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Monday, March 26, 2012

UFOs - ADVANCED AERIAL DEVICES reported DURING THE KOREAN WAR (2)


Page 26
 
 
A.        "Honorable."
 
Notes:

1.         Mr. Wall's name, rank, serial number, and other information was found on the official Army
            roster for his unit as of July 1951.

2.         Historical accounts by Marshall (1951), Michaelis and Davidson (1951), Pearl (1963), and
            Pullen (1954) provide interesting back­ground information on the 27th Infantry
            Regiment "Wolfhounds".

3.         Lt. Evans' name and other information for him was found on the official Army roster
           for "E" Company.

4.         A very similar event took place on March 17, 1981 on the Columbia River, just east of
            Portland, Oregon. Several eyewitnesses described an orange spherical light which hung
            above the river while emitting a low throbbing, diesel engine sound that was tape recorded.
            An analysis of this tape by the J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies, Chicago,
            Illinois could not identify it.

5.         The ceiling in the shopping mall where this interview took place was approximately 25 to
            30 feet above the floor. Even for a very low muzzle velocity (say 900 fps), his estimate
            of 1 to 2 seconds duration from when his M-l fired to when he heard the projectile strike
            the object is clearly too long. Is it possible that he only heard the echo of his own rifle
            firing from the surface of the object?

6.         It is unlikely that the light ray that was emitted from this object was the cause of his
            (much later) symptoms of his memory loss.
 
            In another letter to Mr. Wall dated April 14, 19901 provided him with a list of 72 names
            of personnel who were in his company with the request that he try to recall (and mark
            on the letter) the names of as many of them as possible. His reply of June 1st was terse;
            he wrote the word "none".
 
General Comments:
 
            This close encounter of the first and second kind contains interesting corroborative data to the March 10, 1951 pilot sighting near Chinnampo, North Korea, the January 29, 1952 sighting by three military pilots flying near
 
Page 27
 
Wonson at night, the February 24, 1952 bomber crew sighting over Antung, and the May 31, 1952 pilot sighting south of Chorwon (all presented in the next chapter). This particular sighting report also contains valuable details related to the nature of this aerial reality such as apparent three-dimensionality and mass, emitted noises and luminous radiation in a partially collimated fashion (in seeming reaction to the impact of the soldier's rifle projectile), biological interaction (immediate skin sensations and subsequent skin surface and internal sequelae), and a responsiveness that is (allegedly) in direct response to the witness' "aggressive" behavior. The identity of what is behind this phenomenon remains shrouded in mystery.
 
            A number of issues of Jane's All the World's Aircraft around the year 1950 were studied with regard to the kinds of American and Russian aerial devices that were in existence. There was no mention of any type of remotely piloted vehicles (RPV) nor other kinds of non-aerodynamic vehicles.
 

 


Page 28
 
Chapter 3
 
American Pilots Report UFOs over Korea
 

            This chapter presents 30 UFO sighting reports that were made by U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine pilots during the war. They are interesting because they show that the UFO was capable of out performing the combat aircraft the U.S. had at that time.
 
Sept. 1950                                                                   Korea
 
            A U.S. Navy plane on a combat mission was approached by two large discs. The aircraft's radar was jammed, and its radio transmitter was blocked by a buzzing noise each time a new frequency was tried. (Hall, pg. 73, 1964) A more complete report provides the following information (UFOIRC, 1966).
 
                             "Very early in the morning, three fighter-bombers took off from the flight deck of a
                        U.S. aircraft carrier. The sun hadn't risen and there was bite in the air. Two men -- a
                        pilot and a radar gunner -- occupied each of three planes assigned to a routine
                        mission, bombing and strafing a truck convoy that combat intelligence expected
                        to be winding along the floor of a valley about a hundred miles from the Yalu river.
                       The takeoff was routine, as was the flight to the target area. At about 7 A.M., just
                       as the sun was breaking above the mountains in the East, the aircraft were
                       proceeding North, ten thousand feet above the valley floor. Radar observers had
                       their eyes peeled for the target.
                            "I was watching the ground below for the convoy, reported ... and was startled to
                       see two large circular
 
