PHYSICAL MODEL OF THE PARALLEL ETHEREAL WORLD
Dr Alex Katsman (May, 2004)
At the present time there is a lot of evidence that a
certain part of the universe is invisible to us. The most important
facts are connected with the survival of a human mind after the physical
death of the body. Experimental studies regarding contact with "dead"
people were performed by two outstanding scientists, Sir William Crookes
[1] and Sir Oliver Lodge [2], over one hundred years ago. Similar experiments were performed by a number of researchers in our time [3].
The first reasonable explanation of the results was apparently
suggested by Oliver Lodge: this invisible part of the world operates at
higher frequencies than the ones in the world we are able to sense. Many
investigators support this idea. However, the theoretical basis
regarding such a world is absent. Most authors think of this world as a
"spirit" world.
A substantial step in understanding the universe was taken by Ronald Pearson [4].
Pearson's theory is based on the idea that when two kinds of primary
particles are present, collisions and the exchange of energy between
them cause the creation of a neuronlike structure. This theory has
opened a new field for modeling and explaining socalled "paranormal"
phenomena. The wave nature of our world, which is closely linked to
Pearson's theory, can be used to explain the existence of parallel
worlds. Such parallel worlds are material to the same degree as our
sensed world is. This means that they have the same wave nature with the
same (or similar) physical laws.
With this idea as a
starting point, one can develop a physical, quantum mechanics model of
the higher frequency, parallel (ethereal) world that is usually
invisible for us.
The Model
Based on experimental evidence, the following main principles were used in the developing the physical model:
1)

The ethereal world is real and independent of our minds;

2)

It exists in our "SPACE" and in our "TIME";

3)

The ethereal world has the wave (field) nature;

4)

Ethereal bodies have a complex internal structure and consist of small elementary waveparticles;

5)

The geometrical sizes and energy values of etheric bodies are of the same order as ones in our part of the universe;

6)

The ethereal world is usually invisible for us and for our devices.

According to Pearson's theory, all energy in the universe is kinetic, and particles which have a nonzero rest mass consist of photonlike (or neutrinolike) particles with zero rest mass moving at the speed of light. The same conclusion was made by G. Shipov who developed the theory of the physical vacuum [5].
Let us consider the structure of a photon. A photon is a moving wave package consisting of N harmonic waves with close wavelengths, in a narrow interval of λ_{1} to λ_{N}, (or, equivalently, with close wave numbers k=2π/λ, from k_{1} to k_{N}), with amplitudes A_{1}, with total energy ε. Photons move at a constant velocity named the speed of light, c. This speed depends upon the properties of the medium in which the photon moves. For a given speed, c, the corresponding frequencies of wave harmonics can be found:
ν_{i}=c/λ_{i}=c×k_{i}/2π and ω_{i}=c×k_{i} , i=1,...N (1)
The energy of the wave package can be found as follows:
(2)

where s is the crosssection area of the wave package, A(0)=A_{1}N
is the amplitude of the package. As it can be seen from eq.(2), the
energy of the wave package depends on geometrical parameters (k_{i} and A) and does not depend on the speed, c, and frequencies, ω_{i}. In the world with a certain speed of light, c, the energy of the package can be rewritten in the form:
(3)

where is the average, carrying frequency, , where h is Planck's constant,
(4)

Since is constant for all average frequencies of photons (as was found in experiments), it should be concluded that for all photons, of any kind. Another consequence of eq.(4) is that is inversely proportional to the speed of light, c, and that their product is constant:
(5)

It should be noted that this product is very important because it determines the elementary electrical charge, e:
(6)

Let
us now assume that the speed of light depends on structure and
properties of the medium (ether). According to Pearson's theory, the
ether (or ither) is an inhomogeneous medium consisting of two kinds of
particles moving with different velocities. In this case the wave
package can be constructed from harmonic waves spreading in a subspace
of a certain type of particle. Spreading speeds of different wave
packages can be different (in the same manner as speeds of sound waves
in a solid consisting of several types of atoms). So we may assume that
at least two kinds of photons exist, and the corresponding speeds of
light, c_{1} and c_{2}, may differ substantially:
(7)

The geometry of the wave packages (an amplitude A(0) and bordering wave lengths, λ_{1} and λ_{N})
are determined by the geometry of the ether network and can be assumed
to be similar. In this case the energy and the size of packages
(average wavelengths) are the same, but the Planck's constants are
different:
(8)

So,
Planck's constant decreases with an increase in the speed of light. The
carrying frequency of the wave package increases accordingly:
(9)

