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Monday, March 26, 2012

UFOs - James M. McCampbell - UFOLOGY -FULL BOOK (4)

What constitutes proof?
      - Edward J. Ruppelt
  CHAPTER 7
FLIGHT AND PROPULSION
UFOs have unusual and distinctive flight characteristics. This aspect of the subject has been investigated extensively for many years, usually with an emphasis upon documentation. Numerous cases have been cited to illustrate each feature of UFO flight. (1)  Let it suffice here to consider a composite, hypothetical sighting that includes the prominent flight patterns so that the maximum space can be devoted to analysis.
A HYPOTHETICAL SIGHTING
During a mid afternoon on a clear day, John Doe saw a silvery disc in the sky traveling with an undulating motion at an altitude he estimated to be 10,000 ft. Even though going four times faster than a jet, no sound was heard. After several abrupt changes in direction, it stopped suddenly, remaining stationary for about 10 minutes, except for a slight wobble on its axis. It next came down toward the witness to an altitude of about l00 ft from where it descended like a falling leaf to hover about 1 meter above the ground. When approached by the witness, it rose slowly to the level of the treetops, then zoomed out of sight with fantastic speed. John Doe said that he had never seen anything like it in his life.
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Hovering
A favorite posture of UFOs is to hang nearly motionless in the sky or at very low altitude without any indication of how this stunt is achieved. Obviously, the objects do not depend upon aerodynamic lift as do conventional, fixed-wing aircraft. Neither are they suspended from large, rotating blades like helicopters. The absence of blasts of air or billows of smoke rules out jet engines and rockets. Nearly every investigator has the impression that UFOs are somehow defeating gravity, and obviously, they are.
A simple, scientific fact can be of help here. A hovering UFO does not defeat gravity entirely. If it did, it would not hover; instead, it would float upward in the atmosphere. Consider an idealized, disc-shaped UFO that is 10 meters in diameter and 2 meters thick, having a volume of 5,540 cubic feet and weighing 30 tons. On a calm day, no lateral forces are required to maintain its horizontal position. The UFO balances in the air vertically between a buoyant force upward, equal to the weight of air it displaces, and an equal force downward, presumably furnished by gravity. The magnitude of the buoyant force, amounting to the volume of the UFO times the density of displaced air, is easily calculated to be about 425 pounds weight at sea level. In other words, a downward force of about 425 lbs is required to prevent the UFO from rising. A hovering UFO, therefore, defeats gravity almost, but not quite, completely. In this example, the reduction in effective weight and mass is about 99.3%.
Descent and Ascent
One can best appreciate the problem of descent from the pilot's point of view. After bringing the craft to a dead stop about 50 ft above the selected landing spot, he must next lose altitude. Recall that he has just achieved a delicate balance of forcesThe descent could be accomplished by adjusting this balance to allow a stronger reaction with gravity. But it is doubtful that this
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method would be wise, because completing the maneuver would be unnecessarily complicated and possibly hazardous. Upon approaching the ground, it would not be adequate merely to return the control to its former position, since the vehicle would still be in motion downward. The control setting would first have to be reversed sharply to act as a brake then, upon stopping the downward motion, reset to the original position. If the pilot wished to complete the descent close to the ground, within 1 meter or less as is commonly observed, he would be in danger of overshooting the mark and crashing. A safer control method would be much preferred.
At the beginning of descent, a force from the hovering UFO is acting vertically upward to counteract the weight acting downward. Without modifying this lifting force, the pilot could simply tilt the craft slightly to one side by a small amount, say, the angle A. The force holding the craft in the air would then point in a direction making an angle A with the vertical, but the effective weight would continue to act straight down. The consequences of this arrangement are twofold. Firstly, a force would gradually build up to the small value of F sin A and push the craft gently in the direction of the tilt. Secondly, the force holding the craft in the air would be gradually reduced to the value of  F cos A, being only slightly less than the original value. Subject to these forces, therefore, the craft would sink slowly as it moved sideways in the direction of tilt. The control lever would be brought back quickly to neutral. This maneuver would then be repeated on the opposite side, with additional loss of altitude accompanying a lateral slip in the new direction. By continuing this sequence, first to one side then to the other, the craft could be brought down to the desired altitude under perfect control until the control lever was left in its neutral position. There would be no hazard of overshoot, since the original, balanced forces were never changed. The common manner of UFO descent, called "falling leaf" or "pendulum," seems to be entirely explicable as a preferred method of control.
Again from the perspective of the pilot, consider how best to
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take off in a craft that is a virtual bomb, that is, capable of fantastic performance. There is obviously no hazard of overshooting in ascent, but the pilot must be mindful of obstructions such as trees, telephone lines, and buildings. As the control system used in descent is of no value whatever in ascent, the pilot must adjust the balance of forces on his craft. Recall that the idealized craft above had an effective weight of 425 lbs while hovering. By further defeating gravity and reducing this weight, the pilot can allow the buoyant force to dominate, causing the craft to rise gently as it floats upward in the atmosphere. Upon reaching a safe altitude, the pilot is free to fly to his next destination. Almost every observed departure of landed UFOs includes this two-stage maneuver, namely, a cautious rise of 50 to 100 ft followed by a spectacular blast-off. A case in point involved an Australian postmaster and a mail carrier who together watched a dome-shaped object in a field for 10 minutes before approaching to within 200 meters. The object then rose, hovered, and shot off at immense speed. (2)
Acceleration and Relativity
One of the most prominent but puzzling features of UFOs is their ability to change speed and direction of flight much more quickly than is possible for an airplane. Instead of making long, sweeping curves as a jetliner is compelled to do, they make sudden, nearly right-angle turns. Their general flight pattern is erratic or jerky, resembling the flight of hummingbirds, that dart hither and yon, hover temporarily, suddenly change altitude, and then zoom out of sight with astonishing swiftness. This manner may be not only characteristic of UFOs but essential to their mode of flight. At any rate, something very fundamental is suggested by it.
By technical analysis, it has been ostensibly shown that the lift-off of a UFO would require as much energy as the detonation of an atomic bomb, with accompanying temperatures of 85,0000C and intense deposits of radioactivity. As neither of these conditions prevails, the conclusion was drawn that UFOs
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could not be spacecraft controlled by extraterrestrial beings, because they did not obey the laws of physics. One further aspect was also explored:
Let us now consider the possibility that the laws of physics are not valid. One idea frequently suggested is that extraterrestrial beings have discovered gravity shields. This, however, would not solve the problem of propulsion because inertia would remain; reaction would still be needed to obtain acceleration. (3,=)
Of course, the fundamental problem in understanding UFOs is that their peculiar flight pattern involves enormous accelerations for which adequate forces are not in evidence. The resolution of this dilemma appears to lie in the physical property of inertia.
If the UFO pilots are extra-terrestrial, and extra-intelligent as nearly everyone supposes, then they must certainly be familiar with the Theory of Relativity. By some semantic accident, this mathematical description of nature is still referred to as a "theory," whereas all the weaker descriptions that it has supplanted are known as "laws of nature." Relativity has become indispensable to every branch of the physical sciences, and its basic truth is verified daily in the operation of cyclotrons and linear accelerators, nuclear reactors in submarines, surface ships, and central power stations, and thankfully only on occasion, in the explosion of nuclear weapons. As the mathematical corner stone for describing gravitational fields in astronomy and cos- mology, it is consistent with all observations to date. (5)  Of all the theories in the physical sciences, none is more trustworthy. With this major, advance over Newtonian mechanics, Einstein recognized the inseparable relationship between gravitation and inertia, and "transformed the general principle of relativity from an epistemological postulate into a law of exact science." (6)  According to the Principle of Equivalence, enunciated by Einstein, it is not possible to distinguish inertial forces from gravitational forces. In layman's language,
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The validity of this principle will be evident to any aviator; for in an airplane it is impossible to separate the effects of inertia from those of gravitation. The physical sensation of pulling out of a dive is exactly the same as that produced by executing a steeply banked turn at high speed. (7)
To put this point in another perspective, inertial mass and gravitational mass cannot be distinguished;  the property of matter that reacts to accelerations is the same as that which responds to gravitational fields. This identity is evidenced by two objects of different mass that, being otherwise identical, fall at the same rate when released in a gravitational field. The most recent experiments have established this fact to the extraordinary accuracy of 1 part in 1012.8 One may be quite assured in reckoning that gravitational mass and inertial mass are identical. Now to the bearing of these matters upon UFOs. If, as has been suggested, UFOs nullify the effect of gravity upon their mass, it must follow that they will nullify their inertial behavior also. Perhaps reference to a "gravity shield" is unfortunate because it presupposes a method which is not known. Nevertheless, a "gravity shield" must also function as an "inertial shield."
Consider a UFO having a certain mass while resting on its landing gear. By activating its so-called "shield," it reduces its effective mass respecting gravity to a very small fraction of its former value, permitting neutral buoyancy in the atmosphere, or to even lesser values approaching arbitrarily close to zero. What kind of performance could be expected from such a virtually mass less vehicle? Very modest forces exerted upon it would produce extremely high accelerations. It could easily zoom out of sight in seconds as is often reported. Or it could accelerate so fast that the human eye could not follow, creating the illusion that it had disappeared instantly, like "turning off a light," or that it had slipped through a crack in some ill-conceived, special dimension. The eye cannot follow objects accelerating faster than about 20g, that is, 20 times earth's gravity. In the sixties, a popular toy was a multi-stage, plastic rocket powered by water from the
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garden hose and by entrapped air at the prevailing hydrant pressure. It was impossible to observe the departure of the second stage when it fired at about 20g. Similarly, the squashed appearance of a tennis ball against a racket and its initial rebound can be detected only with high-speed photography. While the ultimate truth on this topic may be far beyond the present level of comprehension, one need not appeal to the occult and mystical to explain the sudden disappearance of UFOs. By applying a suitable and possibly small force in the direction of flight, a "shielded" UFO of small effective mass could be brought to a very abrupt stop. Applying the force transversely would produce astonishingly sharp, nearly right-angle turns. Never mind the poor blokes inside - they would also be protected - by the "inertial shield."
The flight patterns so typical of UFOs are thoroughly consistent with, and even demand, a great reduction of their inertial, mass. And these characteristics occur in conjunction with a corresponding reduction of their response to gravity. One must conclude that the full range of UFO performance is internally consistent and in complete accord with General Relativity, which teaches that inertial mass and gravitational mass are exactly the same thing. This finding is all the more remarkable since few, if any, of the witnesses were theoretical physicists.
Undulation
Even in horizontal flight, UFOs display an odd habit that nags the rational mind, namely, bobbing up and down in a sinusoidal path. In the previous discussion on hovering it became clear that the true weight of a UFO at rest on the ground is greatly reduced while in flight, and it is along this line of reasoning that some progress may be made. First consider a UFO hovering at an altitude comparable to that of commercial jet traffic say, 10 kilometers. The forces acting upon it must be in balance, as at sea level. But at this point another variable has been introduced: its
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altitude and corresponding atmospheric pressure. Since the atmosphere is more rarified at higher altitudes, the weight of a given volume of air is substantially less at high altitude than at sea level. Referring to the previous example, a volume of air weighing 425 lbs at sea level would weigh about 146 lbs at 10 kilometers, or only 32 lbs at 20 kilometers. Consequently, a UFO in buoyant equilibrium with the atmosphere at some altitude must have an effective weight substantially less than when hovering at sea level. The curious and somewhat startling implication here is that the extent to which a UFO defeats gravity must be dependent upon its altitude. Furthermore, by diminishing its effective mass to balance the reduced force of buoyancy at high altitude, the UFO cannot escape a parallel reduction in its mass insofar as inertial forces are concerned. It must be concluded that the inertial mass of a UFO diminishes with its altitude, approaching zero toward the limits of the earth's atmosphere, where buoyant forces are no longer significant. Flight characteristics that betray the lack of mass should be progressively more pronounced at high altitudes. It is especially significant to discover that the effective mass of UFOs may become vanishingly small, since the forces required to propel them through space under these conditions may be extremely small. This realization demands a thorough investigation of all possible means of propulsion, even though the forces available from them would appear, under ordinary circumstances, to be much too weak.
Now consider a UFO in horizontal flight with its effective mass being very small, depending upon the altitude. All the vertical forces are in balance, with gravity acting downward upon the effective mass. If the UFO should fly over a local area in which the strength of gravity were somewhat greater, it would temporarily experience an increase in the downward force. It would naturally respond by a displacement downward, a slight loss of altitude. Conversely, it would move slightly upward in passing over a zone of relatively weak gravity. The gravitational strength near the surface of the earth is nearly constant. It is slightly less at sea than on the continents, and the earth's rotation causes a small
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change that is dependent upon latitude; for example, the value of the acceleration of gravity at Fort Egbert, Alaska, is 982.183 cm/secs-squared, compared to 978.331 cin/secs-squared, at Bahia, Brazil. (9)  Superimposed upon these global scale variations, however, are minor, local changes reflecting the density of underlying, geological structures, a fact that has been successfully exploited in geophysical prospecting. While these local changes are very small, usually less than 0.3%, they are probably strong enough to modify the flight path of a passing UFO and to produce the bobbing effect.
An alternative explanation for the undulatory motion has been implied in rare instances where the witness thought that the UFO was following the profile of the terrain, that is, maintaining a constant altitude above the ground in hilly country. An automatic control system based upon the reflection of radar-like signals from the ground would be capable of such performance and would be a considerable convenience to a busy pilot.
Speed and Shock Waves
A pilot and co-pilot for Mohawk Airlines spotted an interesting UFO one summer day in 1955 while cruising in their DC-3 at 3,000 ft near Utica, New York. An object passed at "great speed" 500 ft above their airplane. It was 150 ft wide, "light gray, almost round, with a center line . . ." At least four windows were observed emitting a bright blue-green light which seemed to change color as the object receded. It was also observed from two other aircraft. In addition, it was seen traveling east on airway Victor-2 from the control tower at Albany and by radar at Boston. Based upon the travel time between Utica and Boston, it must have been flying between 4,500 and 4,800 mph. And even at that speed, it did not produce a sonic boom. This sighting was not considered by the University of Colorado researchers to be due to anomalous propagation of radar signals; it was thought that it "must certainly be classed as an unknown
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pending further study, which it certainly deserves" but didn't get. (10) The literature abounds with examples of UFOs flying at unusually high speeds and, as in this example, being tracked on radar. Many of them were measured at speeds greater than the world record for airplanes at the time. And some substantially out-performed even experimental, rocket-powered aircraft, as was shown in an analysis of 81 radar cases, spanning the period 1941 through 1962. (11) In 1952,  for example, the highest speed recorded was about 1,200 mph, whereas in August of that year a UFO was tracked by an Air Defense Command radar at 4,000 mph. During a famous display over Washington, D.C., the previous month, radars operated both by the Air Force and the CAA tracked UFOs "on the order of 7500 mph," and some of these events were coordinated with visual sightings. Four months later, several objects over the Gulf of Mexico were tracked on radar aboard a B-29 in bursts of speed between 5,240 and 9,000 mph at an altitude of 18,000 ft.