 
                       shadows coming along the ground from the Northwest at a high rate of speed. We
                       were flying North above a valley which was surrounded on the East and West
                       by mountains, with a pass directly ahead of us to the North. When I saw the shadows
                       I looked up and saw the objects which were causing them. They were huge. I knew
                       that as soon as I looked at my radar screen. They were also going at a good clip —
                       about 1000 or 1200 miles per hour. My radar display indicated one and a half miles
                       between the objects and our planes when the objects suddenly seemed to halt, back
                       up and begin a jittering, or fibrillating motion. My first reaction, of course, was to
                       shoot. I readied my guns, which automatically readied the gun cameras. When I
                       readied the guns, however, the radar went haywire (note 1).  The screen bloomed
                       and became very bright. I tried to reduce the brightness by turning down the sensitivity,
                       but this had no effect. 1 realized my radar had been jammed and was useless. I then
                       called the carrier, using the code name. I said the code name twice, and my receiver
                       was out—blocked by a strange buzzing noise. I tried two other frequencies, but couldn't
                       get through. Each time I switched frequencies the band was clear for a moment, then
                       the buzzing began. (note 2)
 
                           "While this was going on the objects were still jittering out there ahead of us, maintaining
                       our speed. About the time I gave up trying to radio the carrier the things began
                       maneuvering around our planes, circling above and below. I got a good look at them.
                       I had never seen anything like them before, and I learned after we reached our carrier
                       that the other men in that flight had the same opinion. They were huge.  Before my
                       radar set was put out of commission, I used the indicated range plus points of reference
                       on the canopy to determine their size. They were at least 600 or possibly 700 feet
                       in diameter.
 
                           "The objects had a silvered mirror appearance, with a reddish glow surrounding them.
                       They were shaped somewhat like a coolie's hat, with oblong ports from which
                       emanated a copper-green colored light which gradually
 
Page 30
 
                       shifted to pale pastel-colored lights and back to the copper-green again. Above the
                       ports was a shimmering red ring which encircled the top portion.
 
                            "When the things maneuvered above us, we saw the bottoms of them. In the middle of
                        the underside was a circular area, coal black and non-reflective. It was simply inky
                        black, and it is important to note that although the whole object jittered while
                        maneuvering, the black circular portion on the bottom was steady and showed no
                        indication of movement. (note 3)
 
                            "When the objects seemingly finished their inspection of the Navy planes, they took
                        off in the same direction from which they had come, and disappeared at a high
                        rate of speed." (Ibid., pp. 3-4 and 3-5)
 
Notes:
 
1. The apparent reactivity of the UFO phenomenon to the pilot's volitional act is a commonly reported event in UFO literature.
 
2. The short delay which occurred suggests a very rapid, automated means of (a) scanning all emitted frequencies from the aircraft, (b) locating the new radio frequency being used, and (c) activating an interference signal at that new frequency.
 
3. There is a close similarity between this description and that given by a commercial airline flight crew over Lake Michigan on July 4, 1981. See (Haines, 1982; 1983). Another case which the author has studied includes similar visual characteristics. An unidentified circular, apparently metallic object having a dark spot centered on its upper surface was photographed in 1971 by an official Costa Rican government airplane during a ground mapping flight (Haines and Vallee, 1989; 1990). Our extensive photographic analysis could not provide a reasonable explanation for the image.

March 10, 1951                       0051 GMT                                                 Chinnampo
 
            The chief eye witness in this case was the left scanner on a B-29 (#5369) flying at almost 17,000 feet altitude on a heading of 30 degrees, 42 miles SW of Chinnampo, Korea at 0051 hrs GMT (note). Eight other crewmen saw very brief glimpses of this bright light. The night was clear and moonless. The main witness saw a flash of brilliant light at his 9 o'clock position that moved
 
Page 31
 
slightly downward and to the rear of the airplane. The scanner "... reported it as a flare." The phenomenon appeared as a "reddish-yellow glow that dropped slightly to (the) same elevation of aircraft then burst with bluish-white brilliance. It was estimated to be as large as a basketball and did not deviate from (a) straight course toward aircraft or curve right or left. Tail gunner attracted by brilliant light and saw flash over (his) left shoulder off right wing. (He) did not observe any movement or any color other than silvery bright flash. Bombadier saw bluish-green flash from (his) side vision. By (the) time he could turn his head it was gone.... Pilot saw object at 3 o'clock from corner of (his) eye as a flash of blue-white or blue-green. None able to describe red-orange tail. None saw any shape or shadows or anything resembling exhausts trace or another aircraft.... None could estimate (the) distance on anything except sheer guess." (USAF, Staff Message Division report no. A 5394 INT-IR, dated 26 March 1951).
 
            The Air Force listed this case as UNIDENTIFIED in its Blue Book files with the possibility of it being flak, a flare, or a meteor.
 
Note: GMT refers to Greenwich Mean Time.