According to the famous equation:
(10)

photon
mass is in inverse proportion to the square of the speed of light.
Since the momentum of the photon is p=ε/c, increasing the speed of light
leads to a decrease in the momentum:
(11)

Thus,
we have two kinds of photons, with the same range of energies and
sizes, but with substantially different frequencies, momentums and
masses, and moving with different speeds.
What now
can be said about a particle consisting of photons or photonlike
particles? Certainly, for such particles, previous statements about
decreasing masses and increasing frequencies remain true. Take, for
example, an electron with a nonzero resting mass. According to
Pearson's theory, this mass is a sum of kinetic masses of photonlike
particles forming this electron. Therefore its resting mass will obey
the law of eq.(10). The resting energy of this electron, ε_{0e}, is the same in both worlds as well as its Compton's radius:
(12)

According
to quantum mechanics, every moving particle has wave properties. The
corresponding wavelength is determined by the de Broglie relation λ=h/p=h/mv, where m is the mass of the particle and v is its velocity. The frequency of the particle, f, is given by the relation f=W_{kin}/h, where W_{kin}
is the kinetic energy (usual meaning) of the particle. Wave behavior of
electrons manifests itself, for example, in such phenomena as
diffraction of electrons passing through metal film. However, these are
probability waves, and diffraction patterns are the result of
statistics. Statistical behavior of particles (described by quantum
mechanics) is connected with their space extent: a particle can be
considered as a wave package of harmonic waves. This package can be
described as a quantum liquid drop with infinite degrees of freedom [6,7].
By the way, all particles have a field, wave nature, but real lengths
of harmonic waves forming the particle are determined by relations
similar to eq.(12) and not by the de Broglie relation.
Assuming
that typical energies of free elementary particles in both cases have
the same order we may conclude that typical frequencies of particles in
the second world (we'll name this the ethereal world) are much higher
than ones in our first, "physical" world:
(13)

This
is true for all elementary particles (electrons, protons, neutrino,
etc.): typical frequencies of the moving elementary particles increase
proportionally to the speed of light and their masses decrease
proportionally to the square of the light speed.
New electrons, protons and neutrons may form new atoms in the second world. Since the elementary charge, e,
does not change (see eq.(6)), the geometrical structure of atoms is
conserved. For example, Bohr radius, which determines the hydrogen atom
size, does not change:
(14)

This is true also for the Bohr magneton, which determines the magnetic properties of elementary particles and atoms:
(15)

Energy levels and the radii of the circular orbits of the electron in the hydrogen atom are computed by the formulas:
(16)
 
(17)

As can be seen, they are the same in both worlds.
An
atom can absorb a discrete portion (quantum) of electromagnetic energy
(photon) equal to the difference between the levels of energy in
spectrum (16) if an electron "jumps" from a closer orbit to a farther
one. An excited atom radiates a photon when an electron returns to a
closer orbit from a farther one. The magnitude of the emitted or
absorbed quantum of energy,ω_{k}, is given by the condition:
(18)

The same conditions hold valid for manyelectron atoms.
So,
the energy spectrum of electromagnetic waves  photons  emitted and
absorbed by atoms in our world and in the supposed ethereal one is the
same. But the frequency spectrums are different:
(19)

This
is most likely the main reason for the fact that we cannot sense or
record the electromagnetic waves from the ethereal world with our
devices: photons emitted by ethereal atoms have appropriate energies,
but much higher frequencies. An atom as an oscillatory system can absorb
energy of the waves with resonance frequencies only. This means that
our atoms cannot absorb photons emitted by analogous ethereal atoms. On
the other hand, ethereal photons with appropriate (low) frequencies
(created, for example, during braking of ethereal electrons) may be
absorbed by our atoms, but they have too little energy (because of small
Planck's constant) in comparison with "our" photons, and transfer less
momentum than "our" photons by a factor of n^{2}. This makes it difficult to recognize them in the total signal.
Thus, the parallel, ethereal world has the following features:
1)

The speed of light is much higher, than in our world, eq.(7);

2)

Typical
frequencies of elementary particles (photons, electrons, protons,
neutrino, etc.,) are much higher than the corresponding ones in our
world, eqs.(9), (13), (19);

3)

Planck's constant is much smaller, eq.(8);

4)

Masses of elementary particles as well as atoms are much smaller, eq.(10);

5)

Elementary charge is the same, eq.(6);

6)

The structure of atoms: size, geometry and energy spectrum of atoms are the same as in our world;

7)

Ethereal solid, liquid and gaseous matter can be formed from ethereal atoms in the same manner as in our world;

8)

Ethereal
photons as well as the other ethereal elementary particles are
invisible to us because of their high frequencies; this is true also for
ethereal atoms and for solid matter built from these atoms.

