantasies become extremely real, as real as nighttime dreams.
219. I suddenly realize that nothing has been happening for a long time; my mind has been blank and nothing was going on.
220. I move up to higher levels of consciousness in jumps, sudden increases, rather than smoothly.
What important or characteristic things happen to you when you're stoned that haven't been described above? Could you describe each one and rate it in the same way below? Use the back of this sheet if needed.
221. ...
Frequency?NeverRarelySometimesVery OftenUsually
How Stoned?JustFairlyStronglyVery StronglyMaximumLSD
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