July 1, 1951                                    2250 Korean Time                             Seoul
 
            This U.S. Air Force Air Intelligence Information Report IR-33-52 dated 16 July 1952 was prepared by ATIL Office, D/I FEAF's Captain Charles J. Malven (ATLO), 1st. Marine Air Wing. It states:
 
                            "At 2250/K, four night pilots in different areas simultaneously reported a large green
                        ball, very bright, and trailing streaks of red which soon turned blue, passing overhead at
                        10-15000 feet on North-Northeast heading. Pilot's locations at time of sighting were
                        as follows: One F4U-5N 2 miles North of Seoul, one F4U-5N at CT 1070, one F4U-5N
                        at CT 4020, one F7F-3N at CU 2010. Pilots concur that object was moving
                        with tremendous velocity."
 
The official Air Force conclusion was "METEOR" due to the visual description given.
 
Page 32
 
 
Fall 1951                     Night                           Location Unknown
 
            More than 14 U.S. Navy ground and airborne radar sets tracked a UFO which circled over the U.S. fleet. The object moved at speeds ranging from "slow" to over 1,000 mph and was at an altitude of 5,000 feet. The witness, Lt. Cmdr. M.C. Davies, U.S.N, was on board a CVE class aircraft carrier at the time as a naval pilot (with over 4,000 flight hrs). Following is his report submitted to the National Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP).
 
                            "It was at night, I was riding with a radar operator which I often did to check on
                        their proficiency. We were flying at 5,000 feet, solid instruments, with our wingman flying
                        a radar position about 3 miles astern and slightly to our right or left. The target, which
                        was slightly larger than our wingman, I picked up on our scope, had been circling the
                        fleet; it left the fleet and joined up on us a position behind our wingman, approximately
                        the same position he held on us.
 
                            "I reported the target to the ship and was informed that the target was also held on
                        the ship's radars, 14 in number and for us to get a visual sighting if possible. This
                        was impossible because of the clouds. The target retained his relative position
                        for approximately 5 minutes and then departed in excess of one thousand miles per
                        hour. He departed on a straight course and was observed to the maximum distance of
                        my radar which was two hundred miles.

                            "Upon completion of my flight an unidentified flying object report was completed, at
                        which time I was informed that the object was held on ship's radars for
                        approximately seven hours." (Hall, pg. 84, 1964).
 
Note: A weather station was installed by the Air Force at Chip'o Ri, coordinates CT 5222. The largest inflatable weather balloon used there was a 30 gram "ceiling" balloon with a maximum diameter of 15 inches. (See Appendix 1 for balloon characteristics. Note the error in the type of balloon and its diameter.)
 
Page 33
 
Jan 29, 1952                   2300 and 2324 Korean Time               Wonson & Sunchon
 
            Three crewmembers (tail, left, and top gunner) of a B-29 reported a five-minute encounter with a light orange colored sphere which shot away at an angle. (Newsweek, March 3, 1952; LIFE Magazine, April 7, 1952). This public information came from an Air Force press release. The more complete official Air Force Air Intelligence Information Report IR-2-52 dated 10 February 1952 was prepared by 2nd. Lt Mario Perez, Intelligence Officer, 98th. Bomb Wing Intelligence Office. It states:
 
            "1. Observed one globe shaped object with a slight tear drop effect noted on lower side, estimated size to be three feet across when at its nearest point to B-29. The size was not definitely established as the distance from the observer was not known. The color of the object resembled the sun, a light orange, and it occasionally changed to a bluish tint (note 1). The outer edge of the object appeared to be fuzzy and it seemed to have an internal churning movement like flames or fiery gases when it was at its nearest point to the B-29. The object was first observed parallel on course at eight o'clock level, where it seemed to be about the size of a saucer, gradually becoming larger as it approached the B-29. It came in on the same level as the B-29 and remained in the same relative position to the B-29 for approximately one minute and then receded on the same path, fading away in the distance."
            "2. Sighted on January 291324Z for a period of approximately one minute. The left Gunner and Tail Gunner observed the object without the use of any optical or electronic equipment. The B-29 was at 22,250 feet, and ground speed (of) 125 knots.
            "3. The two observers were airborne in the B-29 in the crew positions of Left Gunner and Tail Gunner. Object was observed at 3926N 12555E and level with the B-29."
 
            Other Air Force files provide additional information. The orange object flew beside the first B-29 for about five minutes during its encounter at 2300 Korean time and beside a second B-29 for one minute at 2324 Korean time. Its location was approximately 39 deg 03 min N and 127 deg E. The military
 
Page 34
 
coordinate position was cited as CU-4020 or about 50 miles off the south coast during the first sighting and at YD-5459 or about 5 miles SSE of Sunchon. The second aircraft received flak shortly after sighting the object. The B-29 was flying at an altitude of 22,500 feet on a heading of 274 deg. The light was seen "shortly before receiving flak. The object approached the B-29 from between 8 and 9 o'clock level then withdrew and disappeared at the same clock position." It was said to be a shimmering (assumed to be spinning)" globular" object with a color that resembled the sun with "an occasional bluish tint" and appeared to be about three feet diameter (at its nearest position). All witnesses had had extensive flight combat experience in WW2 and stated "emphatically that the sightings noted above bore no resemblance whatsoever to anything they had previously experienced."