With the development of large rockets in the space program, man has achieved speeds of about 18,000 mph while orbiting earth above the atmosphere, and naturally the UFOs have followed right along. This problem has been officially studied, and among a large number of sightings by astronauts all but three objects were ostensibly explained. A daytime observation of an object having angular extension and protrusions was especially puzzling. (12) In November 1969, American astronauts were reported on television to be followed by a strange object enroute to the moon while their booster was 4,000 miles away. (13) Considerable evidence suggests that observation of UFOs within the space program has been more frequent and significant than has been officially acknowledged. (14) At any rate, UFOs are clearly capable of speeds in the atmosphere far in excess of jets and rocket powered airplanes.
When ordinary aircraft fly at the speed of sound or faster, they send out an ear-splitting shock wave, called sonic boom, that is capable of breaking window glass and cracking plaster walls. But no such effect has been observed from UFOs that fly silently even
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at speeds many times that of sound. After years of development at untold cost, the United States is now abandoning plans for a supersonic transport because of the sonic effect upon the environment, and it is leaving the global competition for marketing such planes to the joint British-French Concorde and the Russian TU- 144. The technological achievement represented by UFOs in supersonic flight should certainly inspire awe and envy. It not only offers a means of avoiding sonic booms, but it implies a vast improvement in efficiency, since all the energy in sonic booms is a total waste. UFOs obviously suppress the formation of shock waves. Details are not available, but several points are clear. The presence of an approaching UFO must be "telegraphed" ahead to the gas molecules in the air. While yet some distance away, a small force must be exerted by the UFO to begin moving air molecules out of the way, becoming stronger as it comes nearer. After passage of the UFO, the air closes in behind. By such means, the UFO could slip through the atmosphere with little expenditure of energy, and no shock wave would be created on its leading edges. Apparently, the plasma on the surface of UFOs, or the radiant energy that stimulates it, is responsible. In 1968, Northrup Corporation was reportedly experimenting with electromagnetic fields to modify the air stream around supersonic aircraft to prevent shock waves. (15) Because the nose cone of an intercontinental ballistic missile generates a surrounding plasma upon reentering the atmosphere, the interaction between ICBMs and plasmas has been extensively researched, although the results are mostly classified. In a paper presented in 1968 to the Congressional Committee on Science and Astronautics, a scientist emphasized the extent of this literature. One reference alone abstracted over 800 publications on the subject. (16) He concluded that
......there is a body of technology which I have studied and which leads me to believe that an entirely new approach to high speed air and space propulsion could be developed using the interactions between magnetic and electric fields with electrically conducting fluids adjacent to the vehicles to produce thrust or lift and reduce or eliminate such other hypersonic flight ptoblems as drag, sonic boom, heating, etc. (17)
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Wobble and Spin
As the entire vehicle or some major portion is sometimes observed to be spinning,  several questions naturally arise. What is the purpose? Does the spinning have anything to do with the propulsion method? Do the rotating parts produce sound? Is the spinning limited to one or more specific types of vehicles? And so on. The only circumstance in which spinning has not been observed is when UFOs are resting on their landing gear. They sometimes start spinning as they lift
off the grounds, (18) with a gradual increase in the rate of rotation. (19) No measure of the rate of spin is furnished in the data, but at least one witness indicated that it was rapid. Objects were seen to be spinning while hovering,  (21) during a car chase for 13 kilometers, (22) and in various speeds of descent toward the ground. (23) Most frequently it was reported that the entire object was spinning, and this was not limited to a particular type of craft, UFOs in the shapes of spheres, ovals, discs, and tops being included. Alternately, it was sometimes only a major component of the craft that was spinning, and this varied greatly in nature: an outer disc below a cabin, (24) a dome on top,  (25) and the peripheral portion of a disc.(26) None of these instances can be correlated with a particular type of vehicle.
It is easy to imagine that rotation of the entire vehicle, or a major component, would be used to achieve stability in the air, that is, to maintain the axis of rotation in a constant direction due to the angular momentum. And this supposition is justified from the knowledge that disc-shaped aircraft are inherently unstable. In the early 1950s, millions of dollars were spent in developing a disc-shaped craft, the VZ-9V Avrocar, which was naively in tended to be a real flying saucer. Designed to carry two men, it was 18 ft in diameter by 3.25 ft thick. Lift was obtained from a 5-ft-diameter turbomotor driven by three jet engines. It never got out of "ground effect" and it did "not in any instance have static aerodynamic stability." (27)
It is unthinkable that the passengers within a UFO would be subjected to the same rotation as the outer surface of the craft; hence, one must postulate a decoupling of the interior from the
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exterior portions. This is not to say that windows in the walls of a vehicle could not be party to the rotation. The pilot, in this situation, would have to stop the rotation in order to look out the window, as was implied in an incident in Wyoming. One night a rancher saw a shooting star come to a sudden stop in mid-air on his side of a mountain. It was rotating with a single window periodically facing toward him. Upon signaling the object with his headlamps, the rotation ceased with the window in his direction. After the resumption of spinning, the object maneu- vered, then departed. (28) Not much clarity can be brought to this odd aspect of aerial behavior, but in summary, it can be said that UFOs sometimes spin at a moderate to rapid rate, either some prominent part or in toto. They have been seen to spin during all phases of flight but never while resting on the ground, a feature that is common to all types of UFOs. The rarity of these observations suggests that it is not a necessary adjunct to flight, but that it is used at the discretion of the pilot.
Evidences of Power
While the method of propulsion still remains a mystery, the literature conveys some impressions that are obviously related to it. Witnesses often experience a strong gust of air, either hot or cold, as the UFO sweeps past, descends, or takes off. (29) These gusts can be quite strong (at least one person was knocked off his feet). (30) Such currents would be expected from any large object moving swiftly through the air, but something else may be involved. The UFOs may exert a force directly on the air causing the reported gusts. Such a coupling is suggested by the behavior of vegetation under UFOs in flight-treetops that were spinning wildly, (31) violently moving plants, (32) and grass and plants that fluttered wildly. (33) Coconut palms were bent double under two UFOs that were taking off. (34) Loose materials are also effected: one UFO kicked up a small sand storm upon landing in a desert. (35) low-flying UFO appeared to suck up snow as it passed
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overhead, (36) and snow swirled under another one. (37) The earth appeared to have been dug up at two landing sites, (38) while loose leaves were scattered from another. (39) Even waves of sea water peaked up toward a UFO hovering 15 meters above the surface. (40)
A car was pulled and rocked as a UFO hovering low above it left the scene. (41) While this motion could have been the result of a strong gust, none was mentioned in the report and some kind of direct, physical action on vehicles has been noted. A truck passed a government employee in Venezuela as a brilliant disc swooped close to its hood. The truck was lifted nearly 1 meter above the road and it was overturned in a sand bank. (42) Apparently the same experience befell a juvenile driver in Minnesota as he lost consciousness in the presence of a UFO. His truck was later discovered in a ditch facing the opposite direction. (43) Not only can a UFO apparently lift trucks off the road, it seems to impart a torque, or turning force to them, as confirmed by the spinning and swirling of other objects. The human body is not immune to this force, for a resident of Teheran testified that "I was standing with both hands on the bar of my balcony, looking with astonishment at this strange object, when I suddenly felt as though I were being drawn up toward the object by a magnet." (44) After being warned by a UFO pilot not to approach too closely, another witness inadvertently exposed his shoulder under the edge of a hovering craft. His arm was violently thrown up under the machine, then back down against his body. Although he could still move the arm after this accident, he had lost feeling in it. (45) A Frenchman remained outside the hazardous zone, although his horse did not. He was leading his mare with a bridle when a UFO took off from the. side of the road and flew overhead. The mare rose about 3 meters into the air and the witness had to release the bridle. After falling back to the ground, the animal could not move for about 10 minutes. (46)
It is abundantly clear that a strange, hitherto unrecognized. force prevails within a cylindrical zone having the same diameter as the UFO and extending from it to the ground. This force acts
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vertically upward upon various objects, imparting to them a rotation. As no stones or dry sticks seem to have been affected, the force apparently couples selectively to certain objects, presumably on the basis of their composition. Electrical conductivity is one feature common to the responsive items, namely, the human body, horse flesh, metals, and water. Snow and leaves would qualify if wet. If not wet, they would be blown around like desert sand. A direct coupling to the air would be possible through its content of water vapor and oxygen. Why the direction of this force should be upward is quite puzzling, since in more normal experience, jet exhausts batter downward. Yet, if the UFOs are defeating gravity by some means, it appears that they are sharing that achievement with objects in the region directly below them. These data should vastly encourage those theoreticians who see, in their equations, a statement of gravity damping by electromagnetic radiation. (47)
Still further evidence left on the ground by UFOs suggests exposure to intense heat in an unusual manner. The roots of grass were charred below a UFO hovering at low altitude, but the blades were not damaged. This odd effect was duplicated in an Air Force laboratory only by placing samples of living sod in a pan and heating from below to about 300 degrees F. The principal investigator of this incident felt that the only way such an effect could be produced by a UFO from above was by induction heating from a "powerful, alternating magnetic field." (48) The merit of this concept will become clear presently. Heating is extremely common near UFOs. A deputy sheriff in Florida and a dozen other people felt their clothes burning them as one of six UFOs came close to a patrol car. (49) The clothes of a Belgian gardener were partially burned when he approached a landed UFO. (50) A heat wave filled a car in Louisiana, setting fire to, and completely destroying a 1956 Ford. (51) Trees were burned on two occasions. (52) A haystack was set ablaze by a passing UFO which also desiccated a small pond. (53) Evaporation of water was also noted on a rainy day when the trees, grass, and even ground were found to be completely dry where a recently departed UFO had
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hovered. (54) This preferential heating and evaporation of water is typical of microwaves, since water molecules absorb microwave energy very efficiently. As emission of microwaves from UFOs is encountered in several other contexts, it is hardly surprising here, and it almost certainly explains the charring of the grass roots without burning the blades. Many objects at landing sites were reportedly "calcined," that is, they had apparently been raised to high temperature with the resulting loss of volatile constituents. Examples include the ground itself, (55) insects, (56) a pole, (57) trees, (58) and matches. (59) As if this evidence were not enough, the record furnishes two instances in which UFOs taking off from bituminous highways set fire to the surface, which continued to burn for up to 15 minutes. (60) If the surface had been superficially heated to the kindling temperature, the volatile constituents would have been ignited but quickly consumed. Prolonged burning requires that the pavement, and probably the substratum, be heated in depth so that heat diffusing upward can maintain the temperature of the surface high enough to continue the supply of combustible gases. Such heating suggests bulk absorption of electromagnetic radiation of very high frequency.
One further detail of experience by witnesses seems to furnish helpful clues. A Libyan farmer saw an egg-shaped craft with a transparent upper half come to rest on a six-wheeled landing gear. Six men in yellowish coveralls could be seen on board. When the witness touched part of the craft, he suffered a strong electrical shock. One of the occupants motioned for him to stay away, and he watched for 20 minutes longer as they worked with instruments. (61) Similarly, a 13-year-old boy received a shock when he tried to touch an antenna on one of two small UFOs that he saw landing at Hamilton, Canada. (62) A prospector, also in Canada, watched a landed UFO for 30 minutes before seeing a door open. Upon approaching it he heard voices and tried to communicate, first in English then in several other languages. His rubber-coated glove was burned when he touched the craft. (63) Even though he later suffered burns when the UFO took off, there was no indication that the surface of the UFO was hot. The
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burning of his glove may have been some kind of electrical effect. The portions of the UFOs that were touched by the first two witnesses certainly carried electrical potentials relative to the ground. Some idea of the strength is afforded by the fact that neither of them was burned or killed. They would not have fared so well if the UFO had held a large, static charge at very high voltage, for its discharge to ground through the witnesses would have been grim. Also, the potentials could not have been very great or the electrified portions would have arched over to the portions in contact with the ground. At least modest voltages are implied, but it cannot be established whether they were static or alternating.
Microwave Propulsion
Within a variety of contexts in the preceding sections and chapters, the emanation of microwave energy from UFOs has been adduced. These references should be summarized here and examined together to improve the overall perspective of this point. Electromagnetic energy in the range of about 300 to 3,000 MHz, or higher, seemed to be responsible for:
a) stimulating colored halos around UFOs, largely from the noble gases in the atmosphere,
b) producing a dazzling, white plasma on the surface of UFOs, akin' to ball lightning,
c) inducing chemical changes that were detected as odors,
d) turning off automobile headlights by increasing the resistance of their tungsten filaments,
e) stopping internal combustion engines by increasing resistance of the distributor points and
    suppressing the current in the primary windings,
f) precipitating wild gyrations of compasses and magnetic speedometers and rattling metallic
   road signs,
g) heating of automobile batteries through the direct absorption of energy in the acid,
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h) interfering with radio (and television) reception and transmission by inducing extraneous
    voltages in the coil of the tuned circuit, or restricting the emission of electrons from
    tungsten cathodes,
i) disrupting transmission of electrical power by induced operation of isolation relays,
j) desiccating a small pond and drying of grass, bushes, and the ground by resonant
   absorption in water molecules,
k) charring or calcining grass roots, insects, and wooden objects at landing sites,
1) heating bituminous highways in depth and igniting the volatilized gases,
m) heating the human body internally,
n) causing people to feel electrical shocks, and
o) inducing temporary paralysis in the witnesses.
In addition, medical experiments have shown that, when pulsed at a low audio frequency this energy was capable of
p) stimulating the auditory nerve directly with the sensation of hearing a humming, or
    buzzing, sound.
While this evidence is so broad that the loss of a few points would hardly damage the argument, it is all circumstantial. Proof of the suspected radiation would be at hand only through direct, instrumental measurements by qualified personnel. But one despairs of the direct experimental approach in view of the difficulties in assembling the complex and expensive equipment, finding a UFO in the field, and staying in its vicinity long enough to make the measurements. Perhaps, the following episode can fill the present void.
