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Monday, March 26, 2012

UFOs - ADVANCED AERIAL DEVICES reported DURING THE KOREAN WAR (1)






ADVANCED AERIAL DEVICES
 
reported
 
DURING THE KOREAN WAR
 



Richard F. Haines
 
  
 
LDA Press, Los Altos, California
P. O. Box 880
94023-0880
 


 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED UNDER
INTERNATIONAL AND PAN-AMERICAN
COPYRIGHT CONVENTIONS
 
 
 
 
Copyright 1990
Richard F. Haines
 
 
 
 
All rights reserved
 
ISBN 0-9618082-1-7
 
 
Printed in U.S.A.

 

 
i
 
 
FOREWORD


            After a period of low activity, the mystery of unidentified flying objects is back in the news. Along with a large number of curious readers it is now attracting a new generation of serious students. Many of them are young people who have taken an interest in the most recent American books, films and stories about the phenomenon, without much knowledge or appreciation for its earlier phases. As they start digging into the past and as they gather documentation to feed their curiosity they will find that UFOs have been around for a very long time and that they have been seen not only in America but all over the world.

            Good knowledge of these earlier patterns is essential to place current events in the proper perspective.

            The period covered in this book, namely the first half of the Decade of the Fifties, should be of special interest to such readers. Dr. Haines has taken the intriguing and unusual vantage point of the Korean War, a conflict that placed thousands of Americans in a faraway land. Will we find that their experiences with flying disks of unknown origin matched those of the folks back home? With the enormous detection and tracking power at their disposal, what did the U. S. Armed Forces learn about the elusive objects? The answers are clearly important for our understanding of the overall phenomenon.

            Dr. Richard Haines was the right person to document this period and to ask such questions. An expert in the psychology of perception and a skilled investigator of UFO events, he is as comfortable testing the reactions of pilots to visual stimuli in the laboratories of NASA as he is interviewing witnesses of unusual aerial sightings on a windswept mountaintop. He is one of the few true scientists in this difficult field. He brings to this study an impeccable methodology and he is always careful to separate observation and measurement from illusion and speculation.


 
ii
 
            A French physicist named Laplace once observed (in his 1812 book Analytic Theory of Probability):
 
We are so far from knowing all the agents of nature that it would be unphilosophical to deny the existence of phenomena simply because they are unexplained in the current state of our knowledge. However, we must examine them with a degree of scrutiny which is all the more intense that it seems more difficult to admit them.

            It is to such "intense scrutiny" that Dr. Haines has subjected the UFO reports made during the Korean War.

            Many of the cases he cites are fascinating, but the reader will want to study with special care the sighting near Chorwon in the Spring of 1951 mentioned in Chapter Two, an event in which an entire artillery unit fired at a hovering disk displaying remarkable properties. In my opinion it is one of the most significant reports in the entire literature because of the rich combination of physical and physiological facts it provides.

            Many other periods in the tumultuous history of UFO reports should be analyzed in the manner used here by Dr. Haines. Now that he has shown us how to conduct such an analysis, it is my hope that others will undertake this interesting and rewarding task.


Jacques Vallee
San Francisco


 
iii
 
 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

            It is indeed a pleasure to thank the many people who helped me in various ways during preparation of this book. First of all, to each of the many eye witnesses of these events goes my gratitude and respect for their courage to report their experiences in the first place, particularly to Mr. Francis P. Wall. It will partially be through such brave acts that we will, one day, discover the core identity of the so-called UFO phenomenon. In addition, the following persons deserve my sincere thanks.
            To the Archives Division of the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum for permission to reproduce selected photographs of combat aircraft. To John P. Timmerman Vice President of Public Relations for the J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies for obtaining part of the interview material in Chapter Two. To Loren Gross for his able assistance in locating some US AF Project Blue Book reports as well as old newspaper clippings. To David L. Black, Director of Public Affairs, Defense Mapping Agency for helpful advice on how to obtain charts from the Korean War period. To Lt. Col. Clayton R. Newell, Chief Historical Systems Division, Department of the Army. To the Chief of Military History at the Center of Military History who provided valuable suggestions on how to obtain further wartime data. To John R. Gerfen, Chief, Army Reference Branch, National Personnel Records Center for copies of wartime unit personnel rosters. Finally, I am grateful to my wife Carol for her expert editorial assistance which made this text far more readable than it otherwise would have been.
 

 


iv
 
 
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    The Korean Peninsula 3
    Command Structure for U.S. Air Operations 6
    B-29 Bomber in Flight 8
    F-86 Sabre Jet 9
    Captured Soviet Made MiG-15 12
    Eyewitness Sketch of UFO 19
    F-94C Starfire Jet Interceptor 41
    C-54 in Flight 46
    F4U-4B Aircraft in Flight 49
    T-6 Aircraft in Ground Bunkers 57