The
last statement should be considered the most carefully because of its
great importance. It is based on the assumption that the world has a
fully wave nature, and all elementary particles are constructed from
photonlike or neutrinolike particles with zero rest mass. In this
case, two different wave objects may occupy the same place. They
influence each other, leading to an interference picture, only in the
case where their frequencies are similar. In the quantum mechanics
language the condition for mutual influence of atoms is the appropriate
frequencies of the electromagnetic fields carried by the photons which
are absorbed and emitted by those atoms.
In ordinary
life we feel surrounding things due to electromagnetic interaction
between our own atoms (in our eyes, skin, and neurons, for example) and
photons emitted by atoms of surrounding bodies. Since our atoms cannot
absorb photons emitted by ethereal atoms, the ethereal world is
invisible to us.
The second type of interaction we
have with surrounding bodies is gravitational. We feel the attraction of
the Earth, and most likely the main reason for our need of energy is
the necessity to overcome the force of gravitation. It is interesting to
note that the evolution of life on Earth can be considered as a history
of struggle for food that, in turn, is required for the energy needed
to overcome gravitation! All our digestive, blood and respiratory
systems are needed to provide energy for muscle systems  again  to
overcome gravitation!
In the supposed ethereal world, the gravitational forces are very weak. Actually, the gravitational force between two bodies,, is proportional to the product of their masses, m_{1}m_{2}, and in the ethereal world it will be n^{4} times less than the force between analogous bodies in the our world. For example, if n=100,. It means that living etherians, if they exist, don't need energy to overcome gravitational attraction.
What
would life be like in the ethereal world? We may suppose that etherians
have no problems with food because they don't need nearly as much
energy as Earth people. They may possibly receive appropriate chemical
energy (mainly for brain and nervous activity) immediately from
electromagnetic fields (fluxes of ethereal photons) and neutrino flows.
If so, they don't need digestive and blood systems, nor a respiratory
system. They can move very quickly because of the absence of
gravitational forces and atmosphere resistance, small mass and high
light velocity. So, they have no problems with territory and do not
struggle for their existence. At least, not in the same way as in our
world.
Can we interact with this world? Might there exist a number of parallel worlds with different constants c and ? These are interesting questions...
Parallel Ethereal World and the Principle of Relativity
According
to the Special Theory of Relativity, we live in a 4dimensional world
in which three coordinates are spatial, and the forth one is connected
with time, t, and should be taken in the form (ict), where c is the light velocity and i is the imaginary unit. In this space every material body or system has a 4dimensional energymomentum vector, (cp_{x}, cp_{y}, cp_{z}, imc^{2}). The square of this vector is invariant for all inertial (that is, nonaccelerated) frames of reference:
(20)

If, for example, a frame of reference is connected with the particle moving along axis X with the velocity v,
coordinates and momentums in this new reference are connected with ones
in the initial frame of reference by the Lorentz relations:
(21)

The speed of light, c,
is the same for all such frames of reference, independent of the motion
of the observer, and it is the maximum possible velocity for all
material bodies in our world.
Special theory of
relativity does not consider, however, the possibility of relative
motion along the forth, timeaxis. Our world can be considered as moving
along this axis with the speed of light.
Let us introduce a new frame of reference which moves along the timeaxis with the speed c_{1}. Coordinate transformation which conserves a square of energymomentum vector is given by:
(22)

The last equation requires also the change of masses:
(23)

that exactly coincides with eqs.(10). In this case the square of energymomentum vector is invariant of the transformation (22):
(24)

Velocities of a body in the new and the old frames of reference are connected by the relation:
(25)

So,
we obtained the same results as previously, eqs.(10), (11). The new
result is the change in the rate of time: with increasing the light
velocity the rate of time decreases. But what is the physical meaning of
time?
We use time to characterize: a) space
transference of material objects; b) the rate of processes such as
transformations of elementary particles, nuclear and chemical reactions.
Transference in space is characterized by the product (v×t). According
to eqs. (22) and (25), this product does not change:
(26)