A famous sighting in the fall of 1957was made from an Air Force B-47 on a training mission over the Gulf of Mexico and the South-Central states. It came to the attention of the Condon Committee rather by accident and was investigated as Case No. 5. This UFO was seen by the pilot to be "as big as a barn" with a
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"steady, red glow" and it flew at speeds far greater than airplanes. It paced the aircraft through numerous changes of speed and seemed to jump instantly from one location to another. Visual sightings were coordinated with radar fixes from the air and the ground. The object emitted electromagnetic energy of about 2,800 MHz with "startling intensity." After the crew members had been interrogated upon completion of the flight, the "security lid" came down on the incident and no records could be found, not even in Project Blue Book. (64)
More successful research was reported by an enterprising private investigator to the 136th Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Boston in December 1969. As the entire episode is very intricate, only highlights of special importance are reviewed here. The aircraft, equipped for electronic countermeasures missions, was returning from a flight over the Gulf of Mexico when it first encountered the UFO near Meridian, Mississippi. The UFO played tag with the aircraft at various speeds greater than 500 mph and literally flew circles around it. The contact lasted for 1.5 hours as the plane flew across Mississippi, Louisiana, northern Texas, and making a large loop near Ft. Worth before turning northward into Oklahoma. Upon losing contact near Oklahoma City, the B-47 proceeded to its home field, Forbes AFB in northeastern Kansas. The B-47 was released from its assigned mission to chase the UFO, and the FAA cleared other jet traffic from the area. Observation of the UFO was confirmed through at least five independent physical channels, namely, visually from the cockpit, navigation radar onboard, two airborne electronic counter- measure receivers, and military ground control radar. Electronic equipment on the aircraft of primary interest here was monitor no.2, operated by an Air Force officer named McClure. It consisted of an ALA-6DF passive receiver with back-to-back antennas in a housing on the belly of the plane having spin rates of 150 to 300 rpm in scanning the azimuth. Incoming signals were displayed on an APR-9 radar receiver and fed into an ALA-5 pulse analyzer. An official report by the Wing Intelli-
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gence Officer at Forbes AFB in reference to the UFO said:
......intercepted at approximately Meridian, Mississippi, a signal with the following characteristics; frequency 2995MC to 3000 MC; pulse width of 2.0 microseconds; pulse repetition frequency of 600 cps; sweep rate of 4 rpm; vertical polarity ....Signal moved rapidly up the DF scope indicating a rapidly moving signal source; i.e., an airborne source. . . -
These signal characteristics were confirmed on monitor no. 1, but nothing was detected on monitor no.3 which was scanning lower frequency ranges. (65)
This UFO was, in fact, pouring forth large amounts of electromagnetic radiation in a very narrow range of the microwave region, and it was pulsed at a low audio rate!
McClure recalled that the signal characteristics bore a strong similarity to ground-based sets such as the CPS-6B that were widely used at that time. But it is untenable to assert that somebody installed a large search radar in a barn-sized machine and flew circles around a B-47. Nor was the UFO merely utilizing its own radar to keep an eye on the airplane. It was previously shown that radiant energy produced colored halos and plasmas around UFOs which changed in accordance with their accelerations, that is, the application of power. Hence, the conclusion from this B-47 incident is inescapable. The flood of microwave energy from the UFO was an essential, integral part of a propulsion system that is common to all UFOs. This system by some unknown means is capable of diminishing or nullifying gravitational and inertial forces; it also furnishes the requisite thrust for acceleration, and moves air out of the flight path to minimize drag and, above sonic velocities, to eliminate shock waves.
It would be helpful if the total amount of energy radiated by this UFO could be estimated, but unfortunately no quantitative
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data on this point is included in the report. Suitable information, however, can be gleaned from a few other reports. Two peasant farmers in Brazil, upon hearing a strange hum, saw two aluminum discs about 10 ft in diameter that were hovering close to the ground at a distance of 200 meters. (66) If the humming sound were induced within their heads by pulses of microwave energy, as suggested by the word "strange," then the irradiation to which they were exposed must have been as high as the threshold for that effect, known to be 0.333 milliwatts per square centimeter. (67) Since the UFOs were hovering instead of resting on the ground, their power systems must have been in operation. In the absence of better information, energy emission from them is assumed to have been equal in all directions. The report contains no indication that a concentrated beam was directed toward the witnesses. Finally, the degradation of intensity over the distance of 200 meters from the UFOs to the witnesses can be closely approximated by the inverse square law. All the necessary factors are present, or assumed, to calculate the total energy emanating from the UFOs that passes through an imaginary sphere of 200-m radius. The resulting value is 1.6 megawatts. To put this amount into some perspective, the maximum energy that may be broadcast by a local radio station is limited by the Federal Communications Commission to 0.5 megawatt. Put another way, diesel locomotives up to 2,000 hp are most popular for express freight service in North America. The electrical power equivalent of this rating is about 1.5 megawatts. Thus the two UFOs in a state of hovering were generating and emitting several times the amount of energy that is broadcast by the most powerful radio stations, or an amount comparable to the power of a diesel locomotive. Of course this estimate pertains only to the minimum value, and it would not be valid at all if the humming sound were detected by normal hearing. At least it illustrates a point of view that, upon broad application to many sightings, should yield fairly reliable results.
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Limits of Theory
Previous discussions have shown that the propulsion system in UFOs relies upon unknown mechanisms to reduce their effective mass with a twofold advantage, furnishing lift through nullifying gravity and achieving enormous accelerations with only moderate forces. While this performance is compatible with well-established theory, it is greatly in advance of current technology. It does not appear to be so far distant that a well-organized and adequately funded research program would not make it available to humanity. Even though daily experience impresses everyone with the persistence and strength of gravity, it is actually extremely weak in comparison to the other fields in nature. Overcoming it should not be too troublesome if one could only discover how. As electromagnetic fields have an energy density, they are influenced by gravity, but the effect is very small. Otherwise, electrical and magnetic fields interpenetrate gravitational fields without the slightest influence one way or the other. A major theoretical difficulty is encountered in the observation that UFOs are defeating gravity by an electromagnetic field. Neither in the laboratory nor in nature has any such gross interaction ever been observed. It has long been suspected in theoretical circles, however, that all natural fields are related and that they interact in some way. This relationship is part of a problem known as unified field theory in which some impressive advances have been made but completely satisfying solutions are still wanting. Very advanced mathematical concepts have been used to describe a gravitational field from which electromagnetic fields can be derived, although the latter do not appear explicitly in the original form. Unfortunately, the trail of elucidating the performance of UFOs ends here. Their behavior, however, represents some new empirical data that, upon examination from a theoretical perspective, may produce the mutual benefits of improving the theory and understanding UFOs.(68)
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Chapter 7 Footnotes
1. Hall, Richard, H., The UFO Evidence, National Investigation Committee on Aerial
    Phenomena, 3535 University Blvd., West, Suite 23, Kensington, Maryland 20795, May 1964.
2. Case 484.
3. The context requires this language to mean that the inertial behavior would remain unchanged.
4. Markowitz, William, "The Physics and Metaphysics of Unidentified Flying Objects," Science,
    Vol.157, p.1277, 15 September 1967.
5. Nordtvedt, Kenneth L. Jr., "Gravitation Theory; Empirical Status From Solar System
    Experiments," Science, Vol. 178, p. 1157, December 15 1972.
6. Born, Max, et al, Einstein's Theory of Relativity, p.313, Revised Edition, Dover, 1962.
7. Barnett, Lincoln, The Universe and Dr. Einstein, p.71, Times Inc., 1948.
8. Nordtvedt, Kenneth L., Jr., "Gravitation Theory; Empirical Status From Solar System
    Experiments," Science, Vol.178, 15 December 1972.
9. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, p.2016, Chemical Rubber Company, 1937.
10. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p.143,
      Dutton, 1969.
11. Hall, Richard H., The UFO Evidence, p. 81, National Investigations Committee on
      Aerial Phenomena, May 1964.
12. Roach, Franklin E., "Visual Observations Made By U.S. Astronauts," Chapter 6 of
      Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, Dutton, 1969.
13. Personal communication.
14. Binder, Otto 0., "Secret Messages From UFOs," Saga, date unknown.
15. Aviation Week and Space Technology, 88, p. 21, 1968.
16. Literature Search No. S41, interactions of Spacecraft and Other Moving Bodies
      with Natural Plasmas, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1965.
17. Friedman, Stanton T., Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, Hearings Before
      the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, Hon. J.
      Edward Roush presiding, p.217, July 29,. 1968. Also see a more readily available,
      popular version that, having lost some of the technical detail, is bland and stale in
      comparison to the original. Fuller, John G., Aliens In the Skies, The Scientific Rebuttal
      To the Condon Committee Report, Putnam, 1969.
18. Cases 72, 223, 288, and 515.
19. Case 93.
20. Case 106.
21. CaseS4O.
22. Case 499.
23. Cases 228, 321, 414, and 469.
24. Case 469.
25. Case5l2.
27. Case 397.
27. Berliner, Don, "The U.F.O. From The Designer's Viewpoint," Air Progress, p.36,
      October, 1967 from Greif, R.K. and Tolhurst, W.H., NASA Technical Note D-1432,
      Ames Research Center, 1963.
28. Case 88.
29. Cases 81, 96, 148, 348, 521, 529, and 557.
30. Case 375.
31. Case 62.
32. Case 391.
33. Case 398.
34. Case 442.
35. Case 129.
36. Case 388.
37. Case 819.
38. Cases 194 and 358.
39. Case 332.
40. Case 464.
41. Case 832.
42. Case 514.
43. Case 720.
44. Case 211.
45. Leslie, Desmond, and Adamski,George, Flying Saucers Have Landed. p.208,
      British Book Center, 1953.
46. Case 272.
47. Peres, A., "Motion and Radiation of Pole Particles," p.361, in Recent Developments
      In General Relativity, Polish Scientific Publishers, 1962.
48. Case 97, original source.
49. Case 378.
50. Case 340.
51. Case 417
52. Cases 264 and 265.
53. Case 262.
54. Case 292.
55. Case 230.
56. Case 533.
57. Case 627.
58. Case 634.
59. Case 836.
60. Cases 702 and 836.
61. Case 3O3.
62. Case 745.
63. Case 944.
64. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p.260 ff,
      Dutton, 1969.
65. McDonald, James E., "Science in Default; Twenty-two Years of Inadequate UFO
      Investigations," Chapter 5 of Sagan, Carl, and Page, Thornton, Editors, UFOs, A
      Scientific Debate, Cornell, 1972.
66. Bowen, Charles, Editor, "The Humanoids," p. 36, Flying Saucer Review, London, 1968.
67. Copson, David A., Microwave Hearing, p.410, AVI Publishing Co., 1962.
68. Bergmann, Peter G. and Komar, Arthur B., "Status Report on the Quantization of
      the Gravitational Field," p.31, in Recent Developments in General Relativity, Polish
      Scientific Publishers, 1962.
--------------------------------------------------
But the facts must be recorded
----they may be only interesting
bits of  folklore -or they may in-
volve the future of civilization.
                          - Jacques Vallee
  CHAPTER 8
PILOTS AND PASSENGERS
The observation of strange, human-like creatures in and about UFOs is an integral part of the entire phenomenon and this aspect can hardly be ignored simply because it is a disquieting notion. Indeed, "it may yet be discovered that humanoid cases are the key to the whole problem." (1) While observations of the humanoids are traceable well back into history, it was not until the modern era of UFOs, beginning about 1947, that people began to write extensively about their encounters. Many of them told about observing the humanoids at close range, communicating with them, establishing a personal rapport, and consorting with them for extended periods. Messages of peace from the "space brothers" and warnings about atomic bombs were typically reported. Except for limited cults that developed around the authors, this literature was generally shrugged off as completely unbelievable. It will not be neglected here.
Intense prejudice against UFO reports has prevailed for over twenty years with a vicious intensity against those involving the so-called "little green men and the "contactee" cases. Under a threat of ridicule, such experiences were usually discussed only among families and friends. Whenever reported to the au-
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thorities, they received little serious attention. Most such reports were dismissed outright on the grounds that the witnesses must have been mistaken, lying, or unbalanced. Officers responsible for investigating UFO reports at each Air Force base would be reluctant to forward such silliness through channels, and those reports reaching Project Blue Book faired poorly. Some were simply discarded while others were merely tallied without investigation in categories such as "psychological." (2) "Good UFO reports continued to come in at the rate of about ten per month, but they weren't verified or investigated. Most of them were being discarded. " (3) Regrettably, a considerable amount of valuable information has been lost.
It is not intended in this chapter to debate the existence of UFO creatures. The author takes this question as settled, either permanently or tentatively. In either event, this mental attitude permits an unbiased examination of the available data; the value of the inquiry can be measured by the sense that it makes of an initially baffling subject. The data bank consists of 891 cases of landings and near-landings during the twentieth century; thirty-two cases prior to 1900 are omitted because they contain many sightings of a mysterious airship in the United States that are atypical of UFOs. Inclusion of these few reports, however, would not materially alter the following results. (4)
As found in other aspects of the UFO problem, accounts of the occupants are extremely variable. They are seldom quantitative, and almost never complete. A rational analysis of such fragmentary and unscientific data is itself a challenge. But regarding the size of the occupants, perusal of the reports clearly shows at least two distinct groups; one is diminutive while the other is apparently of normal height. Descriptive words that do not carry any connotation of size, such as "figure" and "being," must simply be ignored. Qualitative terms can be sorted and tallied; that is, average height is denoted by "man," "normal," and "human," whereas decisive shortness is denoted by "little man," "child size," and "dwarf." As the two groups are distinguished by different facial details, some cases can be assigned to the appro-
113
priate category whenever the creatures are described but their height is not mentioned. The remaining reports are either entirely silent regarding the height of the creatures or contain estimated heights, that is, some quantitative data. Should a rough statistical analysis of these data confirm the presence of two distinct size categories as previously inferred, one is justified in combining the tallies from the quantitative and qualitative cases.
The following diagram shows the frequency of estimated heights, in intervals of tenths of meters, for the 81 cases containing quantitative data. It also compares the estimates with the range of heights that is considered by anthropologists to be normal for human populations. A preponderance of small creatures below the lower limit for normal humans is obvious. Some estimates are scattered within the normal range. Still a few others indicate very tall giants. As the full-range distribution of heights gives no hint that the extremes are the rarely occurring instances within a single population, it appears that three distinct populations are represented, that is, diminutive, normal, and giant.