LIST OF TABLES

                                1.  Historical Events Surrounding the Korean War   13
 
                                2.  Historical UFO Events                                      15

 


v
 
CONTENTS

    Foreword i
    Acknowledgements iii
    List of Illustrations iv
    List of Tables iv
    Contents v
    Overview 1
    Chapter 1 The Stage is Set 2
    Chapter 2  GI Fires Upon an Unidentified Aerial Object 18
    Chapter 3  American Pilots Report UFOs over Korea 28
    Chapter 4  Ground Observers Report UFOs over Korea 62
    References 68
    Appendices  
    1. Weather Balloon Characteristics 70
    2. Shapes and Sizes of UFO Reported 71
    3. Eye Witnesses Listed by Sighting Date 71
    4. Summary of Unusual or Provocative  72
           UFO Flight Maneuvers     
    5. Electromagnetic Effect Cases 74


 
 

Page l



Overview
 
            This book begins with a brief overview of the major historical events of the Korean War period to help set the stage for the UFO sighting reports which follow. Also presented are some important UFO events which took place just before and during the war years. Forty two UFO reports are presented here. More than 63 military pilots, soldiers, ground radar operators, naval personnel, and others covering the period September 1950 to the winter of 1954 contributed to these interesting reports. Six of these cases (14%) involve some kind of electromagnetic effect while another seven (17%) include flight maneuvers by aerial phenomena that rival or exceed those of the airplanes that flew in the war. Another six cases (14%) strongly suggest intelligently guided flight control of the UFO relative to the airplane's movements. UFO shape names (number of each in parentheses) include: disc (9), sphere, round, circular (7), oval (2), cigar, Japanese lantern, coolie hat, cylinder, coin, cartwheel, cloud-like. Of the eighteen cases (43%) in which sighting duration is cited, the mean is 6.14 minutes. Fifteen sightings (36%) took place during daylight hours. One report was made during 1950, three in 1951, 24 (57%) in 1952, five in 1953, and one in 1954. Of those that occurred in 1952, seven took place in May and seven in June. Descriptions of the UFOs involved during the May-June 1952 period show a remarkable consistency including such shape names as: oval that is "larger than a MiG", "50 foot diameter", "circular dark object that is flattened on top and bottom", "round", "coin with a 7:1 ratio", "disc with 7:1 ratio and 15-20 foot diameter", "revolving disc". Although the U.S. Air Force's official conclusions for many of these cases was a lighted enemy balloon, most of the sighting data do not support this explanation. It is quite clear that the reported phenomena are closely similar in all major respects to other UFO cases both before and after the Korean War. There is virtually no evidence of hostile intent shown by the UFO(s) during any of these close aerial encounters. Is it possible that others were only interested in how wars are fought on Earth?



 
Page 2
 
Chapter 1
 
The Stage is Set

            Barely 59 months after the Japanese signed an unconditional surrender on September 2, 1945, a relatively minor civil war broke out on the Korean Peninsula between the Democratic Republic of (South) Korea and the communistic Democratic People's Republic of (North) Korea. Some historians point out that what started as a civil war limited to a then third rate economic and strategic nation; escalated rapidly into an undeclared training ground for new weapons systems, advanced strategic planning, and armed forces drawn from more than seventeen other nations fighting on the side of freedom and democracy. The enemy comprised two nations (North Korea, Red China) with the Soviet Union standing in the background, supplying training personnel and materiel. Many claimed that the Korean conflict was only an inevitable consequence of the larger "cold war" that was raging between America and the Soviet Union.
 
            America's real military strategy in Korea was "...to ensure that it did not grow into World War 3. This meant that political leaders (in Washington) were in charge of the war strategy rather than the military leaders (in the field)." (Anon., pg. 3-38, 1986).
 
            The Korean peninsula (see Figure 1) was supposed to become an independent nation during WW2 (according to the super powers United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France). "When the war with Japan was over, there were no US troops in Korea. Since it would take some time to move troops into the peninsula, the United States asked that the Soviets accept the surrender of all Japanese troops north of the 38th parallel in Korea and the United States all those south of the parallel. The division was supposed to be a temporary measure, but the Soviets began to treat it as a permanent boundary, and they took control of North Korea. The Soviets did not want to see Korea become a free nation and come under Western influence." (Anon, 1986)
 
Page 3
 
 
  

 
Page 4
 
 
            But our concern is not so much with politics as it is with the state of advanced warfare technology at this time. What did the United States Air Force have in its arsenal during this war? What were the Russians flying? Were there other nations with advanced flying craft that did not have wings but could fly higher and faster than anything either the Russians or the Americans had? The answer is a simple NO!
 
            Of special note is the fact that recently uncovered, seemingly authentic U.S. government documents have indicated that our government had in its possession at least one highly advanced spacecraft not from this planet which was allegedly recovered in 1947 in New Mexico (note 1). If this is true and scientists had succeeded in understanding how to duplicate its advanced technology, then some or all of the UFO reports coming from Korea could represent an American technological development. Then one would have to ask: (1) why these disks were not used in a more aggressive way to help win the war, (2) why these disks never crashed or were never recovered by anyone, (3) why our Air Force has continued to spend millions of dollars (since the Korean war) on turbo-jet engines and swept-wing airplanes rather than on self-propelled metallic-surfaced oblate spheroid (discs), and (4) why we have seen no UFO like aerial objects fighting in the Viet Nam war to help the U.S. forces win. If the aerial objects to be described are not American, Soviet, or from another nation on earth then an intriguing possibility exists; viz., they represent an alien technology.
 