          "It is the opinion of this officer that these sightings represent another example of new technique in warfare under test by the enemy. Comment by D/I, FEAF Bomcom; it is assumed that there is still a very real possibility that these phenomena may very well indicate the presence of new enemy flare devices, despite the unit intelligence officer filing (sic) that such possibilities are ruled out. Aside from that, it is worth mentioning that the 98 wing commander was present during one of the subject interrogations, and warned the crew members as to their responsibilities in reporting such observations. Special report of unidentified flying objects W/B submitted. (In) view of utter lack (of) similar observation requires your comments regarding (the) above."
 
            In yet another Air Force report on this case (T52-3047-2, ID. 310956Z) from the Commanding Officer of ATIC, it is learned that the exhaust stack flame from aircraft engine running rich (is) considered doubtful because no known Soviet aircraft have exhaust stack arrangement that would produce this illusion. It was also considered doubtful that the light could have been produced by a jet aircraft engine, afterburner exhaust, ramjet helicopter air-to-air weapon, fireballs, or trailed bombs (also used by Germans in 1942 (WW-2) as a defense by bombers against pursuing fighters. It was a 20-25 kg bomb attached to a wire about 100 to 250 meters long behind the bomber which flew in wide circles and could be exploded at will by a crew member. Such an object might appear to be spinning and to fly parallel with the enemy bomber. Of course in this case there were no enemy airplanes anywhere near the observers' B-29!
 
            Peter A. Stranges, staff member of the Reaction Power Plants Group, Propulsion Branch at the Air Force's Air Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB responded to an information request from Lt. Ruppelt at
 
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Project Blue Book office concerning the possibility that this UFO was a number of conventional objects (viz., jet engine, afterburner, ramjet, pulsejet, rocket engine). His ATIAA memo dated 20 February 1952 stated:
 
            "2. This group concurs that the objects appear to be propelled but from the descriptions and the time durations cited it is not considered that the objects are conventional jet engine, conventional jet engine with afterburner, pulse jet or rocket propelled. Slight credence, however, is given to the possibility of a ramjet powered helicopter or a modification thereof, with provisions incorporated for exhausting along a section of the trailing edge of the rotor blade, creating the fuzzy edged, internal churning of flames and gases, globe shaped phenomena observed recently by the B-29 crews in Korea."
 
            A memo by Lt. Col. Hundt, AFOIN-V/TC, prepared on 29 February 1952 identified the Soviet fighter aircraft of possible interest as the La-9 or La-11. Both have a cluster of exhaust stacks on each side of the fuselage. There is virtually no correspondence between such an engine exhaust configuration seen at night and the orange globe reported by these witnesses.
 
            In a memorandum prepared by Capt. Fournet for Air Force public relations use he states, "The sightings mentioned, although of a different nature, as is usual, are not abnormal occurrences in the combat theatre. During World War II over both Germany and Japan, combat crews reported sightings of a multitude of these types of objects which could not be identified or explained. These very often were reported as "fireballs," particularly from combat crewmen participating in flights over Japan. Very often these unidentified objects were reported to have performed violent maneuvers, travel at very high speeds, travel at very low speeds to the point of hovering, followed or flew formation with friendly aircraft, disappeared or disintegrated while in flight, etc. During the whole of World War II and subsequent thereto, intelligence was never able to prove the existence of such unconventional phenomena nor was it able to determine the characteristics of these objects, if indeed they did exist. A summary of all such related incidents was made essentially as follows. (Italics mine)
 
            Note: The text which follows was (apparently) suggested to Air Force Public Relations for release to interested parties rather than the detailed
 
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 information contained within the original witness report.
 
            "The sightings were the result of natural normal occurrences while in combat, e.g., flak, flaming and exploding aircraft, reflections on canopies, search­light reflections, engine exhaust trails, air-to-air bombs, etc., and sometimes a result of combat fatigue, particularly on the long missions required to bomb Japan."
            "3. There have been numerous reports of objects which crews have been unable to identify, while on combat missions over Korea during the present conflict. In general, these sightings have assumed a pattern which parallels the overall pattern of World War II reports. The latest reports from Korea have mentioned the employment by the Communist Forces of an airborne searchlight, possibly attached beneath the fuselage of a conventional aircraft and used in conjunction with antiaircraft and/or fighters. The evaluation of this branch of the sightings outlined in the subject above is that these unidentified objects probably are such airborne searchlights which because of combat fatigue, conditions of sightings, weather factors, etc., were assumed to be objects unattached to anything else. Such a report would appear reasonable in view of the fact that an object of this type would naturally become a center of interest, so to speak, and would tend to cause the observers to concentrate on its details rather than to look for anything else in conjunction with it." (note 2)
 