Diminutives
A population of small creatures is indicated in the diagram by the roughly bell-shaped envelope of the vertical bars. Sixty-one of the 81 cases containing quantitative data indicate dwarves. In addition, 58 other cases refer to dwarves in qualitative terms. Thus, 119 cases involve dwarves. But the total number of dwarves is much greater than 119 because they were commonly observed in pairs and sometimes in groups of  5 to 10. The most frequently occurring estimate of height was 1.0 meter, having been used 16 times in the 81 reports. Almost all the small group were estimated to be between 0.7 and 1.3 meters tall well below the lower limit for normalcy for humans. Dispersion of the data can arise from inaccuracy of the witness in estimating heights or from an actual variation in the heights of the little creatures. If all the small creatures were exactly 1 meter tall, could witnesses be as far off in their estimates as, say, 0.5or 1.5 meters? It seems
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very unlikely. A significant factor in the dispersion should therefore be attributed to variation in the heights of individuals in the group. An isolated estimate of 0.33 meters may be spurious. Assuming that it is, the weighted average for the diminutive group up to 1.5 meters is 1.05 meters (3ft 5in) or, say, 3 feet, which confirms a recent estimate. (5) As a point of reference, it is noted that the standard height of doorknobs is 3.0 feet.
A predominance of estimates of about 80 centimeters is especially interesting. Six of these sightings were reported from the vicinity of Arequipa in southern Peru and the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, all in the month of September 1965. (6) At Puno,
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Peru, near Lake Titicaca, seven of these very small people were seen together, and at Pichaca, six. Other reports for this size group originated from England in June of the previous years, (7) and from Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean three years later. (8) The smallest individuals, estimated to be 0.33 meters on one occasion and 0.50 meter on another, are indeed very tiny-only 13 to 20 inches! But such heights are not altogether unreasonable. The human malady known as ateliotic or infantile dwarfism, produces very small individuals. In this type of dwarfism, the skeleton tends to remain in the infantile state with the resulting body proportions being nearly normal. The most famous ateliotic dwarf was certainly Charles Sherwood Stratton, billed as General Tom Thumb by the circus magnate, P. T. Barnum. When 18 years old, standing 2ft 9in tall, recently made his U.S. debut in growth throughout his life, reaching 40 inches at the time of his death at age 51. Jozef "Count" Boruwlaski was only 25 inches tall at the age of 15. He reached his maximum growth of 39 inches at the age of 30 and lived for 97 years. The shortest adult male on record, however, was Calvin Phillips, who two years before his death at age 21 was 26.5 inches tall. A Dutch female was even smaller; Pauline Masters was only 23.2 inches tall when she died at age l9 (9) The smallest man alive today is believed to be the Hungarian circus performer, Mihaly Mezaros, who at 34 years old standing 2ft 9in tall, recently made his U.S. début in Madison Square Garden. (10) These tiny humans are, of course, very rare individuals and not indicative of a small species. However, many races of diminutive people are known.
The more common achondroplastic dwarfism displaying characteristic features known as the "bulldog syndrome," is seen in all human races and in many animal species. Notable features are a disproportionately large head and short face with bulbous forehead, broad nose, and bulging eyes. Shortened bones of the forearm and lower leg are also typical. African pygmies some times have these characteristics, the smallest race being the North Twides of the Ituri forest, their mean heights being 1.44 m for the men and 1.37 m for the women. (11) A similar sexual dimorphism
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in the small UFO creatures is suggested by the double-peaked histogram, with males being slightly over 1 meter and females slightly under.
Certain environmental factors favor the evolutionary reduction in sizes of all animal species. Among these are the combined effects of overcrowding, limited area of habitation, and inadequate nutrition. In areas of high temperature and high humidity, small size is an advantage because the body can maintain its thermal equilibrium more easily. The evaporative cooling by skin moisture is restricted by high humidity, and a small body has a larger ratio of surface area to volume. The agility of small bodies is also an advantage in areas where dense vegetation impedes movement. Of the numerous dwarf species, a few examples will suffice: an extinct dwarf mammoth of Santa Rosa Island, California, a dwarf deer of Japan, a dwarf chimpanzee of the Belgian Congo, and the Negrito Onge pygmies of Little Andaman Island in the Indian Ocean. (12)
It is most instructive to build a composite concept of the bodily features for this group from the 23 cases in which some description was offered. Although the available detail is distressingly limited, several features were repeatedly mentioned. Abnormally large heads were described as "big," "double-sized," "over sized," "huge," and "large." Similarly, the eyes were observed to be "bulging," "huge," and "prominent." Other comments give an impression of a generally human appearance, very thin limbs, barely noticeable mouth and nose, but large, pointed ears. Several colors of skin were mentioned, but "green" only once. From other sources it seems that the skin is wrinkled, the lips are very thin, the forehead protrudes, and long arms carry normal hands with long fingernails. (13) A few comments by the witnesses are simply incomprehensible-"short tail," "short wings," and "one eye."
The appearance of this group may be summarized as thin, human-like creatures approximately 1.0 meter tall, with abnormally large, bald heads and large, round, bulging eyes that are set wide apart. A protruding forehead with wrinkled skin adds to
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their ugliness. On a short face, only nostrils are evident instead of a fully developed nose. The mouth is but a horizontal slit. Ears are large and pointed. Arms and fingernails are long.
Certain aspects of this description strongly suggest that the race of little people on UFOs are pygmies displaying many of the typical characteristics of achondroplastic dwarfism. By frequent use of the word "dwarf," the witnesses have apparently been trying to convey more than just the idea of their size. They actually mean "dwarf." It is further implied that the little people did not have an independent lineage but that their environmental conditions caused them to evolve into a dwarf race from larger ancestors. Their appearance, therefore, may be a significant clue to environmental conditions in their homeland and their place in the scheme of evolution.
Normals
In addition to the population of small beings associated with UFOs, a distinctly different group can be identified. They seem to be quite human and display none of the characteristic features of the dwarves. These beings were reported in 85 instances out of the total of 217; again, their actual number is greater than 85 as they were sometimes seen in pairs and small groups. In most of the reports, witnesses were not explicit in referring to their stature; the previous diagram shows that their heights were estimated only 14 times. Estimated values cover the normal range for humans and extend beyond, both shorter and taller.
A few estimates of about 1.5 meters are troublesome as they may pertain to either the dwarves or the larger beings, and the available data in these cases do not always permit a clear distinction. The distribution of sizes among both groups may also overlap at about 1.5 meters, so that some of these estimates are for the largest dwarves whereas others are for the smallest "normals." A sharp cutoff between the heights of the two groups cannot be established.
Very tall individuals were also reported with estimated heights
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up to 2.5 meters, about 8 feet. While certainly abnormal for humans, such height is not unheard of. At the age of 22 years, Robert Pershing Wadlow of Alton, Illinois, was 8 ft 11.1 in. tall. Seven other males over 8 ft tall are also on record. These individuals suffered from an overactive pituitary gland. A non-pathological example, however, is Angus MacAskill. He lived in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, from 1825 to 1863 and grew to 7-ft 9-in. (14) Average-size people are much impressed by very tall people and tend to overestimate their height. Circus giants are sometimes billed as being considerably taller than their actual height, which they are under contract not to reveal. Thus the extreme heights of this group may be somewhat exaggerated.
Not much detail is available concerning the appearance of this group. It may be that they are so completely human that nothing unusual about them attracted attention. The witness simply identified them as "normal" or "human," sometimes indicating their approximate size as "short," "medium," or "very tall." One witness might mention the hair color while another comments only about a peculiarity of the eyes. The scarcity of detail may also be attributed to a propensity of this group to wear headgear that would obscure facial details. In 18 cases witnesses reported "helmets" or the equivalent with more graphic language describing a globular shape such as "diving suit with helmet" and "fishbowl." Despite the meager data, a composite image of the group can be evoked.
Predominantly reported skin colors, arranged by shade, are: "very white," "white," "fair," "tanned," "light brown," and "brown." With the aid of a further observation that one chap seemed to be "European," the imagination is not unduly strained to suppose that the group is a white race displaying various degrees of suntan. Two odd and conflicting observations occurred. One witness reporting "reddish-orange" skin also commented upon a "strange light" seen through an open door on the UFO. And then one saw "greenish" skin on an individual who was dressed in a green uniform. Perhaps the extraneous tinges were picked up from the surroundings, as a human face takes on a
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purple hue when illuminated by mercury-arc lamps.
Relatively frequent mention was made of the hair, regarding both the color and styling. Most common descriptions are "long" and "blond." One witness kindly put these notions together with "fair" hair "to the shoulders." In addition, isolated reports included two men with "short white" hair and two women with "very long black" hair. Incidentally, the presence of women was specifically noted on five occasions.
Three witnesses said that the eyes were "slanted," whereas numerous other comments were supplied, such as "dark," "large," "deep-set," "staring," "round" and "wide apart." In none of these instances were the witnesses confused regarding the number of eyes, namely, two; but "one eye" and "three eyes" were also reported. While these latter reports may be accurate, it seems more likely that the witnesses were misled by some kind of headgear.
Some impressions of the general appearance were "oversized head," "high forehead," and "handsome," "long face" and "youthful." Regarding noses and ears there is absolutely no information. Except, perhaps, for a creature of 1.5 meters who reportedly had no nose. As that feature is common among the dwarves and the height is in the zone of overlap, that report probably does not pertain to the present group. It may be assumed that noses and ears have no unusual features, because they elicited no comments.
While this group may be much more heterogeneous than is currently suspected, a possibly oversimplified prototype comes into focus. The group seems to be a white, Caucasian race of variable skin tone, perhaps depending upon the extent of suntan. Their heights are comparable to ordinary humans, but the range is somewhat broader, inclining to very tall individuals. Their hair is predominantly blonde and usually worn at shoulder length. Eyes have a slight oriental appearance, whereas nothing unusual is to be noted about the noses and ears.
With the exception of a single instance, (15) occurring in Denmark in 1951, all encounters with the large humanoids in the
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data bank were preceded by an incident on a California desert. On November 20, 1952, a witness met a strange man face-to-face in broad daylight who was described as "completely human," "5 feet 6 inches" tall, and weighing about "135 pounds." He had a "medium-colored suntan," "extremely high forehead," and his "sandy" hair fell "to his shoulders" blowing in the wind. His eyes were "large grey-green, slightly aslant at the outer corners," nose "finely chiseled," and mouth "normal." After some friendly gesturing, drawing of diagrams in the sand, and telepathic communication, the two men walked over to a UFO hovering nearby. The stranger climbed aboard and flew away. (16) In other words, the composite picture of normal-size, UFO pilots seen on at least 83 occasions between 1952 and 1968 confirms the image of this class of being's as described by the witness, George Adamski.
Giants
The previous histogram indicated that on six separate occasions the UFO creatures were estimated to be 3.0 meters tall, or about 10 feet. Even allowing for some exaggeration by the witnesses, they were truly gigantic! But bear in mind that they are not a great deal taller than others who, up to 8 feet tall, seemed in every respect to be members of the "normal" population. Do these very tall people represent another race, or are they merely extreme examples of the same group?
These reports clearly belong to the UFO phenomenon, for one of the giants was seen inspecting his craft. Three others climbed out of a large UFO that blocked the highway directly in front of the witnesses' truck. A few observations concerning clothing, helmets, and boots seem to parallel the other cases. Rare comments such as "ugly," "no nose or mouth," and "one eye" are perplexing and suggest a distinctly non-human appearance. However, the data for these cases is too sketchy to conclude that the "giants" are a separate race. They must be considered as very large individuals of the so-called normal group. If this classifica-
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tion is correct, the concept of "normal" must certainly be broadened to encompass the full range of heights from about 5 feet to nearly 10 feet.
The possibility of a racial distinction within this group intrudes here but it should be considered as improbable. The vast majority have been described as completely human whereas the occasional references to grotesque features seems to apply to all sizes. Thus two races may be represented within this range of heights that are distinguishable by their appearance, that is, normal versus beings with bizarre facial features.
Relationships
As a minimum, the evidence clearly indicates two distinct races inhabiting UFOs, namely, the dwarves and normal humans that are sometimes very tall. One wonders whether these two races are traveling independently about the earth, whether they are aware of each other, and if so, whether their relationship is friendly, indifferent, or hostile. A shopkeeper in Argentina, who was prone to unusual experiences, reported that he had entered a UFO in which he saw four crew members "less than one meter in height"; a "fifth member was a blond man almost two meters in height." Some college students in Mexico City claimed that a tall man with "fair hair and blue eyes" invited them aboard a UFO. After a three-hour flight they reached a space station that was occupied by many "beings who differed greatly among themselves as to size and appearance." The beings were allegedly from various planets. Another UFO occupant over 6 ft tall reportedly told a Brazilian author that "there were not only tall races" in his homeland "but also races of medium-size like earth people, and small races, but also races with white, red, and black pigmentation....(17)
The races certainly seem to be on speaking terms. Despite the conflict concerning origins in the above reports, the most natural supposition is that they come from the same place and are cooperating in their ventures.
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Languages
With so many people encountering the UFO races at close range, it would be surprising if someone had not overheard them conversing amongst themselves, or even addressing the witness. Such is indeed the case. The record indicates at least 26 occasions when the speech of the dwarves was heard. Usually the witness could not understand their language.
Developing some further insight into this situation presents some difficulty, for 16 instances involving unintelligible language occurred in several countries, namely, United States (2), France (7), Brazil (1), Great Britain (1), Canada (1), and Italy (4). In any of these instances, the dwarf speaking a language other than that native in the country would not normally be understood. Hence these data do not require that the dwarves have their own separate languages, as they might well be speaking French in Brazil or Chinese in West Virginia. A race like the dwarves, however, presumably isolated from the main stream of humanity for some time, would be expected to develop and use a unique language. Some hint of this circumstance is provided by the following descriptions of the language used by the dwarves, even though not understood by the witnesses.
 
 
Description Case Country
pointed, childlike voices 46 Canada
grunting like pigs 137 France
inhuman 147 France
gutteral sounds 331 Italy
chattering 434 U.S.A
strange tones (as if from a pipe) 617 U.S.A
shrill sounds similar to a gargle 650 France
strange, musical dialect 855 France
These descriptions do not suggest that the dwarves were merely speaking an ordinary language that was unfamiliar to the witnesses, as attested by "strange" and "inhuman." "Child-
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like" and "shrill" denote a high-pitched voice befitting small beings, while "like pigs," "guttural," and "gargle" denote a harsh quality of sounds produced in the throat. The language of the dwarves is probably unique and unintelligible in any country.
In any event, at least one word used by the dwarves can be identified and defined. One dwarf communicated, presumably by gesture, that his craft was called a "sil." (18) Another one could not get through to an Italian with something like "Dbano da skigyay o dbano," but he may have been merely asking directions to the nearest bathroom. (19)
The dwarves are unimpressive as linguists, but a few have spoken to the witnesses in their native tongues, using: Spanish in Argentina, Venezuela, and Mexico; English in Nebraska, New York, South Carolina, New Jersey, and California; and Italian, naturally in Italy. As might be expected, the language skills varied considerably among the individual dwarves. Their English was variously described as "broken," "very smooth," and "perfect." Similarly, Spanish on one occasion was spoken "slowly and with difficulty," whereas a more fluent colleague was rated "perfect." A dwarf speaking Spanish in Mexico strung "the words together in a strange accent." It seems fairly clear that English and Spanish are secondary languages of the dwarves, which they have learned and are in the process of improving.