            One of the interesting things about the Korean "Conflict" as it was called at the time was the role played by the world's two super powers, each supplying their respective surrogate Korean armies in the field, at least until November of 1950 when soldiers and materiel from Communist China flooded across the Yalu River into North Korea. What had started out as a localized peace keeping action by United Nations troops suddenly presented the spectre of all-out war with China, the most populous nation on the earth. A nuclear sword swung tenuously above both sides of the conflict.
 
            The Soviets had largely equipped North Korea's army and its air force. It was, perhaps, partly a field training exercise for them to see how well their planes and tanks, their ammunition and other war materiel would fare in the extremely cold weather and in the hands of less well trained soldiers. On June 25, 1950 the North Koreans had flooded across the 38th parallel, the former boundary with their cousins to the south, and quickly overran the smaller and less well prepared South Korean units. With the Soviet delegate voluntarily absent, the United Nations Security Council in New York City invoked
 
Page 5
 
 
military sanctions against North Korea (June 27, 1950) and formally requested its member states to give whatever aid they could to South Korea. The die had been cast.
 
            Poured into this already fiery hot mold were soldiers from the following countries:
 

 
    United States of America      
    Australia  
    Belgium  
    Luxembourg  
    Canada  
    Columbia  
    Ethiopia  
    Great Britain  
    Greece  
    Italy (not a U.N. member)  
    Netherlands  
    New Zealand  
    Philippines  
    South Africa  
    Thailand  
    Turkey  
 
            Many hundreds of thousands were to be maimed or killed in the fray. The mold was severe and unforgiving as it is in any war to those who must do the fighting. A total of 25,604 U.S. servicemen were killed in this "conflict" with another 137,051 listed as casualties. South Korea lost 415,004 soldiers with more than 1,312,800 casualties. The other U.N. participating nations lost 3,094 men with over 16,500 casualties. It has been estimated that the communist's casualties were about two million (Morse, vol. 15, 1969).
 
            The free world's armed forces were unified under United Nations command. It was headed by General Douglas MacArthur, Commander in Chief, Far East Command (FECOM). General MacArthur reported to the Joint Chiefs of Staff concerning all of the U.S. forces (Momyer, 1978). Figure 2 illustrates the command structure for U.S. air operations in Korea in 1950. What it doesn't show is General MacArthur's failure to establish an army component command since "He reserved to himself the roles of the Far East Command structure." (Ibid., pg. 53) Both the U.S. Navy and Air Force set up respective components named the Naval Forces Far East and Far East Air Force commands, respectively. Both had staffs manned so as to direct their respective forces throughout the area of MacArthur's responsibility. Whether or not this short-coming (not having a balanced staff represented by all of the armed services) contributed to how UFO sighting reports were handled remains to be seen.
 
            The U.S. Navy's Task Force 77 operated off the Eastern coast of Korea in
 
Page 6
 
 
the Sea of Japan with its aircraft carriers providing interdiction of enemy aircraft, bombing support, and close air support for Marine operations up to 70 miles inland along the entire length of North Korea's coast.
 
            Reference to Figure 2 shows that the Commanding General of the 5th Air Force was located in Korea and exercised operational control of Marine aircraft as well as coordinating bomber strikes with all other forces such as flak suppression and fighter support.
 
 


U.S. Air Power During the Korean War:
 
            But what about the Air Force participants? Who were they? What units were called up for service so soon after the Second World War had ended? The Far East Air Force (FEAF) consisted of these units
 
 
 
 
Page 7
 
         
  5th Air Force   13th Air Force  
  20th Air Force   Far East Air Materiel Command  
  Far East Air Force Base      
         
 
 
            The Far East Air Force Command (FEAF) was under the command of Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer (1890-1969). On October 8th, 1950 he requested that he be given full operational control of all air units. This meant that he would be able to fully coordinate the Air Force's mission with those of other ground forces; even specifying the amount of forces to be deployed, the type of munitions, the time on and off targets, and the controlling agencies.
 
            FEAF chose all their targets (both for the Air Force and Naval carrier-based aircraft) by means of a "targeting committee" that was composed of Navy and Air Force representatives. This coordinated approach had proven itself in North African air operations where there were little or no industrial targets and other targets required less force to destroy or neutralize.
 
            As indicated above, the 5th Air Force was coordinated by the Far East Bomber Command and, in turn, coordinated fighter escort. Air route planning to and from targets was the joint responsibility of the 5th Air Force and Far East Bomb Command. B-29 bombers were used extensively during the war (Figure 3). The Far East Bomber Command consisted of three B-29 groups drawn from the Strategic Air Command (SAC).
 
            Following are different airplane models flown by U.S. pilots during the Korean War: (Maximum speed [mph] is given in brackets)
 
          F-80 (Shooting Star) [543]
          F-84 (Thunder jet) [622]
          F4U-4B (Marine) [450] (see Figure 9)
          F7F-3N [427]
          F9F-2 (Panther jet) (note 2) [625] F-94 [600] (see Figure 7)
          AD Skyraider (Navy, propeller-driven aircraft) (note 3) [320]
          P-51 (Mustang) [370]
          F-86 (Sabrejet) [680] (see Figure 4)
          T-6 [205] (see Figure 10)
          B-26 (2 engine bomber) [282]
          B-29 (4 engine heavy bomber) [358] (sec Figure 3)
          C-54 (troop transport) [274] (see Figure 8)

 
Page 8
 
Figure 3
B-29 Bomber in Flight
 
(Reproduced by permission of the National
Air and Space Museum Smithsonian
Institution)
 
 
           
 
            The F-100 Super Sabre flew for the first time in 1953 but was not used in the Korean War.
 