            An Associated Press wire story dated February 20, 1952 from Tokyo concerning these sightings stated: "Far East Air Force Headquarters in Tokyo, which directs B-29 bomber operations in Korea, would issue no statement on the latest version of flying saucers. Asked if pilots of night fighters or B-26 light bombers had seen the objects, a Fifth Air Force spokesman in Korea said: "To affirm or deny it would put us in the position of discussing it and we cannot discuss it." (note 3)
 
Notes
1.  Chapter 2 presents a ground eye witness account of a relatively small round orange object which also changed to blue as seen from a ground artillery position overlooking Chorwon.
 
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2.   This explanation seems to better fit the sighting of February 23, 1952 (below) than it does to this case.
 
3.   Aircrew members were already under a lot of combat related stress. It is likely that one reason USAF officials did not want to openly admit the existence of an actual aerial phenomenon not of enemy origin was to try to help reduce this stress.

February 23, 1952                         1415 Korean Time                       Sinuiju, North Korea
 
            Crew members of a B-29 reported sighting a UFO while flying over Sinuiju located near the Yalu River (40.04N; 124.25E). No other information is available on this sighting.

February 24, 1952                         2315 Korean Time (Night)           Antung
 
            The navigator of a B-29 observed a UFO about 45 seconds after the airplane in which he rode was illuminated by a searchlight. The object was cylindrical in shape and approached from the 7 o’clock position. It had a "rapidly pulsating gaseous type of exhaust trail... about three times the length of the object with both the tail blast and the object bluish in color." (note 1)
 
            The previously classified Air Force report (IR-1-52; dated 27 February 1952; No. T52-5836) prepared by Captain I. O. Mitchell, Flak Intel. Officer interviewed Captain R.W. Smith, 345 B.S. 98th. B.W. the eyewitness. Segments of his report follow.
 
            "At 2315I, a B-29 on leaflet mission at XE 2838 heading 030 deg, altitude 22,000 ft, was picked up in searchlight beam by two lights on right side of acft. Within 45 seconds after acft was illuminated by searchlights, navigator observed object approaching acft from position, on ground estimated to be at XE 2342 (note 2). No launching blast was observed and object appeared to approach acft at an angle of 30 deg from the left rear. When observer initially spotted object, it appeared to be round in shape and bright blue in color. As it came closer to the acft, the shape
 
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appeared cylindrical with tail approximately three times length of the forward mass of object. The color of the tail was the same as object and appeared to be rapidly pulsating gaseous type propulsion blast. Observer saw object for an estimated 45 seconds. The course of the object was at an angle of 45 deg from horizontal, of high velocity, flat in trajectory until it leveled off approximately 4000 ft. from acft. It assumed level flight characteristics, turned to the left as though making a correction to intercept acft at a predicted point. The object continued to close in toward interception point on level with acft for about 15 seconds and then broke off in flight and head down and underneath acft at gradual angle. At the closest point, the object appeared to come within approximately 3000 ft. of acft and appeared to be the size of an automobile. As it broke off from level flight, the tail diminished rapidly in size and became brighter in color. The indicated airspeed of acft was 200 knots and acft remained at 22,000 ft altitude. Searchlights continued to illuminate acft and meager, inaccurate flak was encountered during entire period object was observed. Searchlights worked in multiples of two and four light pickups, and kept ship illuminated for approximately four minutes. ECM operator received weak electronic signals, but was unable to take electronic counter measures. Pilot executed evasion action in a series of "S" curves, then made a shallow dive and searchlights and flak ceased. Weather was clear and visibility unlimited."
 
Notes.
1.   These characteristics are similar to those described in chapter 2.
 
2.   It is of interest to observe that the cylindrical object approached the bomber from the direction of the ground after the aircraft was illuminated by ground searchlights.

March 29, 1952                                                                             Korea
 
            The pilot (Brigham) of an F-84 sighted a UFO over Korea. No further information is available. (Hall, 1964)

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May 10, 1952                                                                               Korea
 
            Project Blue Book monthly summary for the period 1 - 10 May 1952 includes a single entry for a sighting on May 10th by a military observer that was evaluated as BALLOONS. No other information is available.