If any intelligible messages came through to a witness in his own language he should be eager to tell what the dwarf had said. After such an unusual tete-a-tete, most of them are. Statements attributed to the dwarves are that they are "from space," they would "meet again" with the witness, they are "peaceful people," and have "philanthropic and scientific purposes." These messages, taken together, seem to be quite reasonable.
The dwarves seem to carry on normal conversations among themselves and sometimes talk to the witnesses in an incomprehensible language. This language seems unique to the dwarves and consists of guttural sounds of high pitch. Some of them apparently have mastered to various degrees the more common languages, such as, English, Spanish, and Italian. Perhaps they
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are also learning French, Russian, and the Oriental languages but the evidence is not available.
The normal, human types aboard UFOs display somewhat greater linguistic ability than the dwarves, as indicated in 30 instances involving languages and other communication. They were incomprehensible to witnesses in only 12 cases - an impressive performance, indeed, considering the range of countries in which they landed and spoke. Cases occurred in Italy, United States, Wales, New Zealand, Peru, Great Britian, Japan, Brazil, Portugal, Argentina, and Azores. When witnesses did not recognize the language used by the visitors, they very commonly attempted to describe it. A 12-year-old boy in Tennessee thought it sounded "like German," although it is not reported how familiar he was with that language. Also, one should bear in mind that it might have been German or nearly anything other than English. Two independent descriptions of the language of this group, "shrill" and "metallic," are reminiscent of the sound of the language used by the dwarves. Perhaps they are one and the same. This supposition is nurtured by the apparent cooperation of the two races.
A foreign-looking woman appeared at the door of a sanatorium in Brazil holding "a mug and a glass bottle covered with beautiful engravings." She uttered something like "Rempaua." The containers were filled with water and returned to her. With apparent satisfaction, the strange woman departed and boarded a UFO that took off. (20) If the word spoken by the woman cannot be identified in earthly language, it might belong to her native tongue. In another Brazilian incident, a survey worker and his associates saw a great disc landing. After his friends had fled, the witness encountered three strange-looking and oddly dressed creatures that were 7 ft tall. With a stick, one of them made seven holes in the ground surrounding a larger hole. The center hole was called "Alamo" and the most distant hole, "Orque." The Sun and Uranus, respectively, have been proposed as the meanings of these words. (21) While the opportunities to make such inferences are extremely rare, considerable progress has been
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made in compiling a lexicon of the language used by the UFO people. (22)
The larger races appear to be more successful in communicating in the languages of the witnesses. Individuals of this group have used the following languages in appropriate countries:
Italian, English, Portuguese, French, and Spanish. Their messages in the composite seem similar to those reported for the dwarves. Familiar expressions included "peaceful purposes," "we will return," "from space," and "carrying out a mission on earth." Witnesses were sometimes invited aboard the UFO, or warned not to touch it. One invitation was accompanied by a threat. (23) Less sinister discussions involved general questions about the witness and inquiries concerning directions and location. While allegedly on board a giant UFO, a Mexican student was told in Spanish that the UFO races knew 700 earth languages. (24) Not withstanding this boast, two of the visitors seemed ill-prepared to land their vehicle on the southern coast of Brazil. Sitting nearby was a lawyer, who was also a Professor of Law and obviously an accomplished linguist. He asked the two strangers where they came from "in Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, French, and English," but elicited no verbal response. (25)
This same professor, however, perceived a telepathic invitation to board the craft and he did. After a pleasant flight lasting 30 to 40 minutes, he was returned to the place where he had been picked up. Such telepathy - the reception of a message in the brain without benefit of a spoken language- is rather commonly reported. An extended, two-way communication by this method was reported in 1952 (26)  Sometimes an unintelligible language is involved but the message still comes through. In Brazil in 1954,  for example, a witness saw "two men of slim build, normal height, their faces brownish, wearing no helmets." One was collecting samples of grass and the other was inside a machine shaped like a football about the size of a Volkswagen. He could not understand what they said, but he knew that they wanted some ammonia. (27) One of four teachers in a car-stopping incident in France perceived the word "Zemu" repeated twice. (28) In one
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spooky case, an apparition in a woman's house moved his lips, but nothing was heard. The woman, however, understood that the visitor was from space and was searching for titanium under the oceans. (29)
While information concerning the languages and communication of the normal-looking UFO people is quite sketchy, a few points seem to be reasonably clear. They seem to have a unique, unearthly language that is used mostly in talking to one another. This language is. probably the same as that used by their smaller friends. Both groups sometimes converse with witnesses in several of the familiar earth languages. They usually say that they mean no harm, are from space, and are conducting investigations on earth. Frequent invitations to board their craft are issued, but they are sometimes accompanied by a sinister implication or an actual threat. A message is occasionally conveyed, even though the language is not understood by the witness, or even if no language is used at all.
Clothing
Some information about the clothing of the UFO people is usually reported. The amount of detail may vary greatly among the reports, depending upon the distance from the beings, the duration of the sightings, and lighting conditions, and the extent to which the attention of the witness may have been drawn to other aspects of a spectacular event. The individual's power of observation and level of interest in clothing certainly influenced the content of his report. At any rate, enough observations have been recorded to develop a composite and fairly clear concept of the clothing of the UFO people, including some interesting details about accessories such as belts, headgear, boots, and gloves.
Among the 447 close encounters during the decade from November 1958 to November 1968, 123 instances involved sightings of human-like creatures. (30) When the distance was too great or the light too dim, the witnesses could only indefinitely describe "man," "figures," or "little boys." Such sightings
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without detail occurred about 50% of the time. It is in the remaining 50%, comprising 63 instances, that some specific data is to be found.
Body Covering
Witnesses almost always refer to the clothing of the UFO people as "coveralls," that is, a one-piece garment with long sleeves and pant legs. Other terms such as "diver's suit" and "like a pilot" help to clarify the idea. The fit seems to vary from skin-tight to comfortably loose. A wide range of observed colors includes gray, white, black, gold, blue, silver, red and "luminous." On several occasions the surface texture was seen to be "shiny." A suit appeared to be transparent to one witness, but he supplied no further details. These garments were obviously uniforms, as the UFO people, when seen in groups, nearly always dressed alike. No distinction can be discerned in the reports between the clothing of the dwarves and the larger people.
On  rare occasions, more casual attire was noted. In the presence of a companion in the common coverall one dwarf wore a "gray shirt and brown trousers." (31) Three dwarves were all seen wearing "purple jerseys and white shirts." (32) A salesman in West Virginia stopped his car close to a large UFO hovering above the roadway directly ahead. A man of dark complexion came out wearing "a shirt and ordinary trousers, both a shiny blue color . ..(33) A rather small man looked positively natty when he climbed out of his craft in Wisconsin wearing "a black, turtle-neck pullover with a white band at the belt, and black trousers with a vertical white band along the side." (34)
Not once were any pockets, seams, buttons, or zippers mentioned. On the contrary, when a witness had an opportunity to see such details, he sometimes pointedly reported their absence. A witness in South Africa, who peered at the pilot of a landed UFO through a port hole, said that "he wore a sky-blue, one-piece coverall with no visible buttons or fasteners." (35) Similarly, no seams could be detected by a farmer in New York while
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talking to two dwarves at a distance of only 5 feet, and he mentioned it. (36)  It seems clear that the "coveralls" do not have pockets, seams, buttons, or the like.
Belts
Wide belts are a popular accessory to the standard, one-piece uniform, but certain strange features suggest purposes other than securing the trousers, a function that would be superfluous for a one-piece garment. An Italian observer met two men near a dazzling UFO, with belts emitting intermittent yellow-green-blue light. (37) Four months later, the same man again saw two more figures with luminous belts, but the light was so bright he could not make out any other detail. (38) A utilitarian aspect of the belts was demonstrated in Venezuela by two beings about 2 meters tall. Their belts emitted light rays and they refrained from touching anything without first illuminating it with these beams. (39) It is possible that they were merely using the beams as a flashlight; however, the following episode from Mexico indicates something entirely different.
A taxicab broke down on a main highway one rainy evening in 1953 and the driver could not repair it. He sat in the vehicle all night talking with two strangers who were wearing wide, shiny, perforated belts. At first, the driver thought that the strangers were pilots from some other Latin American country, but one of them told him in Spanish that they came from a far distant planet. At dawn, all three walked to a craft about one-half kilometer across swampy terrain. The witness sank deep into mud but the legs and feet of the strangers remained clean. He explained that "When their feet touched the muddy pools their belts glowed and the mud sprang away as if repelled by some invisible force.'' (40) The strangers were also wearing metal collars around their necks and small, black, shiny boxes on their backs. As these latter two items are very rarely reported, they are probably associated with the belts and with this unusual incident. Had the invisible force been applied with more intensity, the strangers undoubtedly
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would have risen completely off the ground. In other words, the belts are probably part of a system that acted against gravity to keep their wearers from sinking and that simultaneously scattered the mud. One suspects, however, that the primary purpose of the system is to furnish propulsion for flying in a way comparable to a rocket system that American soldiers wear on their backs. While flying is not the most popular method used by the UFO people in getting around, they have been observed on many occasions to hover, or to zoom through the air in a most perplexing way. Specific examples are cited in the section on Personal Locomotion.
It may be worthwhile at this juncture to compare the composite view of clothing developed above with that attributed to a UFO pilot some years previously.
"His clothing was a one-piece garment which I had a feeling was a uniform worn by space men as they travel, l    liek Earth men in various types of work-wear uniforms to indicate their occupations.
"Its color was chocolate brown and it was made with a rather full blouse, close-fitting high collar much like a turtle neck, only it did not turn down. The sleeves were long, slightly full and similar to a Raglan sleeve, with closefitting bands around the wrists.
"A band about eight inches in width circled his waist. And the only break in coloring of the entire garment was a strip about an inch and a half in width at the top and bottom of this waistband. This was brighter and more of a golden brown.
"The trousers were rather full and held in at the ankles with bands like those on the sleeves at the wrists, in style much like a ski pant.
"Actually it is very difficult to describe this garment in coloring for I know of no descriptive word in our language that would suit it perfectly.
"It was definitely, a woven material, very fine, and the weave was different from any of our materials. There was a sheen about the whole garment, but I could not tell whether or not this was due to a finishing process or whether it might be the kind of substance of which its thread was made. It was not like our satin, silk, or
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rayon, for it had more of a radiance than a sheen.
"I saw no zippers, buttons, buckles, fasteners or pockets of any kind, nor did I notice seams as our garments show. It is still a mystery to me how his garment was made." (41)
As the witness, George Adamski, thoroughly anticipated numerous, unrelated events around the world for two decades, he was either accurately describing a personal observation, or he was one of the best prophets of modern times. Other portions of his writings certainly deserve to be scrutinized for information about UFOs.
Helmets
It is rather common for the UFO people to be seen wearing helmets. In Wisconsin, a man stepped out of an elevator suspended beneath a UFO "with something like a glass fishbowl on his head." (42)Other observations confirm the general features of this accessory "glass headgear," (43) "diving helmet," (44) and "helmet with a glass section in front of the face." (45) It seems clear that these helmets are not intended merely to protect against mechanical damage. Some details noticed by a witness in Argentina strongly imply that the helmet was worn to isolate the owner from the atmosphere. A typical dwarf came out of a large, egg- shaped object wearing a helmet that was linked to the object by three cables. (46) This arrangement sounds very much like umbilical connections between a space suit and a life-support system, a concept that was not prevalent in Argentina at the time of this sighting in 1965. One cannot escape concluding that these individuals could not breathe the earth's atmosphere, or that they chose not to.
No such restriction applies generally to the UFO people, however, because neither helmets nor other breathing equipment were seen in the majority of the sightings. Most of the UFO people of both races appear to be perfectly comfortable breathing
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the air. This dilemma demands a set of circumstances consistent with the observations about wearing helmets; that is, some do, some don't.
The most significant aspect of this data is that large numbers of the UFO people can and do breathe the air. There can be no doubt that their biological system is based upon metabolism of oxygen, since no other atmospheric gas can serve this function. Their life energy must depend upon consumption of oxygen obtained through breathing combined with the chemical degradation of foods, in the manner of humans. Furthermore, the atmosphere that they are accustomed to breathing must contain oxygen, and the amount cannot be greatly different than on earth.
To pursue this inquiry further requires some technical details about gas mixtures and respiration. The oxygen content of air is about 21% based upon dry volume, and that proportion remains nearly constant at all altitudes up to about 25 miles. But the proportion of oxygen is not directly related to breathing. Man lives comfortably at sea level, but he cannot survive above 25,000 ft without supplemental oxygen. The molecular concentration of oxygen, or the pressure exerted by oxygen alone, at the higher altitudes becomes insufficient to transfer oxygen to the blood in the lungs. The important parameter that indicates the suitability for breathing is the partial pressure of oxygen. At sea level it is 159mm Hg. The minimum viable value for man is about 69 mm Hg. But there is no upper limit; man can breathe pure oxygen.
Although the UFO people have been seen wearing helmets that suggest a special gas mixture for respiration, there is no need to assume that they were compelled to do so. As pilots of craft that fly to extreme altitudes, they might habitually wear helmets and, in a few landings, merely fail to take them off. Simply seeing the helmets does not necessarily mean that the UFO people would be uncomfortable or possibly imperiled by breathing air. They could be accustomed to an atmosphere that is identical or very similar to that on earth. But many other explanations are possible.
Let it be supposed that the helmets are intended to supply a
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special mixture of gases and, for the moment, explore the implications concerning only one gas, oxygen. If the partial pressure of oxygen that these people customarily breathe were less than on earth and their range of oxygen tolerance were comparable to man, then they should not have any difficulty in breathing ordinary air, relatively rich in oxygen for them, and helmets should not be required. On the other hand, if the partial pressure of oxygen in their native atmosphere were greater, than on earth, a distinct need for the helmets might arise. The difference would have to be substantial, say, by a factor of two or three times greater, before they would experience difficulty. Being acclimated to an oxygen-rich atmosphere, they would find the oxygen-poor atmosphere on earth to be troublesome. Helmets would be in order for extended exploration outside the craft; however, shorter excursions might be undertaken without them. In time, they might become adjusted to the earth's atmosphere and no longer need the helmets. For their native atmosphere to have a partial pressure of oxygen vastly greater than on earth is out of the question because they would then never be seen sans helmets. It appears that a native atmosphere containing oxygen at a partial pressure somewhat higher than on earth is at least compatible with the observations.