            North American Aviation's all-weather F-86 Sabrejet was the nearest combat fighter America had to the MiG-15 in most operational respects. It was the "...best aircraft the U.S. had during the Korean War" (Anon., pg. 3-41, 1986). It was 41 feet long with a wing span of 37' 1". Its loaded weight was 16,500 pounds. The F-86 had a maximum speed of over 660 mph and a service ceiling of about 50,000 feet. Its armament consisted (model E) of six 50 cal. machine guns in the nose. There also were provisions for 16-127mm rockets under the wings and two each 1,000 pound bombs or two each 2,000
 
Page 9
 
pound bombs in lieu of auxiliary fuel tanks. Three prototypes were ordered in May 1945; the XP-86 flew for the first time on October 1, 1947.
 
Figure 4
 
F-86 Sabre Jet
(Reproduced by permission of the
National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution)
 


  
            In November 1950 the 4th Fighter Interceptor Group arrived in Japan with its F-86As and soon operated out of Kimpo air base in South Korea (Jackson, 1979). Regarding air operations, Braybrook (1987) said that F-86s generally "...flew in sections of four aircraft, up to eight sections together, and between 35,000 and 45,000 feet...depending on model. The MiG-15s crossed the border at around 50,000 feet in 'trains' of 60 to 80 aircraft." He goes on to point out that most F-86 kills of Communist aircraft were made without radar; most used a fixed gunsight and approached the enemy from the enemies' 6 o'clock position.
 
            By the close of the war there were seven U.S. fighter wings in Korea with
 
Page 10
 
297 F-86s and 218 F-84s. Sabre operations peaked at 7,696 sorties in June 1953 and an average of 26 sorties per aircraft for that month (Braybrook, 1987). Sabres destroyed 810 enemy aircraft, 792 of which were MiG-15s. Seventy eight U.S. aircraft were lost.
 
            U.N. airplanes provided air cover for U.N. ground forces. Two weapons in particular proved to be the best new weapons in Korea, napalm and aerial rockets. The rockets had the destructive force of a 105mm cannon shell. Napalm bombs were 110 gallon tanks of jelled gasoline which exploded in fire over an area 250 feet long and 80 feet wide.
 
            What could an American pilot do if he chased a Soviet MiG airplane north over the Red Chinese border? The FEAF commander was given guidance from Washington. So called "hot pursuit" was authorized under some conditions, "...but attacks against aircraft taking off from bases across the Yalu (river) were not." (Ibid., pg. 56) It is interesting to note that none of the UFO sighting reports presented here includes a "hot pursuit" very far because the unidentified aerial craft almost always outperformed the pursuing jet airplanes.
 
Soviet Air Power During the Korean War:
 
            This is a list of some of the airplanes flown by the air forces of the North Koreans, the Chinese Communists, and the Soviet Union.
 
La-9 (single engine, propeller driven fighter) [430]
La-11 (single engine, propeller driven fighter) [420]
Ilyushin 10 (single engine, propeller driven fighter) [300]
YAK-9 (single engine, propeller driven fighter)
YAK-15 (single engine, propeller driven fighter)
MiG-15 (single engine, jet fighter) [680] (see Figure 5)
TU-2 (bomber) [340]
 
            It is instructive to note that at this time the Soviets had over 15,000 MiG model 15s available (Nowarra and Duval, pg. 168, 1972). Stockwell (1956) estimates the number to be from 12,000 to 15,000. The Red Chinese Air Force supposedly had about 1,000 MiG-15s as they entered the Korean War. This jet fighter interceptor was affectionately code named "Fagot" by N.A.T.O. officials. Braybrook (1987) points out that the number of Communist aircraft peaked at about 1,800 (950 MiGs) with over 400 parked at one airfield in North Korea.
 
Page 11
 
            The MiG-15 measured only 36' 4" long, with a wing span of 33' 1" (Figure 5). It weighed 8,316 pounds empty and could carry a payload of 5,907 pounds in addition to its single pilot. Its gross weight was 11,264 pounds. Its top speed was about 680 mph (Mach limit = 0.89) at sea level and had a service ceiling of 51,000 feet and a range of 1200 miles with underwing fuel tanks. It stalled at (or possessed a minimum air speed of) 109 mph. The MiG-15 carried one 400 rounds per minute, 37mm cannon and two 23mm caliber cannons in addition to two each 990 pound bombs. This fighter entered the war on November 1, 1950 when a flight of six aircraft attacked Air Force Mustangs south of the Yalu River without doing any damage. Soviet units regularly flew combat duty over Korea in conjunction with Chinese Communists and North Korean formations (Jackson, Pg. 94, 1979).
 