May 15, 1952                       2000 Korean Time                         North Korea
 
            Air Intelligence Information Report 52-79 dated 28 May 1952 describes a brief but interesting encounter with a UFO by two "very reliable" pilots of the 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, 25th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron. The two airplanes were on Mission C/51-02 flying wing positions in maple flight. Lt. McCarthy was the first pilot to see the strange object He had completed 27 combat missions. The other unnamed pilot was the Interceptor Group Operations Officer with 56 combat missions completed. Following is a summary of the key events:
 
            A silvery oval shaped object larger than a MiG jet airplane was seen at the 9 o'clock position below the two F-86E jet airplanes at an estimated altitude of from 8,000 to 10,000 feet and about twenty miles away. The single seat airplanes were on a heading of 280 deg; the object continued on in a straight flight path and disappeared at about the 3 o'clock position. While flying at an altitude of 30,000 feet and an airspeed of 500 knots, both eye witnesses saw the object for only 3 to 5 seconds and noted that the object travelled at an estimated 1,200 to 1,500 mph in a "rolling maneuver" (note). The reported weather was a medium haze with visibility of between 10-12 miles.
 
Note. The meaning of this is unclear.

May 15, 1952                        1835 Korean Time                          North Korea
 
            Air Intelligence Information Report No. 52-81 describes an encounter between the pilot of an F-51 propellor-driven fighter bomber and a silver object estimated to be about 50 feet in diameter. The aircraft was assigned to the 18th. Fighter Bomber Group. The pilot had flown 76 combat missions in WW2. He was at military coordinate CT 8000 flying on a heading of 180 deg at an altitude of 9,000 feet;
 
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he first noticed the object at the 1:00 o'clock position. "By the time I called the object in as a bogie, it had moved to the 3 o'clock position and started a steep climb, which I assumed was the beginning of a loop, but at the vertical position in the loop, the object moved forward in its original course of travel (360 deg) and wavered momentarily and then descended and disappeared into the haze which reached an altitude of approximately 7000-8000 feet" (Ibid., pg. 3) While the airplane was travelling at only 240 mph, the UFO was estimated to be moving at 1,000 mph first to the east and then changing to the north. It was at approximately the same altitude as the airplane during the 15 - 25 second-long sighting.

May 26, 1952                          0320 Korean Time                        North Korea
 
            This Project Blue Book case (Air Intelligence Information Report No. 52-85) was classified as a POSSIBLE BALLOON on the record card. Both crewmen on the F-94 jet interceptor (Figure 7) saw the brilliant white object (the pilot for about 14 seconds) in addition to positive ground and on-board radar contact with the same object. The weather was very clear. The signed pilot sighting report is perhaps the clearest description of what happened.
 
            "While on CAP-sortie from K-13 Bromide informed us of an unknown located at CT 4856 and told us to investigate. ’After descending to 2500 feet we saw, in the glare of the front line searchlights, a small plane beneath, but were unable to descend farther due to terrain to determine type. Bromide told us to drop it and take up a southerly heading. When we turned to this heading, we saw a brilliant object above and in front of us and asked Bromide if we could investigate. With his permission we made our first pass from north to south within 600 feet, then a succession of passes from cardinal compass points ranging to within 50 feet, but, because of the brilliancy of the light, we could discern no outline. On our last pass my Radar Observer looked back and said he thought he saw an object on our tail. I did not give much credence to his observation until Bromide called and said he painted an object on my tail. I then requested Bromide to vector me for an interception on this new unknown. (At this time the object was still in sight.)
 
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Figure 7
 
F-94C Starfire Jet Interceptor
(from author’s collection)
 
 
 
When I received my first vector I was south of the brilliant object and started a starboard turn to the intercept vector for the new unidentified.  On a northeasterly heading my R/O gave me a lock-on, overtaking 50 knots, range 7000 yards, nearly dead ahead and slightly above.  When I closed to 6000 yards, the object started to pull away and I threw the afterburner in (airspeed at this time was 350 knots).  In a gradual climb and still with the object nearly centered on the scope, the range increased at a steady rate from 6000 yards to approximately 26000 yards in 12-15 seconds.  At that range we broke lock... No evasive action was observed and no exhaust patterns such as might be expected.