Unfortunately, this line of inquiry conflicts with another forceful implication of the data. As the dwarves are sometimes reported to have abnormally large chests, (47) they may have adapted to low concentrations of oxygen in their homeland as have the South American Indians who live in the Andean highlands. (48) It may be worth noting that this adaptation in South America has occurred in a short period of time compared to the millions of years usually associated with evolutionary changes. The penetration of homo sapiens into the Western hemisphere was initiated by Mongoloid people crossing the Bering Sea from Asia to North America about 11,500 years ago. They and their progeny spread gradually southward across the continent, reaching the northern portions of South America in a period of about 700 years, or about 10,800 years ago. (49) If a certain fraction of
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these people having abnormally large chests preferentially sought out the mountain habitat and others did not, eons of time may have been taken in developing the chest. It seems much more reasonable to postulate that a typical group of immigrants by chance, found the mountains to their liking and settled there. In this case, the maximum time available for the adaptation to be achieved was only 10,800 years. Even less time would have been involved if the people first saturated more favorable locations before moving into the highlands by choice or when fleeing from the victors in tribal warfare.
One wonders if the sighting reports contain any clues that would aid in estimating the total atmospheric pressure in the homeland of the UFO people. Helmets might be used as part of a space suit to prevent caisson disease, also known as the bends, if their native pressure were much lower than the atmosphere on earth. A serious medical hazard arises when a person is exposed to nitrogen under increased pressure for an extended period. The blood absorbs more nitrogen than usual and, if decompression proceeds too rapidly, the blood releases it in the form of bubbles. To avoid distressing symptoms or death, the individual must be returned to his normal pressure in slow and controlled stages, allowing the excess nitrogen in the blood to be expelled gradually by the lungs. If the UFO people were accustomed to an atmosphere in which the pressure of nitrogen were much lower than on earth, one would rarely observe them without their helmets.
On the other hand, a native pressure considerably higher than one atmosphere would also require the use of a helmet but here the question reverts back to an adequate supply of oxygen as already discussed.
In summary, wearing of helmets on earth is not usually required and they may be worn more from personal preference than from necessity. The native atmosphere certainly contains oxygen but the available information is too sketchy to establish its partial pressure relative to that on earth. Neither can the total pressure be deduced. However, the partial pressure of oxygen
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and the total pressure cannot be greatly different from 159 mm Hg and 14.7 psi, respectively.
Boots and Gloves
Footwear is seldom noted but two types have been recognized, namely, ordinary boots and a heelless shoe that is integral with the trousers, such as children's' "pajamas-with-the-feet-in- 'em." A robot-like being associated with a UFO was seen in Florida wearing thin, white gloves but the report does not suggest why. (50)
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Footnotes: Chapter 8
1. Hynek, J. Allen, The UFO Experience, p.164, Regnery, 1972.
2. Hynek, J. Allen, The UFO Experience, Chapter 11, Regnery, 1972.
3. Ruppelt, Edward J., The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, p.88, Ace, 1956. This book
    by the officer formerly in charge of UFO investiga tions by the Air Force is a classic.
4. Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia, Regnery, 1972.
5. Hynek, J. Allen, The UFO Experience, p.161, Regnery, 1972.
6. Cases 691, 695, 698, 701, 703, and 705.
7. Case 609.
8. Case 917.
9. Guinness Book of World Records, Chapter One, "The Human Being," Bantam, 1971.
10. San Francisco Chronicle, p. 1, March 27, 1973.
11. Coon, Charleton S., The Living Races of Man, p.13, Knopf, 1965.
12. Coon, Charleton S., The Origin of the Races, p.12, Knopf, 1963.
13. Compare a sketch prepared by the U.S. Air Force from descriptions of he witnesses to the
      famous Kelly-Hopkinsville case in Bower, Charles, Editor, "The Humanoids," p.65, Flying
      Saucer Review, London, 1968 and a picture of a model made from the same sources in
      Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia, Regnery, 1969.
14. Guinness Book of World Records, Chapter One, "The Human Being," Bantam, 1971.
15. Case 82.
16. Leslie, Desmond and Adamski, George, Flying Saucers Have Landed, p.94, British
      Book Center, 1953.
17. Bowen, Charles, Editor, "The Humanoids," Cases 44, 54, and 3, Flying Saucer Review,
      London, 1968.
18. Case 642.
19. Case 289.
20. Case 918.
21. Case 61, original source.
22. Edwards, P. M. H., "Speech of the Aliens," Flying Saucer Review, London,
      January-February and March-April, 1970.
23. Case 877.
24. Bowen, Charles, Editor, "The Humanoids," p.43, Flying Saucer Review, London, 1968.
25. Case 396.
26. Leslie, Desmond, Flying Saucers Have Landed, British Book Center, 1953.
27. Case 126.
28. Case 515.
29. Case 443, original source.
30. Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia, Regnery, 1969.
31. Case7l6.
32. Case 678.
33. Case 804.
34. Case 517.
35. Case 568.
36. Case 596.
37. Case 531.
38. Case 545.
39. Case 767.
40. Case 116, original source.
41. Leslie, Desmond and Adamski, George, Flying Saucers Have Landed, p.196, British
      Book Center, 1953.
42. Case 812.
43. Case 638.
44. Case 506.
45. Case 617.
46. Case 642.
47. Case 217.
48. Coon, Carleton S., The Origin of Races, p.70, Knopf, 1962.
49. Martin, Paul J., "The Discovery of America," Science, Vol.179, p.969, 9 March 1973.
50. Case 638.
----------------------------------------------
 Every great advance in science
has issued from a new audacity
of imagination.  - John Dewey
 
CHAPTER 9
ACTIVITIES ON EARTH
As the UFO people have said that they are conducting a scientific investigation on earth, one would expect that they have been observed in the process. A thorough study of earth would require an enormous variety of activities. Concerning the natural environment, it would be necessary to collect and analyze all sorts of samples, including plants and animals, rocks and soils, water, and the atmosphere. Some instrumental measurements, such as gravity, magnetism, geological substructure, and radioactivity, would be required. Finally, man-made installations of particular interest would be inspected and samples of industrial products would be collected.
Collecting Samples
Considerable interest in plants, both natural and cultivated, has been displayed. In France, two dwarves examined lavender plants being grown commercially for their fragrance. (1) Tomato plants attracted the attention of two others in Brazil, (2) whereas some associates on another occasion collected tobacco plants. (3) More enterprising and better organized efforts in Portugal in-
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volved gathering "flowers, shrubs, and twigs in a shiny box."  (4) "Grass, herbs, and leaves of trees" were the target for three little men in Brazil. (5) "With smiles showing fine white teeth," two dwarves took a pot of flowers from an Italian woman. (6) Other instances are less explicit: "they gathered some plants," "picked up something," etc.
A Brazilian prospector saw two dwarves "digging a hole." (7) Two more were seen by a dairy farmer in New York, each carrying a tray of "what appeared to be soil removed from the field." (8) In Venezuela, stones were picked up and examined, (9) and in another instance, two dwarves leaped into a spherical craft "carrying stones and other samples." (10)
Among various kinds of animals reportedly taken aboard UFOs are a chicken, (11) and, over the objection of the owner, some domestic rabbits. (12) Attempts at acquiring dogs have met with some difficulty. Frisky, a dog owned by a 12-year-old boy, was seen in a field with other dogs near a UFO and four normal- looking people, two men and two women. Frisky growled and backed away when one of the men tried to grab him. The man then attempted to catch one of the other dogs, but let go when he was bitten. (13) Another dog owner was rather abusive when a dwarf asked him for his pet. The dwarf was sent fleeing back into his craft with "Get the hell out of here." (14)
In areas where UFOs have been active for several days, it is commonly reported that many farm animals, including cattle, are missing. The residents usually attribute their losses to the UFOs without any direct evidence of theft. A newspaper in Rio de Janeiro and local papers at Manaus, in the State of Amazonas, on September 18, 1962, carried reports that flying saucers had carried off seventeen chickens, six pigs, and two cows from the Barcelos district. Proof of this pudding, however, occurred near Twin Falls, Idaho, where the victims watched the culprits. People from a UFO were seen loading a steer into their machine, which was estimated to be 200 feet in diameter. The witnesses were a local attorney, the ranch owner, and two hired hands. (15)
Most, if not all, of these instances of collecting samples are at
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least compatible with the notion of an objective study. But some of the items taken by the dwarves may relate to their personal need; that is, fresh food. chicken gumbo, fried rabbit, or steak might be a delectable change to a diet of cookies "made of corn and wheat flour" plus other ingredients that were observed being cooked on a UFO. The witness obtained four of the cookies which were later tested, eaten, and analyzed. (16)
Collection of water has been reported frequently. It would be adequate to take small samples of water in a vial for determination of the dissolved minerals and the level of pollution, either chemical or bacterial. UFO people, however, sometimes take substantial amounts of water. A Canadian and his wife in 1950 saw a large UFO with portholes "come to rest on the surface of the lake." Ten small people on a deck busily "immersed a hose in the lake" as if pumping water into the craft. (17) An almost identical performance, also in Canada, had been observed 36 years earlier when eight witnesses saw dwarves plunging a hose into a lake from a spherical craft resting on the water. (18) While fishing in New York, an electronics engineer saw an object land. Two dwarves "came out with a hose and pumped water from the river." (19) Another fisherman in Italy saw a UFO hover for 10 minutes over a river with "a hose that plunged into the water." (20) These uses of hoses imply collection of a substantial volume of water, probably more than could be carried in buckets on several round trips. Any such amount would clearly exceed the immediate requirements of the collectors, and one suspects that it filled the need of a considerable number of their fellows somewhere else.
The intended purpose for water, on one occasion, was made entirely clear to a chicken farmer in Wisconsin. An object came down vertically near his house in which he saw three men through an open hatch. One of them handed him a "silvery jug with two handles" and "made a motion like drinking." The jug was filled with water and returned. (21) This case is reminiscent of a previously mentioned request for water by a strange woman in Brazil who used the word, "Rempaua." (22) In yet another instance, two
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fair-skinned men emerged from a UFO in Chile asking a miner for water in a "mixture of English and Spanish." With unusual resourcefulness under the circumstances, the miner took some water out of his car radiator and gave it to them. (23) Small quantities of water were also obtained by the UFO people without assistance from humans. Two miners saw a UFO land on a sandbar in a California river. One dwarf got out and "filled a shiny pail with water and handed it to someone inside the craft." (24)Another craft landed at night near a Brazilian fisherman who watched one of three little men fill a "shiny metal tube with water from the river." (25)
Notwithstanding the declared purpose of the UFO people, these instances of collecting water, with one possible exception, have a distinctively unscientific tone. It appears that water is required for drinking, or other purposes, either by the individuals involved or a number of their colleagues. In view of the normally furtive behavior of these people, a face-to-face confrontation to request water carries a hint of some desperation.
Their interest in manufactured products seems to be minimal. A railroad worker was surprised when a strange being entered the sleeping coach where he was reading. After "pouring the contents of an oil can into a small bottle," he left. (26) This visitor apparently needed some oil rather urgently. The only other instance concerning a manufactured product occurred when two small men associated with a UFO were discussing agriculture with a farmer in New York. At their request, the farmer went to get some fertilizer, but upon returning, found that they had gone. He left the fertilizer. It, too, was gone the next day. (27)
Inspections
Somewhat more attention has been paid to a variety of man-made structures. Very commonly UFOs and their occupants have been observed in the vicinity of highways and railroads. These may only be convenient places to land, but a specific curiosity has been exhibited. For example, three dwarves were seen looking at railroad tracks with a light in the early morning hours. (28) Aban-
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doned oil derricks in Texas attracted the attention of a figure about 1 meter tall who emerged from a huge UFO. (29) An object fitting the description of a UFO was seen on the ground near the site of the first A-bomb explosion in New Mexico, although no occupants were discerned. (30)
Dispersal of an array of apparatus on the ground near a landed UFO and diligent work with some kind of equipment would suggest scientific data gathering. Only two instances might be understood in this context. Human figures came out of an egg-shaped object in Ohio and "placed small spheres around the craft." (31) Perhaps the same type of device was involved in the appearance of a man in Argentina who held a "pale blue sphere in his hand." (32)
In summary, the idea that the UFO people are conducting any kind of organized and thorough scientific study on earth is not sustained by the available information. Instead, their activities on the ground are strangely haphazard and disorganized. Aside from the collection of vegetables, small animals, and water, possibly for consumption, other samples seem to be selected at random. Also, inspection of man-made facilities seems to be more a matter of curiosity than an organized study. Instead of conducting a comprehensive survey of earth, the UFO people appear to be randomly snooping around or searching for some particular, natural commodity on earth, either vegetable or mineral.
Emergencies
Sometimes the observed activities are not related to investigation of the surroundings because the visitors' attention is focused upon the craft itself. In January 1967, a UFO about 80 ft in diameter settled on its tripod landing gear on a highway in Minnesota. From an elevator descended from the underside, a man wearing blue coveralls and a glass helmet stepped out. "He seemed to check something" before leaving. (33) Similar inspections were observed in France, (34) San Salvador, (35) Argentina (36) and Minnesota. (37) Taking advantage of a landing in Brazil to check their vehicle, the pilots also investigated the area and "gathered
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samples in a huge box." (38) Actual repairs were sometimes required. A French woman, approaching to within 30 meters of a landed disc, stated "that a man was repairing it." (39) External repairs were also made on vehicles that landed in Minnesota (40) and Denmark (41)
Maintenance or adjustment of equipment inside a craft may also require a landing. After touching a landed machine, a Libyan farmer was warned with gestures by one of its occupants to stay away. He watched for 20 minutes as six men inside were "apparently busy with instruments." (42) Of course, they may have been taking some kind of measurements, but such interpretation seems unlikely in view of the following incident. One of two UFOs flying at low altitude settled to the ground near an amateur prospector in a remote area of Canada. He sat quietly for 20 to 30 minutes sketching the object but seeing no activity. Then, as a door opened, he smelled an odor like "a burned-out electrical motor." (43) Because the odor clearly came from inside the craft, it appears that the landing was forced to correct a malfunction of electrical machinery or circuitry, or to put out a fire. In two instances, figures inside their vehicle were observed to be busy with electrical apparatus. A man outside a landed machine in Argentina was studying a piece of paper while a companion inside was "seated before an instrument panel." (44) Three figures stood on a platform under a landed UFO in Brazil, apparently guarding the vehicle as they were armed, while another was seen through a transparent top seemingly "using a keyboard." (45)
In other words, some landings occur in which the occupants display no interest in their surroundings. The purpose of the landing seems to be inspection of parts outside the vehicle and making necessary repairs. Alternately, complete attention is focused upon instrument panels and control boards within the vehicle. This group of cases appear to be emergency landings to fix something that either malfunctioned or threatened to fail. While UFOs clearly represent an advanced technology, they apparently are not foolproof. In a large number of missions, therefore, one would expect that occasionally the necessary repairs could not be accomplished and the UFO would have to be
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abandoned on the ground. Or, an equipment failure in flight would result in disintegration of the craft or a devastating crash on the ground. The record indicates that both types of mishaps have occurred.