            The U.S. Air Force Junior ROTC publication "Aerospace Science: History of Air Power" (Anon., 1986) states that the MiG-15 "...was faster, more maneuverable, could climb faster and higher, and possessed more firepower than the F-80, F-84,or the Navy F-9F(sic) fighters. In fact, the MiG-15 even had the edge, at high altitude, over the F-86 Sabrejets which were the best aircraft the United States had during the Korean War." Because of superior pilot skill by U.S. pilots, nine MiGs were shot down for every U.S. aircraft.
 
            The La-9 was a Soviet designed and built fighter, code named "Fritz". It possessed a maximum speed of 430 mph at sea level and a service ceiling of 35,600 feet. Its wing span was 34' 9" and was 30' 2" long. This piston-driven propellor airplane was in service until the 1948 - 1950 period.
 
            Another Soviet fighter that was used in combat was the La-11, code named "Fang". It is comparable in design to Republic's P-47N "Thunder-bolt." Delivered in early 1946, this single seat fighter interceptor was only 28' 6.5" long with a wing span of 31' 10". Its top speed was about 420 mph with a service ceiling of about 34,000 feet. It flew in Korea with Chinese and North Korean markings (Jackson, pg. 76, 1979). It carried three each 20 or 23 mm cannons.
 
            A large number of UFO sighting reports are presented in the pages to follow. If these UFO were enemy weapons of war: (1) why would they continue to be used during the truce period? (2) why would the U.S. not be able to identify them more definitively? and (3) why weren't they used more effectively by the enemy during the actual conflict? There were no UFO reports found which demonstrated clearly hostile intent toward U.S. personnel on the part of the unusual aerial phenomena.
 
Page 12
 
 
Figure 5
 
Captured Soviet Made MiG-15
 
 
(Reproduced by permission of the
National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution)
 
 
 
 
Military and Political Events:
 
            It is important to have some idea of the major military and political events which took place before and during the Korean Conflict. A number of them are listed in Table 1. It may be significant that the first UFO sighting report was not made until September 1950. It took place 100 miles south of the Yalu River. Twenty two separate sightings occurred after the truce negotiations were underway. This is interesting in light of the fact that open hostilities had ended and yet clearly defined UFO reports continued to come in from observers on the ground and in the sky.
 
Page 13
 
 
Table 1
 
Historical Events Surrounding the Korean War
(See Key for abbreviations)
                ________________________________________________________
           
Historical Background
           
Jan. 20, 1945     Harry S. Truman begins Presidency
July 16, 1945     World's first Atom bomb detonated near Alamogordo, New Mexico
Aug. 5, 1945     Atom bomb exploded over Japanese city of Hiroshima
Aug. 15, 1945   Soviet Union takes control of NK military government until Dec. 26, 1948
Sept. 8, 1945     USA takes control of SK military government
March 11, 1948 Key West Agreement (James Forrestal, Secy, of Defense) assembled Joint Chiefs of
                               Staff at Key West to decide "who will do what"
Early 1949        Soviets withdraw all troops from NK; USA does same from SK except for small group
                               of military advisors (withdrawn later that year)
July 1949          President Truman signs North Atlantic Treaty
Dec. 22, 1949   Prototype flight of F-86E in Los Angeles
1949-1950        NK tries unsuccessfully to take control of SK through insurgency operations
 
The Civil War Begins
 
June 25, 1950    NK army invades SK at nine different points
June 27, 1950    U.N. declares official sanctions against NK. President Truman orders General MacArthur
                               to use air and naval forces in defense of SK
June 28, 1950    Seoul (capital of SK) falls to NK invaders
July 1950          All U.N. forces retreat to perimeter-defense line about 50 miles around Pusan
Sept 15, 1950    Amphibious landing made at Inchon. First contact of U.S. forces of X Corps with
                              NK forces 200 miles north of the NK defensive positions
Sept 26, 1950    Seoul recaptured
Oct 20, 1950     U.N. forces move north across 38th parallel and capture the capital of NK (Pyongyang).                             Some units move north of the Yalu river, the national boundary between NK and China
 
Page 14
 
Nov. 1950        Red Chinese army units 850,000 strong, cross into NK to fight against U.N. troops
Nov. 24, 1950   MacArthur orders an "end-the-war" offensive. A massive Chinese counteroffensive
                              almost immediately cancels this thrust
Nov. 26, 1950   Red Chinese soldiers cut the escape route of over 200,000 U.N. soldiers and marines
                              who are evacuated by ship from the port of Hungnan
Dec. 5, 1950    The Chinese hoards sweep south to recapture Pyongyang
Jan. 4, 1951     The Chinese recapture Seoul in first major offensive
Feb. 22, 1951   U.N. Command initiates "Operation Killer" along a broad front well south of Seoul
                              and pushes north with superior firepower
Feb. 1951        Red Chinese make advances in second major offensive
March 14, 1951 Seoul is recaptured by U.N. troops
April 8, 1951    President Truman sends orders relieving Gen. MacArthur of his command. MacArthur
                              had publically advocated direct attacks against the communists in Manchuria, an
                              act considered to be insubordination toward the President and U.S. Congress
April 21, 1951  Gen. MacArthur leaves FEAF command. Gen. Matthew Ridgway (1895-1971)
                              given command of  FEAF
April-May 1951 Red Chinese mount third major offensive

Attritive Phase of the War Begins
 
April 22, 1951    U.N. troops occupy positions just north of 38th parallel along a line that remained
                              almost constant for the remainder of the war.
                        The battle field strategy remained to inflict maximum personnel loss along the fixed
                              battle front and from the air. This approach could not drive the enemy from the
                              field and could never result in total victory, like that achieved in WW2.
May 1951        General Van Fleet (Eighth Army Commander) orders a huge coordinated counteroffensive.
May 9, 1951     Largest air strike of the war. Over 300 fighters and fighter-bombers attack Sinuiju
                              near the Yalu River.
 