 
 
                                                                                  Signed: 1st Lt_ Martin ________
 
 

 
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The Radar Observer provided the following signed statement:
 
            "We had dropped down to about 3,000 feet to investigate an unknown that GCI was painting, and after making a few circles over this unknown, Martin, my pilot, spotted this bright light. We got permission to investigate the light by GCI. I tried to pick the light up with my radar, but I could not. GCI said they were then painting the light. We made about seven (7) passes at the light; after the third pass I came out of the set to take a look. It appeared to be a bright blue light. I can not understand how GCI was painting this target and I could not pick it up. We were at about 7,000 feet and then after the last pass GCI said that someone was on our tail. I turned and thought I saw a plane, but could not be sure, as it was only for a second. Martin started a right turn, and to climb. I then picked up our target at about 7,000 yds and about 7,000 feet altitude and locked on. I believe that this was the target GCI was painting all the time, and that he was in our area while we were making passes at the light. We started to overtake our target and he moved in from 7,000 to 6,000 yds. He was in the center of my scope, and about 5 or 10 degrees high. We were climbing all the time. He then went from 6,000 yds to about 24,000 yds in about 14 seconds and we broke lock. We did not pick him up the rest of our mission."
                                               
                                                                                Signed: Ist Lt. E_______        
 
            The official report points out several other facts of interest which were elicited by the Director of Intelligence, FEAF: (1) The airborne radar set type was an APG-33 and was in very good working order before and after the flight in question, (2) The R/O did not take his eyes off the scope at any time until the lock was broken at 24,000 to 26,000 yds, (3) the pip was centered and about 10 deg high at all times until lock-on was broken, (4) the object's acceleration was constant (it did not jump), "The unidentified went into a shallow climb with the F-94 following up to and passing 10,000 feet altitude until lock-on was broken, and (5) since the radar set was on long range it wasn't possible to determine the size of the object, (italics mine)
 
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The Deputy for Intelligence, FEAF wrote:
 
                "1. The distance covered by the object is approximately 68,500 feet. Acceleration is 650
            ft/sec/sec, (or approximately 20 "G" acceleration, (which is much more than the human body
            can stand for more than a fraction of a second). The final velocity is found to be 9450 ft/sec,
            or approximately 5580 knots (6420 mph).
 
                "2. The radar sets are checked before and after every mission, and in this case appeared to
            be working normally. Even if it were assumed that the operator's timing, or the APG-33
            calibration were off as much as 50%, the speed is still above any known type of missile.
 
                "3. No information has yet been received from the ground controller at Bromide as to the
            returns plotted or the length of time that object was held in contact by the ground radar.
 
                "4. The phenomenal acceleration reported leads to the belief that the APG-33 was not
            operating correctly at the time of contact, despite checks before and after the mission."
 
Signed: Charles Y. Banfill
Brigadier General, USAF
Deputy for Intelligence
 
 
            The conclusion of the Deputy for Intelligence stated above illustrates once again the lengths that people will go to to ignore obvious facts that do not agree with their presuppositions. The General conveniently ignored the fact that both aircrewmen visually sighted the same aerial object that the two radar sets had "captured." During times of war it is easier to blame a radar set as being the cause of a UFO report than to have to cope with ever-increasing paperwork and ridicule from "above" for admitting that these two aircrew actually saw what they said they saw.
 
            On the last page of this file is a typed summary sheet with the words "Information Only - Solution: Possible malfunction of airborne radar set.
 
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Source: Military". Nevertheless, both flight crew saw a "brilliant while light straight ahead" right where their radar, and ground radar said it was! In addition, their radar system had been found to be in good working order both before and after this flight making this solution both unacceptable and ridiculous.

May 30, 1952                                 1900 Korean Time                         Sea of Japan
 
            The following report was found in Air Intelligence Information Report IR-4-52 dated 7 June 1952 regarding a sighting of an unusually shaped aerial phenomenon by three aircrew of a C-54 aircraft (Figure 8) flying at about 34 deg 15 min N; 139 deg 30 min E over the Sea of Japan.
 
Following is the signed report by the pilot, Lt. Robert J. Arblaster, AO 1908891.
 
            "On 30th of May 1952, climbing to 3,500 feet, enroute to Oshima Range, on a heading of 190 degrees, at approximately 1925 hours, the co-pilot of my crew remarked that he saw an odd shape in the sky at about 4 o'clock.
 
            "I was flying the aircraft and raised up out of the left seat to get a look at what the co-pilot referred to. To me, it looked like nothing more than a dark cloud, round and towering. It was approximately 60 to 70 miles from us reaching to about 15,000 feet.
 
            "Since I was satisfied that is (sic) was only another cloud formation, I did not deem it necessary to contact a GCI station and busied myself with flying duties. I have enclosed a sketch of phenomena observed.
 
                                                                        Signed: Robert J. Arblaster
 
            The co-pilot, Captain William Leet prepared the following account of what he saw.
 
            "At 1855, 30 May 1952, we took off from Tachikawa Air Base on a Troop Carrier trip in C-54 #2452. I was co-pilot on the crew. We climbed on course to Oshima to 8,500 feet, on a magnetic heading of about 180 degree and at a rate of about 500 feet per minute. Our indicated airspeed was 150 - 160 mph.
 