A UFO in Brazil, flying at low altitude with serious difficulty, suddenly pulled up, whereupon it "disintegrated into thousands of fiery fragments, which fell sparkling with magnificent brightness.'' Some of the fragments, extinguished in shallow water, were later determined to be magnesium. (46) In 1952, wreckage of a UFO was found on Spitzbergen Island in the Arctic Ocean. Investigation was conducted by a Norwegian Board of Inquiry, which later announced: "It has - this we wish to state emphatically - not been built by any country on earth." (47) Both these incidents were studied by the Condon Committee and neatly, but dubiously, dispatched. Three more UFO crashes in the American deserts were described in 1950. One of these involved a saucer-shaped craft 100 ft in diameter in which 16 little people were killed. Their heights ranged from "about 36 to 42 inches." (48) These reports have never been adequately investigated and described publicly because the vehicles and the bodies were reportedly commandeered by the Air Force.
Personnel Transfers
An effective method of secretly investigating a limited area would be for a UFO to land at night, discharge a reconnaissance team, then fly away. Upon completing their mission, the team would signal for a pickup or meet the craft at some prearranged location and time. Something like this was apparently in process when a guard in New York saw a cigar-shaped machine land in a parking lot one evening at 10:15 p.m. While he was watching the object in the beam of his truck headlights, two dwarves dressed in "shiny black uniforms" ran out of the darkness and entered the craft, which took off immediately. Black uniforms seem to be singularly appropriate for a surreptitious outing at night. (49) Obviously two crafts would have to land together for an occupant of one of them to transfer to the other. Just such a situation was
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observed in Central Australia by a group of Unmatjera aborigines in 1951. They were looking at a UFO on the ground when another one like it landed nearby. A dwarf came from under the late arrival, ran over to the parked craft, and climbed aboard through the bottom. (50) Three years later in France, several witnesses even saw a double transfer. Two discs in the sky with a "sort of luminous bridge between them" were seen to land together. One dwarf came out of both vehicles, passing each other without hesitation, to enter the opposite craft. Then both flew away. (51) These little dramas unfortunately give no clues as to why the transfers were made, but they clearly identify another purpose for UFO landings.
Summary on Landings
As with many other inquiries, the eventual answer turns out to be more complex than was initially suspected. So it was with the reasons that UFOs abandon the safety of the skies to hover close to the ground or actually land. Reports by witnesses clearly indicate that landings are most frequently associated with investigation of the surroundings by the UFO people. They often collect samples of a wide variety, but in a seemingly unsystematic way. An undefined need for water in quantities ranging from approximately one quart to hundreds of gallons brought several UFOs to the ground, and under conditions of urgency, human assistance was solicited. Malfunction of propulsion or control systems has evidently forced landings for inspections and repairs. Discharging or picking up passengers and transferring individuals between UFOs is sometimes required. One further purpose for landing, related to investigation of humans, is treated in the next section.
Infiltration
From the foregoing discussion it is suspected that UFO people of average height would have little difficulty in infiltrating modern
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society. They are obviously capable of breathing the earth's atmosphere and they could not be distinguished in a crowd by their appearance. Of course, they would benefit by being fluent in an appropriate language and they would have to wear common styles of clothing. In a well-planned mission, one or several of them could be landed in the middle of the night, not too far from a populated area, walk into town, and blend completely with the population on the sidewalks. Provided with adequate funds, they could establish residences, take jobs, and become an undifferentiated element of the society. A handsome young man named Valiant Thor claims that he came to earth in a space ship and was "landed in a clearing just north of High Bridge, New Jersey." Thereafter he mingled in a small crowd at a convention. He said that his mission, lasting three years, was to educate government leaders. He's not around anymore. (52)
Personal Locomotion
Every species of animal has a distinctive carriage of its body and a typical way of moving its limbs when walking or running. While the difference between species may be very slight, they are easily discerned. Even individual members within a species have a style of movement that can be identified. One can usually recognize a friend at great distance by that characteristic alone. Thus a close examination of the movements of the UFO people should be sensitive to any such peculiarities mentioned by the witnesses.
Weak Gravity
Most accounts of the UFO people indicate that they were moving about in an ordinary way as they walked near their craft, picked up something, or ran back to the craft and climbed aboard. Somewhat unusual movements, however, were displayed in France in 1957 by four dwarves who had a waddling gait. (53) That same type of movement was undoubtedly observed by a farm
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woman in Peru, who described six dwarves that "walked like ducks." (54) Because of the multiplicity of dwarves in both of these cases, the observations must be taken as characteristic of the species rather than idiosyncratic. Other strange styles of walking included jerky motions, (55)  stiff-legged, (56) and with feet together in a series of jumps. (57) One is struck by the similarity between these descriptions and the odd gaits adopted by the Apollo astronauts as they walked about on the lunar surface. Anyone who watched the television broadcasts will recall how they bounded forward in a series of galloping jumps, turned by twisting their torsos, and cavorted about with childlike movements. The implication is that UFO people are similarly experiencing a gravity on earth less than they are accustomed to; this point is emphatic in a few reports. A professor in Brazil noted that upon re-entering their craft, two men of average height jumped up the stairway lightly, holding only by one hand, whereas he had to use both hands when he followed them. (58) Two dwarves in Venezuela came out of the bushes with their arms full of what appeared to be earth or rocks, and they leaped with great ease into a luminous sphere hovering six feet above the ground. (59) A truly impressive and significant performance was seen by a Brazilian survey worker, who watched for half an hour as three 7-foot-tall beings, with extraordinary agility, leaped, gamboled, and tossed huge stones before boarding their craft. (60)
The argument that the UFO people have a home somewhere on earth has not been very convincing (61) and the only alternative, for physically real beings, is that their home is somewhere else. Exactly where is not known, but that issue is probed in another chapter. The point here is limited to considering gravity. Relative to the gravitational strength on earth, taken as 1.0g, the surface gravity of planets in our solar system varies rather widely from a minimum of 0.27g on Mercury to a maximum of 2.64g on Jupiter. Only three of the nine planets have gravity within 20% of that on earth. (62) The gravitational field in the astronomical homeland of the UFO people, whether in this solar system or some other is not likely to be the same as on earth, or even very
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close to it. Through the space program, the human body has been found to be surprisingly tolerant to extremes of gravity or the forces of acceleration that are equivalent. On lunar flights, the astronauts must sustain the short-term accelerations during rocket burns, the long-term weightlessness in earth or lunar orbit and enroute to the moon, the weak gravity of 1.6g while exploring the lunar surface or resting in the Lunar Excursion Module. If adequately supported in a semi-reclining position, the astronauts can even endure the forces of re-entering the earth's atmosphere, amounting to 8 to l0g, without unacceptable loss of mental, visual, or manual ability. But walking, struggling to stay upright, in a strong gravitational field is another matter. It should be possible for a man to walk in a field of 2g, where his weight would be twice normal. It would require great strength, and the extra exertion would tire him quickly. In 3g, it is doubtful that he could do any more than crawl around very laboriously, if at all. Consequently, man will not be exploring heavenly bodies where the gravity is much greater than on earth without some mechanical reinforcement of his limbs and an auxiliary power source, a concept that has been under active development for many years. Exploration of planets and satellites having lesser gravity, however, is relatively easy and apparently enjoyable. As these considerations should apply equally to residents of other worlds that wished to explore the cosmos, the odds are that their target planets would have relatively weaker gravity. In all probability, gravity in the homeland of the UFO people is substantially greater than here, as attested by their agility on earth and their lack of special equipment for walking.
Creatures of nature proliferate in nearly infinite forms, each finding a narrow ledge of existence that provides an adequate food supply and suitable living conditions. Despite the enormous variety, they are all governed by the environmental factors dictated by nature, such as temperature, pressure, light, and gravity, which is of special interest here. What kind of creatures and plants, would live on earth if its gravity were only one-fourth the present strength? Or four times the present strength? Some
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differences would certainly be noted. But judging from the happy existence on earth of creatures of all sizes from the ant to the elephant, the strength of gravity does not severely limit the size of living things. It governs their bodily proportions in relation to their total weight. This point can be understood most readily in the context of plants and trees. A tree trunk, for example, must be strong enough to support the total weight of the tree. It must also resist structural failure in buckling, that is, bending outward at the middle, then collapsing. This same concept applies to the limbs of animals, which must be even stronger and more rigid. Larger creatures are required by gravity to have relatively sturdier limbs. The cross-section must be greater in proportion to the length, as for elephants compared to ants. This relationship would be intensified for stronger gravity and mollified for weaker. Hence, the bodily forms of the UFO people should contain a clue to the gravity of their homeland if it were different than that on earth. These creatures, spanning the considerable range of heights from about 0.5 to 3.0 meters, are uniformly judged to be skinny by human standards. This observation implies that their native gravity is less than that on earth. As many other ramifications are involved, no definite conclusion is possible. Not only is the sturdiness of animal limbs controlled by gravity, but so is nearly every other aspect of their existence, such as metabolic rate, surface area, respiration frequency, and heart rate. These quantities, expressible in mathematical form, are related to the prevailing gravity. (63) A thin body form could also be an advantage in disposing of heat in a warm climate. Clearly, a great deal of effort is required to clarify this subject.
Flying
Upon first exposure to the UFO literature, the reader is prone to ignore any reference to the dwarves seen hovering or flying through the air, or to dismiss the story as totally beyond the UFO phenomenon. Maintaining a mental tranquility during extensive reading, however, is not so easy. In the sample cases under
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study, the UFO people were reportedly flying on numerous occasions, and these events must be objectively examined.
A man in Venezuela saw an object in flight that landed near a bridge. He first thought it was a heron, but then saw that it was a little man with all the characteristics of the UFO dwarves. (64) Upon being awakened by the shaking of his bed, another witness saw a small creature fly out an open window toward a dazzling light. (65) When a dwarf was disturbed by a racetrack employee while attacking a horse in a barn, he "zoomed" out the door. (66) These strange observations standing alone might be disregarded in the absence of the following ones, which specifically link the flying creatures to UFOs.
The normal way that UFO people enter their craft is through a hatch or doorway in the side, by stepping into an elevator that has been let down from a hovering craft, or by climbing up a stairway on the underside. If it is too high or they are in a great hurry, they simply fly to it. A small creature dressed in shiny clothes seemed to "fly" as he moved toward a craft hovering less than 2 meters above the ground. It "opened up" and the creature "popped inside." (67) Two creatures in white suits and helmets were seen in Canada to fly back into a large disc-shaped craft. (68) Two children in France saw "four little devils" that hovered, flew around a 2-meter sphere, then dived into it. (69) Only two days later in Venezuela with little chance of communication, a police officer saw a dwarf wearing a silver-colored, metallic-looking coverall. The dwarf lifted one foot, then the other, and flew up toward an object overhead and sailed into an open door. (70) The prominence of clothing in these cases should be noted.
While these observations are truly baffling, they are elementary compared to the next two that, oddly enough, furnish a clue to comprehension. A twenty-three-year-old woman and her parents saw a strange little man surrounded by a bluish-yellow glow as he soared over the neighbors rooftops. (71) Here is a direct association between flying and luminosity. The same relationship was reported for the taller UFO people when a strange being 2.l0-m tall was seen hovering in the air near a bright object; his
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body emitted a peculiar glow. (72) The bodies of two dwarves appeared to glow with lights of changing colors as they emerged from a landed vehicle in New York. (73) The idea that the bodies were emitting light has probably been confused by the witnesses with luminescence of the clothing and the atmosphere surrounding the creatures. Three giants, 3 meters tall, wore luminous clothing as they came out of a huge machine over 10 stories high. (74) A minister in Ohio saw a silhouette wearing a luminous suit near his house. (75) A man 2.5 m tall wore luminous heelless boots as he inspected his craft in San Salvador. (76) The aerial activity of luminous bodies and changing colors sounds all too familiar; it closely parallels the emission of light from UFOs in flight. Apparently, the type of propulsion system used by these people for personal flying is the same as that employed to drive their vehicles. It would seem that the "shiny" quality of their clothing, the sheen or the radiance, is a necessary adjunct to the system, making the clothing most unusual and possibly explaining the lack of buttons, fasteners, and seams. With some kind of electromagnetic system involving the surface of the clothing, the discontinuities created by fasteners and seams would be undesirable. A gap between trouser cuffs and shoes seems to be avoided by making the shoes integral with the standard coveralls. Similar care to preserve extraordinary smoothness also applies to the surface of the vehicles.
Some other aspect of flying may have been involved in two isolated observations. Two boys in Brazil, ages 9 and 11, saw a luminous sphere at treetop level from which descended a tall being gliding down to the ground along two vertical beams of light. Since strong beams are frequently aimed downward from UFOs, they could have been extraneous to the descent for the being flew back up to the sphere without their benefit.(77) A more distinct indication that the light beams were important occurred in Venezuela about three years later. Two beings came out of an oval object through a system of light beams, and they returned to their craft "as if carried by the light." (78)  Two men skiing through the woods near Helsinki furnished a very detailed description of
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this process. (79) Thus the aerial performance of at least three of the UFO people probably encompasses a use of light beams that is entirely unique.
In the previous section, it was observed that the UFO people did not wear special equipment to protect their bodies against strong gravity. This point was used to argue that they did not need it because they came from someplace where gravity was greater than on earth. It now becomes clear, however, that their remarkable clothing could well serve as a device to relieve the body of burdensome gravitational forces. If it is capable of offsetting the body weight entirely for the purpose of flying, it could also serve to offset any desired fraction of the body weight to facilitate walking in an abnormally high gravity. Numerous examples of the UFO people being seen as brightly luminous while walking on the ground, instead of flying, are ample indication of that usage. One very small creature was even seen quietly walking the streets of Chaclacay, Peru, leaving a luminous trail, a feature commonly associated with the vehicles and understandable in that context.(80) It appears that the clothing furnishes protection against gravity, and on that basis, the argument becomes admissible that the UFO people originate in gravity that is less than that on earth.