Page 15
 
July 10, 1951   Truce negotiations begin at Kaesong between U.N. representatives and
                              Communist commands
Oct 1952       Negotiations break down over one final principle (i.e., prisoners of war should not
                              be returned to their respective armies against their wills)                      
Nov. 1, 1952     U.S. explodes its first Hydrogen bomb at Eniwetok Pacific Proving Grounds
                              (Operation Ivy)
Nov. 4, 1952    Dwight D. Eisenhower elected 34th President of the USA
Dec. 1953       President elect Eisenhower visits Korea
April 1953       Negotiations resume
July 27, 1953   Truce agreement signed at Panmunjom
Aug. 1953       Soviet Union explodes a thermonuclear weapon
 
                ________________________________________________________
 
Abbreviations:

            SK = South Korea; NK = North Korea;

            The historical events cited in Table 1 are political and military in nature. But what about UFO happenings? There were many other events going on at the same time which should be kept in mind as the war raged in Korea. Some of the more prominent events are listed in Table 2.
 
                 ________________________________________________________
 
 
Table 2
 
Historical UFO Events
 
July 1947        U.S. Air Force begins to study UFO reports seriously after receiving numerous reports
                             by pilots and others in America.
Sept. 23,1947  Chief of the Air Technical Intelligence Center (ATIC prepares letter to
                             Commanding General of the Air Force stating that it is ATIC's opinion that
                             UFOs are real and urges that a permanent project be established to study them.
Jan. 22, 1948   Project Sign (also known as Project Saucer) established at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
Sept 1948       Top Secret "Estimate of the Situation" prepared by ATIC; sent to A.F. Chief of Staff,
                             Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg; returned for more proof; later declassified and burned!
                             (Hall, pg. 106, 1964).
Feb. 11, 1949  U.S. Air Force UFO Project renamed "Project Grudge".
Dec. 27, 1949 Project Grudge final report released; all sightings explained away as delusions, hoaxes,
                              and crackpot reports. Termination of the project is announced.
 
Page 16
 

Sept. 15, 1951 A Pentagon general requests briefing on Project Grudge findings by Lt. Jerry
                             Cummings and a Lt. Col. from ATIC; orders given to set up a new study project.
                             Early reports of UFO in Korea very likely figured in this request.
Sept. 1951       Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt appointed chief of UFO study activity (supported by:
                             Lt. Bob Olsson, Lt. Henry Metscher, Lt Andy Flues, and Lt. Kerry Rothstien).
March 1952       Project Blue Book (code name) officially established at ATIC.
April 1952       Life Magazine publishes major article "Have We Visitors from Space?" Hall
                             (1964, pg. 107) suggests it was inspired by several top Air Force officers in
                             the Pentagon. AF Letter 200-5 issued giving Project Blue Book fuller, direct
                             access to pilot (and other) sighting reports.
July 1952       Newly established Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) publishes
                             first issue of the APRO Bulletin.
                             Civilian Saucer Investigation (study group) of Los Angeles, California is
                                  founded (Jacobs, pg. 84, 1975).
Aug. 1952       A USAF study of UFO maneuvers begins; emphasis is on possibility of intelligent
                             UFO control.
Jan. 14-17, 1953 A.F. (with C.I.A. according to Hall; Ibid.) convenes top scientists to study
                             all available UFO evidence (Robertson Panel). Maj. Dewey Fournet presents
                             evidence and conclusions that UFOs are of interplanetary origin.
Jan. 17, 1953    Panel concludes its review without it being made public. (Hall notes that "since
                             then, two conflicting versions have been released").
Dec. 1953       Joint Chiefs issue "Joint-Army-Navy-Air Force Publication (JANAP) 146"
                             entitled "Canadian United States Communications Instructions for Reporting
                             Vital Intelligence Sightings"
 
Page 17
 
            It is very likely that the numerous high quality U.S. military sightings of UFOs from the
Korean War zone contributed significantly to continuing Project Blue Book by the U.S. Air Force.
 
Notes:
  1. William Moore presented this astonishing information during the 1987 annual meeting of the Mutual UFO Network held on June 26-28 at The American University, Washington, D.C. He distributed an eight page report entitled "Briefing Document: Operation Majestic 12 Prepared for President-Elect Dwight D. Eisenhower: (Eyes Only), 18 November, 1952" which allegedly documents this.
  2. First saw action in Korea on July 3, 1950 when an F9F-2 shot down a Mig-15.
  3. First saw action in Korea on July 3, 1950.
 
 


 
Page 18
 
 
 
Chapter 2
 
GI Fires Upon an Unidentified Aerial Object
 

            Following is a transcript of an interview between Mr. Francis P. Wall, a private first class in the U.S. Army during the Korean War and Mr. John Timmerman who is Project Manager for the photo exhibit of the J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies in the Fall of 1987. It has not been edited in any way. This interesting event began at dusk and ended at about 9 pm local time.
 