As
about nuclear and chemical reactions as well as transformations of
elementary particles, their rates, apparently, are also connected with
the light velocity in the given frame of reference, namely, they are
proportional to it. If K is the rate of a certain reaction in the system
with the light velocity c, and K_{1} is the rate of the same reaction in the system with the light velocity c_{1}, the following equality can be assumed:
(27)

and the quantity of the reaction productsdoes
not change. By this means the slow down of the rate of time is
compensated by acceleration of all processes with increasing the light
velocity. As a result, all processes, including vital activity, occur in
the same manner, in both frames of reference, in accordance with
General Principle of Relativity.
The principle of
relativity, in the most general form, including acceleration and
rotation of frames of reference, was taken into account by G. Shipov in
his theory of physical vacuum [5].
Shipov's vacuum equations have allowed the General Theory of Relativity
to be combined with electrodynamics and with quantum field theory. It
turned out that these equations do not contain any universal constants
such as light velocity, Planck's constant or elementary electrical
charge. Certain combinations of these constants should be introduced
into the equations. Using a certain velocity of light, c, Shipov
determines a density of matter as following [5]:
(28)

where T_{im} is the energymomentum tensor, g^{im}
is the metric tensor. Transformation of the coordinate frame of
reference (22) conserves the value of T, so the density of matter is
inversely proportional to the square of light velocity, in accordance
with our assumption (23). So, an existence of material systems with a
different velocity of light does not contradict the General Principle of
Relativity used in the theory of physical vacuum [5].
Existence of the Second Body
According
to many religious doctrines, and in the views of many
parapsychologists, mediums and extrasensors, we possess a second body,
or soul, which leaves our physical body at the moment of death. Some
people have recounted that they saw themselves from above while in the
state of clinical death.
Let us assume that we really
possess a second body that exists in the parallel ethereal world. Let
us also assume that this second body is an exact (or almost exact) copy
of our first, "physical" body: it consists of analogous atoms,
molecules, cells, organs, a brain and nervous systems. What should be
the mass of this body? According to eq.(10),
(29)

There
is some evidence that at the moment of death the weight of the human
body decreases by several grams. If we associate this decrease with the
release of the second body, it can be used to evaluate n. For example,
if M_{body}=80kg and ΔM=M_{second}=2g,.
Unfortunately, the data for weight decrease is not reliable because the
weight may decrease for a number of different reasons. But it gives us a
principal possibility to evaluate n and correspondingly the speed of light in the ethereal world.
The
statement that the second body is tightly bound to the "physical" body
and leaves it during death leads to the following conclusions:
1)

Our two worlds may interact:
a) change in weight manifests gravitational interaction of an ethereal body with the Earth;
b) attractive interaction between our ethereal and "physical" bodies, F_{etph}, exists;

2)

The force of interaction F_{etph} depends on vital functions of our body:
when they cease or fall off substantially, this force vanishes (or weakens, as in the case of clinical death);

3)

This is a longrange interaction:
the second body may return to the "physical" one if the latter resumes its vital functions.

The
existence of this force of interaction can be connected with energy
flows both in our physical body and in the second body while we are
alive. However, this will be the subject of future work.
Conclusions
The
invisible part of the universe has a physical structure similar to the
world we sense: the matter is built from atoms, which, in turn, are
constructed from nucleons and electrons, with the same elementary
electrical charge. The size, structure and energy spectrum of ethereal
atoms and presently detected atoms are the same.
The ethereal world is invisible to us because of different "universal" constants such as the speed of light, c, and Planck's constant, h, while their product, c×h,
which determines the elementary charge, is conserved. The ethereal
speed of light is much higher than the one in our world, and Planck's
constant is much smaller. This leads to higher frequencies in the
ethereal elementary particles, and in particular, photons, which realize
the electromagnetic interaction between atoms. Our atoms cannot absorb
ethereal photons, and the ethereal world remains invisible to us.
There
apparently exists gravitational interaction between the ethereal world
and our world, but this interaction is very small because of the very
small masses of ethereal bodies.
References
1.

Sir William Crookes FRS, Researches into the Phenomena of Spiritualism, Two Worlds Publishing Company Ltd, 1904.

2.

Sir Oliver Lodge FRS, The Mode of Future Existence, 1933 Lecture.

3.

Michael Roll, The Scientific Proof of Survival after Death  www.cfpf.org.uk

4.

Ronald Pearson, Consciousness as a SubQuantum Phenomena,
Frontier Perspectives, the magazine of The Center for Frontier
Perspectives at Temple University. Volume 6, Number 2. Spring/Summer
1997.

5.

Shipov G. I., Theory of physical vacuum, "Nauka", Moscow, 1997

6.

Madelung B. Zetshr.Phys.,1926, Bd.40, 332

7.

Alekseev B.V., Abakumov A.M., DAN USSR, 1982, v.262, No.5, p.1100.


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