Attitudes Toward Humanity
With very minor exceptions, the UFO people clearly refrain from interfering in human affairs, even to the extent of evading detection. Avoidance of continental land masses and islands may be inferred from the frequency with which UFOs are seen to appear from the direction of the sea and to depart toward the sea. Considering the limited number of people traveling upon the oceans at any given instant, it is surprising that they have generated so many reports. Numerous observations of UFOs entering the oceans or erupting there from amidst great turbulence and then flying off have been collected and analyzed. In 1945, for example, crew members on the U.S. Army Transport Delarof were steaming toward Seattle in the northeastern Pacific. A large,
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round object, estimated to be 150 to 250ft in diameter, emerged from the sea, circled the ship two or three times, then flew off toward the south. (81) Similarly, an object off the coast of Italy caused an enormous bubble in the sea 1 kilometer from a boat carrying four people: it emerged, hovered briefly, and flew away at high speed. (82) Such events have also been observed in relation to numerous rivers and lakes. It is not known why UFOs frequent the waters of the earth, but while submerged in them they are certainly well hidden from mankind.
Most sightings merely involve metallic, disc-shaped craft traversing the sky with strange, jerky motions during the day, or the corresponding behavior of a bright light at night. To see a UFO at close range, hovering at low altitude, or resting on the ground is a rare event. Reliable statistics are not available, but the relative frequency of landings versus flybys can be crudely assessed. It has been estimated by a Gallup poll that five million Americans are convinced that they have seen UFOs. If only a modest fraction of this number were valid, the total number of sightings worldwide must still be quite large, say, on the order of 50,000,000! As for landings and near-landings, on the other hand, only about 1,000 have been documented, and it is not known how many observations may have gone unrecorded or how many landings went unobserved. The indication of rarity is clear, and based upon the very sketchy data at hand, one might place the landing-to-flyby ratio on the order of 1 in 10,000. No matter what the correct figures may be, the objectives of the UFO people seem to be largely achieved without landing.
And to make things worse, even these rare events take place almost exclusively at night. The frequency of short-range sightings rises quickly to a peak about one hour after sunset; sightings later in the evening and throughout the night decline as potential witnesses go to bed. (83) But this pattern of landings may be significant in another way. During the evening twilight, the brightness of direct sunlight is relieved, yet the level of general illumination is quite high enough for good visibility. It is possible that the UFO people dislike, or cannot tolerate, broad daylight, or
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any bright light for that matter. A few observations lend support to this idea. A policeman in Chalac, Argentina, along with about 50 Toba Indians, saw three little men getting out of a UFO. One of the witnesses started taking flash pictures of them and noticed that they were afraid of the bright light. (84) In California, a robot-like creature tried all night to dislodge a hunter from a tree in which he had taken refuge. The creature was kept at bay by the witness, who set fire to fragments of his clothing and threw them at his tormenter. (85) An attempted abduction in Brazil was frustrated because the witness noticed that the three 7-ft-tall people trying to catch him shunned bright sunlight. (86) From such flimsy data it is not possible to draw conclusions, but the suggestion is evident that the UFO people prefer to land after sunset because they are, like owls, bedazzled by ordinary daylight. Most animal eyes can accommodate to very low levels of light, but they are sharply limited in their capacity to block out excessive bright ness. The reluctance of the UFO people to expose themselves to bright light implies that they are accustomed to levels that may be very much weaker than daylight on earth. This prospect may explain why the dwarves have notably large, bulging eyes, and why some witnesses insist that they appear to have a reddish glow at night, like nocturnal animals. (87) Sunglasses, of course would be the simple answer to this problem, but they are not used. On the other hand, helmets made of tinted glass would serve very well. They would be highly reflective from the outside and would make it difficult for the witness to observe facial details of the wearer as is sometimes the case. It is not known whether the UFO people wear helmets more frequently when the illumination is high than in the dark of night.
It has also been shown that landings in France during a wave of activity in 1954 were correlated with areas of low population density. (88) In other words, the UFOs tended to avoid metropolitan areas in favor of farmlands or more isolated swamps and wood lands, a propensity that is also observed in other countries. It is remarkable under the circumstances that any detailed information is available concerning the behavior of UFO people on the
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ground, but there is enough data to verify their aloofness and to decipher something of their motives.
The typical, close-up sighting consists of the following stages:
1) The witness sees a UFO at considerable altitude and watches it approach, hover, and land nearby,
2) One or more occupants emerges,
3) They deliberately engage in some activity,
4) They complete the work and reboard the craft, and
5) The UFO takes off.
Roughly half of the sightings involving occupants followed this pattern to the letter. Such a consistent format implies that the UFO people selected a landing place where it was thought that they would not be observed. They proceeded to carry out their mission under the false impression and took no action to discover if they were being watched. These data might be understood to mean that the UFO people did not care whether they were being watched or not. This explanation, however, is untenable on the basis of the predominant isolation of landing sites. Nearly identical sequences occurred in many other cases, but with minor variations. The witness failed, for example, to see the actual landing, so the episode started at Stage 2; or the craft was hidden from view behind trees, thus preventing the observation of Stages 2 and 4. These variations strengthen rather than alter the conclusion that the UFO people deliberately sought to carry out a mission unobserved and thought that it had been so accomplished. Their presence and activities on earth were intended to be secret.
It is among the exceptions to the above, when an interaction takes place between the UFO people and the witnesses, that meaningful behavior patterns may be observed. Witnesses rarely say anything about facial expressions, which seem to be uniformly blank, although a few smiles have been evoked. (89) An English woman reported seeing two men looking out a hovering craft "sternly, not in an unkind fashion, but almost sadly,
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compassionately." (90) To a farm woman in Pennsylvania, the appearance of a man in a UFO seemed to be "quizzical." (91) Clearly, little regarding the attitude of the UFO people is to be gleaned from their facial expressions. With hardly any display of normal human warmth, the UFO people sometimes wave or make perplexing gestures (92) that are rarely interpreted as threatening, (93) or, in passing, they say something to the witness that is usually not understood. (94) The UFO people do not behave as though they feared humans. On the contrary, it is the witnesses that flee in panic. (95) An Italian saw a UFO from which emerged two men wearing yellow coveralls and wide belts. Upon noticing that the witness was afraid, one of them made a reassuring gesture before they departed. (96) Very generally, one might say that the UFO people are furtive, seldom display any emotion, and have a kindly but restrained disposition.
As occasional acts of aggression seem to be more in self-defense than from an innate hostility, any resulting injuries to the witnesses should probably be judged as accidental. An 18-year-old boy in Venezuela was paralyzed by a weapon when he discovered six dwarves loading stones into a UFO. (97) Such paralysis does not cause injury and it is usually quite temporary, lasting just long enough for the intruders to escape. But it may last for some time. When a French farmer surprised two dwarves who were examining a plant, he was immobilized when they aimed a small device at him. He was left alone in his field for 20 minutes, unable to move or call for help. And, as one would expect, he was thoroughly frightened. (98) The effect upon the nervous system of the weapons used in these attacks is unique: they usually inhibit voluntary control of the muscles without interfering with the involuntary body processes, or without rendering the victim unconscious.
Loss of consciousness, however, is sometimes induced by the weapon. A strange man in Illinois stunned witnesses by pointing a device at them that "made consciousness dissolve." (99) Upon
approaching to within 2 meters of a large UFO in the Everglades, a hunter was knocked unconscious for 24 hours by a ray that
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struck him on the forehead. Upon awakening, he had lost sight in the right eye, saw poorly with the left, and had to be hospitalized for 5 days. (100) Other symptoms reported by victims of such attacks are electric shock, (101) burns, (102) physical displacement, (103) and headaches. (104)
Two or three types of weapons can be identified in 18 cases in which they were seen but not always used. Most prominent is a small metal tube that, from the brief descriptions, one judges to be slightly larger than a ballpoint pen. A larger device is similar to a 2-cell flashlight. Finally, a small flashing box also seems to be a weapon. In most instances, the UFO people were merely seen carrying this box (105) but one witness seems to have been injured by a figure armed with it. (106) A woman in luminous clothing standing beside a UFO in New York seemed to be well armed with a tube in one hand and a box in the other although she fired neither. (107)
A curious aspect of the weapons is that they eject a beam of light that is seen by the witnesses and reported to be a definite color, such as green, (108) blue, (109) violet, (110) and red, (111) or some times merely bright (112) or blinding. (113) The data are not sufficient to establish a correlation between the color of the light ray and its effect upon the witness, although the only two records of red rays and red balls of light both resulted in burning the witnesses. (114) And it is not possible to discover which effects upon the witnesses are produced by which weapons. A further implication that cannot be explored is that the intensity of the beam is variable at will and produces a greater or lesser effect upon the victim. All this discussion about ray guns "zapping" their targets into immobility sounds like science fiction. The witnesses, however, were serious and the last thing one does in a hoax is to injure himself. It would be most valuable to discover the exact nature of these weapons, for their use by law enforcement agencies would be extremely effective and humane. Actually, such a weapon may already have been developed. "Operation Zeke" was reportedly organized by the Federal Aviation Agency under
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the direction of Dr. H. L. Reighard to counter the epidemic of airplanes being hijacked to Cuba in the late sixties. A device based upon high-frequency radiation was developed that would instantly knock the victim unconscious; a hijacker between two ray boxes "would wake up wondering what happened to him." These devices were never used because of uncertainties and danger in the event of two hijackers on a plane. (115) This research should be brought into the open and completed so that society can benefit from the improved security that such weapons would provide.
In a famous case in New Jersey, a man and his wife were captured and taken aboard a UFO against their will for about two hours for the purpose of some biomedical experiments. (116) A young man in Brazil was also captured after a valiant struggle and taken aboard a UFO for a medical examination. In a period of two hours, he was also seduced by a strangely attractive woman, twice. (117) The implied meaning of this case is that the UFO people, being genetically compatible with humans, are themselves thoroughly human. It could be that they and humanity share a common ancestry, or that one group descended from the other. Which relationship is correct and how it occurred extends too far beyond the scope of this book for further comment here. Other attempts at capturing humans have failed (118) and actual abductions may have been witnessed by others. (119) The literature, of course, contains no reports from people that may have been spirited away permanently.
The UFO people are well aware of humanity, but with few exceptions, they do not wish to establish direct, friendly relationships. They prefer to conduct their activities on earth in secret, taking considerable care to avoid being seen. They will defend themselves if need be, but they intend no harm to mankind, even though for short-term experiments they will capture specimens.
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Footnotes: Chapter 9 1 .  Case 650.
2.   Case 701.
3 .  Case 353.
4.   Case 154.
5.   Case 327.
6.   Case 324.
7.   Case 541.
8.   Case 596, original source.
9.   Case 862.
10. Case 344.
11. Case353.
12. Case 339.
13. Bowen, Charles, Editor, "The Humanoids," p.56, Flying Saucer Review, London, 1968.
14. Case 430.
15. A "New FSR Catalogue, The Effects of UFOs Upon Animals, Birds, and Smaller
      creatures, Cases 57 and 73, Flying Saucer Review, beginning in Vol.16, No.1,
      January/February 1970.
16. Lorenzen, Coral and Jim, Flying Saucer Occupants. p.130, Signet, 1967.
17. Case 80.
18. Case 40.
19. Case 501.
20. Case 95.
21. Case 517, original source.
22. Case 918.
23. Case 614.
24. Case 109.
25. Case 327, original source.
26. Case 719.
27. Case 596, original source.
28. Case 338.
29. Case 404.
30. Case 420.
31. Case 816.
32. Case 907.
33. Case 812.
34. Case 238.
35. Case 476.
36. Case 685.
37. Case 812.
38. Case 400.
39. Case 153.
40. Case 762.
41. Case 82.
42. Case 303.
43. Case 844, original source.
44. Case 659.
45. Case 920.
46. Lorenzen, Coral, E., Flying Saucers, The Startling Evidence of the Invasion From Outer
      Space, p.105, Signet, 1966.
47. Edwards, Frank, Flying Saucers-Serious Business, p.45, Bantam, 1966.
48. Scully, Frank, Behind the Flying Saucers, p. 153, Gollancz, London, 1955.
49. Case 860.
50. Case 83, original source.
51. Case 285.
52. Stranges, Frank E., The Stranger At The Pentagon, I.E.C., 7070 Wood- man Avenue,
      Van Nuys, California, 1967.
53. Case 394.
54. Case 703.
55. Case 552.
56. Case 305.
57. Cases 370 and 404.
58. Case 396, original source.
59. Case 344, original source.
60. Case 61, original source.
61. Norman, Eric, This Hollow Earth, Lancer, 1972.
62. Nourse, Alan E., Nine Planets, Appendix 1, Pyramid, 1960.
63. McMahon, Thomas, "Size and Shape in Biology," Science, Vol.179, p. 1201,23
      March 1973.
64. Case 874
65. Case 866.
66. Case 885.
67. Case 145.
68. Case 867.
69. Case 865.
70. Case 878, original source.
71. Case 879, original source.
72. Case 915.
73. Case 501.
74. Case 583.
75. Case 857.
76. Case 476.
77. Case 580.
78. Case 767.
79. Fredrickson, Sven Olof, "Finnish Encounter In The Snow," Flying Saucer Review,
      Vol.16, No. 4, p. 31, July, August 1970, and "A Humanoid Was Seen at lmjarvi,"
      Vol. 16, No.5, p. 14, September October, 1970.
80. Case 778.
81. Sanderson, Ivan T., Invisible Residents, p.35, World, 1970.
82. Case 519.
83. Vallee, Jacques and Janine, Challenge To Science, The UFO Enigma, p.174 ff, Ace, 1966.
84. Case 637.
85. Case 624.
86. Case 61, original source.
87. Cases 284 and 700.
88. Vallee, Jacques, "The Pattern Behind The UFO Landings, Humanoids," p.8, Flying
      Saucer Review, London, 1968.
89. Cases 324, 349, and 804.
90. Case 298.
91. Case372.
92. Cases 505, 691, and 744.
93. Case 580.
94. Cases 596 and 804.
95. Cases 505 and 588.
96. Case 552.
97. Case 356.
98. Case 650.
99. Case 51.
100. Case 641.
101. Case 95.
102. Cases 97 and 583.
103. Case 311.
104. Case 662.
105. Cases 93, 580, and 638.
106. Case 920.
107. Case 125.
108. Case 95.
109. Case 311.
110. Case 356.
111.Case 583.
112. Case 662.
113. Case 220.
114. Cases 97 and 583.
115. Anderson, Jack, "A Magic Ray Play To Trap Hijackers," San Francisco Chronicle,
        September 21, 1972.
116. Fuller John 6., The Interrupted Journey, Dell, 1966.
117. Lorenzen, Coral and Jim, Flying Saucer Occupants. Chapter III, "Report on The Villa
        Boas Incident," Signet, 1967.
118. Cases 624, 636, and 706.
119. Case 41.
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