            "This event that I am about to relate to you is the truth, so help me God. (Note 1) It happened in the early Spring of 1951 in the country of Korea. We were in the Army infantry. I was in the 25th Division, 27th Regiment, 2nd Battalion, "Easy" Company (note 2). We were in what is known on the military maps as the Iron Triangle, near Chorwon. We were to the left of Chorwon, just across the mountain ridge from this city - town - whatever you want to call it. It is night. We are located upon the slopes of a mountain, between the fingers of a mountain as they as they run down toward the valley below where there is a Korean village. Previously we have sent our men into this village to warn the populous that we are going to bombard it with artillery. Upon this night that I'm talkin' about, we were doin' just that. We had aerial artillery bursts comin' in. And we suddenly noticed down, with the mountains to our backs, we noticed on our right-hand side what appeared to be a jack-o-lantem come wafting down across the mountain. And at first no one thought anything about it. So we noticed that this thing continued on down to the village to where, indeed, the artillery air bursts were exploding. And we further noted, by the way, it had an orange glow in the beginning, we further noticed that this object would get right into... it was that quick that it could get into the center of an airburst of artillery and yet remain unharmed. And, subsequently, this time element on this, I can't recall exactly, I would say anywhere from, oh, forty-five minutes to an hour all told." Figure 6 is a sketch of the object made for the author by the witness on May 10, 1989.
 
Page 19
 
 
 
 



            "But then this object approached us. And it turned a blue-green brilliant light. It's hard to distinguish the size of it, there's no way to compare it. It pulsated. The light, that is, was pulsating. It wasn't, ah, regular. Alright, this object approached us. I asked for and received permission from Lt. Evans, our company commander at that time (note 3), to fire upon this object, of which I did with an M-l rifle with armor-piercing bullets, or rounds in it. And I did hit it. It must have been metallic because you could hear when the projectile slammed into it.
 
            "Now why do you say, why would that, ah, bullet damage this craft if the artillery rounds didn't? I don't know unless they had dropped their protective field around 'em, or whatever. That this, ah, technology envisions, that they had to protect it. But the object went wild and it... the light was goin' on and off and it went off completely once, briefly. And it was moving erratically from side to side as though it might crash to the ground. Then, a sound, which we had heard no sound previous to this, the sound of, like of, ah, you've heard diesel locomotives revving up. (Note 4) That's the way this thing sounded. And, then, we were attacked, I guess you would call it. In any event, we were swept by some form of a ray that was emitted in pulses, in waves that you
 
Page 20
 
could visually see only when it was aiming directly at you. That is to say, like a searchlight sweeps around and the segments of light you would see it coming at you.
 
            "Now you would feel a burning, tingling sensation all over your body, as though something were penetrating you. And ah, so the company commander, Lt. Evans, hauled us into our bunkers. We didn't know what was going to happen. We were scared. We did this. These are underground dugouts where you have peep holes to look out to fire at the enemy. So, I'm in my bunker with another man. We're peeping out at this thing. It hovered over us for a while, lit up the whole area with its light that I'm telling you about, and then I saw it shoot off at a 45 degree angle, it's that quick, just, it was there and was gone. That  quick. And it was as though that was the end of it. But, three days later the entire company of men had to be evacuated by ambulance. They had to cut roads in there and haul them out; they were too weak to walk. And they had dysentery and then subsequently, ah, when the doctors did see them, ah, they had an extremely high white blood cell count which the doctors could not account for.
 
            "Now let me inform you on this. In the military, especially the Army, each day you file a report, a company report. Now, we had a confab about that. What do we do about this. Do we file it in the report or not? And the consensus was "no." Because they'd lock every one of us up, and think we were crazy. At that time no such thing as UFO had ever been heard of and we didn't know what it was. And I still don't know what it was. But I do know that since that time I have periods of disorientation, memory loss, and ah, I dropped from 180 pounds to 138 pounds after I got back to this country. And I've had great difficulty keeping my weight up. Indeed, I'm retired and disabled today."
 
            The following questions were asked the witness by Mr. Timmerman immediately following the above narrative.

Q.        "What has been your employment since you were in the military?
 
A.        "I was with the American tobacco company."
 
Q.        "In what capacity?"
 
A.        "Manufacturing."
 
Q.        "In a plant near here?"
 
A.        "Yes, In Reedsville." (North Carolina)
 
Page 21
 
Q.        "I see. How long did you work in that plant?"
 
A.        "Twenty six and one-half years."
 
Q.        "How long ago did you retire?"
 
A.        "1969."
 
Q.        "I see. And at present you are retired?"
 
A.        "I'm retired, yes, yes."
 
Q.        "OK.... Do you have the names of any of the men in that unit? Do you recall were any of
             them from this part of the country?"
 
A.        "No, no."
 
Q.        "They were from all over?"
 
A.        "Uh huh (yes). They were from California..."
 
Q.        "Did you maintain contact with any of them?"
 
A.        "No, we've lost contact with them...so many of them got killed off after that."
 
Q.        "Well, it was 36 years ago too. Did you ever before now have occasion to discuss this case
            with anyone else."
 
A.        "Yes. I've told my wife and my family - my wife and my children. I have related this story to
            them many times over, since comin' back from Korea. But, you know how it is with things
            like that. They said, "uh huh," and they'd go on, and that's the end of it."
 
Q.        "Right. Well, this case, ah, there's the possibility that we may have other cases, other reports
            in the file..."
 
A.        ”Oh, there's one thing I forgot. I'm not tryin' to add to the story but there is one thing
            that's important. You know I told you I fired at it with the M-l rifle... made contact.
            And the thing went wild like it was gonna' fall."
 
Page 22
 
Q.        "Right"
 
A.        "Alright, subsequently, we opened up with everything we had and after that nothing would
            affect it...That one shot got it. But evidently, their defences were lowered, briefly, and when
            I connected, and when their defences were thrown back up, and after that, nothin' could hit it."
 
Q.        "Did the bullets seem to just move right through it?"
 
A.        "Well, they..."
 
Q.        "There was no contact?"
 
A.        "No contact. But the first time I did connect. And it was metallic because it was an armor
            piercing projectile from an M-l rifle. And we did hear the metal to metal, as it impacted."
 
Q.        "Was it almost instantaneously, because apparently the object wasn't very far away."
 
A.        "It wasn't far away, no. It was hovering right above us, like that, about like that ah,
            ceiling there...and apparently observing us." (Note 5)
 
Q.        "Yeh. I see."
 
A.        "It apparently had no hostile intent at that time, until I fired."
 
Q.        "Did you recall whether there was any sound associated with the event?"
 
A.        "There was no sound until I hit the object. That's what I'm tellin' you, that this sound of
            locomotives revving up, diesel locomotives. Yeh, a deep sound, (cf. note 4) and that thing
            was winding up...and it, it recovered from this impact. And it was fully operational."
 
Page 23
 
Q.        "So that the projectile you fired apparently didn't cause any serious..."
 
A.        "No, it recovered from it Ah,...but I did see the blue-green light on one of your pictures there...
            like I described to you."
 
Q.        "Did you...? The light that you saw was in this... (photo exhibit)."
 
A.        "It was in one of the pictures here. It was orange in the beginning and then it changed to a
            blue-green light"
 
Q.        "I see."
 
A.        "I do believe that these things are real and I think that there is a cover up, and we were
            ordered to say nothing about this. That shows you they are covering up.... It is foolish to
            believe that we have the only technology anywhere, you know? There are other intelligences
            .... Well I hope, I wish...if I can raise up any of the names of the men, possibly, that are
            still alive, and I doubt if you could get them to come forth, but if I could, there would be
            some way to verify this."
            "I'm sixty years old now, but back when I was younger there were three days I still
            can't account for."
 
Q.        "Following the event?"
 
A.        "Uh huh (yes), there's three days I still can't account for.
            Why, ever since I came back home. My wife can tell you about it but I still don't remember."
            (note 6)

Q.        "Days here at home?"
A.        "Uh huh (yes)."

Q.        "And you had a period..."

A.        "I'd have these extreme headaches. They'd have to send me home, put me in the hospital
            and so forth."

Q.        "And they couldn't explain what was going on?"
 
Page 24
 
A.        "Uh uh (no)."

Q.        "That's part of your medical history that Dr. R. would have?"

A.        "Uh huh (yes).... but you could talk to my wife, ah, what's left of my family, half of them
            are in the grave... and they'll tell you that I've told the same story many times. And if I was
            lyin' I think I'd get mixed up in it after a while."
 
I contacted Mr. Wall in May of 1989 to ask a number of other questions. Here are my questions and his answers.
 
Q.        "Please try to estimate how long a period of time went by from the time your M-l rifle fired
            to the time you heard the round strike the object?"

A.        "One to two seconds (best as I can remember)."

Q.        "Did you ever have severe headaches from the time the object departed to one week later?"

A.        "Yes."

Q.        "Please try to describe when they first started."

A.        "The next day or so after contact with the object."

Q.        "What other physical ailments did you experience within the first week after the experience?"

A.        "Dysentery, nausea."

Q.        "Within the first week or so did you ever vomit?"

A.        "Yes...for several days."

Q.        "Within the first month or so did your appetite change?"
 
A.        "Yes... I lost my appetite."

Q.        "Within the first month or so did your thirst change?"

A.        “Yes...my thirst increased."

 
Page 25
 
 
Q.        "How many of the men in your company did you talk to about this strange event at the time?"

A.        "Approximately 25 or more."

Q.        "Did any of the other men you talked to tell you things that were different from your experience?"

A.        "No."

Q.        "Have you ever seen such an object before this time in Korea?'1

A.        "No."

Q.        "Have you ever seen a similar object after this sighting?"

A.        "No."

Q.        "What do you think the object was?"

A.        "An alien spacecraft - nothing like I had ever seen."

Q.        "What compass direction (approximately) were your guns firing from the hillside toward the town?"

A.        "North."

Q.        "What compass direction did you first notice the object?"
 
A.        "East."

Q.        "What compass direction did the object finally disappear?"

A.        "Forty five degrees up (and) then West"

Q.        "When were you discharged from the Army?"

A.        "June 1952."

Q.        "What type of military discharge did you receive?"
 -----------------------------------------------

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