Page 45
 
            "From time to time after take-off and after climbing a few minutes I glanced toward the west observing the effect of the sunset behind the cloud formations. I noticed what at first appeared to be a round black cloud detached from the rest of the formation and in a sort of trough in the contour of the tops of the clouds. After watching this for about one minute, I noted that my watch read 1908 hours, as I decided by this time that the object was not a cloud nor did it seem to be any type of aircraft or helicopter.
 
            "I called the attention of the aircraft commander, the engineer and navigator, who was not on the crew but was in the navigator's compartment, to the object. The aircraft commander, 1st. Lt Arblaster, was occupied piloting the plane and glanced only once at the object. The engineer looked at the object for a minute or two and remarked that it was not an aircraft nor a cloud in his opinion. The navigator told me later when I questioned him that he merely glanced at the object and thought it was a cloud.
 
            "I observed the object until it disappeared from sight at 1914. It appeared darker than the clouds and an almost circular shape but somewhat flattened on top and bottom. At some moments it seemed to wobble slightly. It hovered perfectly motionless from the time I first saw it at 1907 hours until 1913, when it started moving to the west on a heading I estimated to be about 285 degrees. It moved very rapidly and was out of sight at 1914.
 
            "It seemed to move on a track away from our position and horizontally. I watched it until it became a mere speck and disappeared from view.
 
            "I noticed another C-54 during the time I was watching the object. It was at a higher altitude than ours, about 10,000 feet and was to the northwest of our position headed in an easterly direction.
 
            "The sky to the west was pink and the sun was not glaring. I did not observe any exhaust, flame or vapor trails around the object at any time. I am positive that the object was not
 
 
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Figure 8
 
C-54 in Flight
 
(Reproduced by permission of the
National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution)
 
 
 
  
 
an aircraft of any type I have ever seen. It was not a balloon and it was not a cloud.
            "I could only guess at the altitude and distance of the object. I estimate it was about 20-25 miles west of my position and at 10,000-15,000 feel altitude.
 
                                                                        Signed: William D. Leet
 
Another signed eyewitness report prepared by Sgt. Andrew J. Roe, flight engineer on board the airplane, agrees in most respects with the above two reports and is not included here.
 
 
Page 47
 
 
            The official explanation for this sighting was "CLOUD." This conclusion did not take into account the clear and specific description provided by the co­pilot that: (1) none of the observers thought it was an aircraft, (2) it was a circle, flattened on the top and bottom, and (3) it appeared to accelerate away from the observing airplane in less than a minute.

May 31, 1952                                     0420 Korean Time                          South of Chorwon
                                                                                                                    38.02N 127.07E
 
            In this USAF pilot sighting the official conclusion was either an "AIRCRAFT or a "BALLOON WITH A FLARE." Details are from Air Intelligence Information Report No. 52-106 obtained from an F-94 fighter pilot of the 319th Fighter Interceptor Squadron. While the F-94 airplane's radar achieved a positive lock-on the object ground radar failed to "paint" it. A round, brilliant, bluish-white light was reported to possess "...a superior speed and climbing ability over the F-94 and had the ability to turn as well as the F-94. This object was first sighted visually by ground sources whose statements are included in reports 52-93 and 52-94." The airplane was at 30,000 feet altitude and 450 knots when the UFO was seen. The pilot's report stated:
 
            "The F-94 descended in a port turn to intercept unidentified object 6000 feet below on a 90 deg course and altitude of 8000 feet. Unidentified object began a port climb at the same time to intercept the descending F-94 and accomplished a maneuver which silhouetted the F-94 against the light of dawn. The F-94 turned on afterburner and tried two quartering head on passes with the unidentified object resulting in neither being able to get astern of the other. Hufberry's maneuvers ensued to 3,000 feet where more passes were exchanged for a few minutes. The unidentified object then increased his speed to an estimated 400 knots on a 45 deg heading and began pulling away from the F-94. When last seen the unidentified object had seemingly increased his speed to approximately 450 knots whereupon the F-94 gave up pursuit at 0355 and returned to base."
 
Comment: The physical proximity to Chorwon and the similarity of the shape of this object with that described in Chapter 2 raise the possibility that the same aerial object could have been seen in both instances.
 
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June 1, 1952                                                                                    Korea
 
            This case is listed in the Project Blue Book files as an ASTRO (FIREBALL), however, the complete file was gone and listed as "missing."

June 5, 1952                                                                                   North Korea
 
            This military sighting in Project Blue Book files is listed as a "BALLOON" sighting. No information was found, however, other than the summary card.

June 6, 1952                                                                Kimpo Air Base, Korea
 
            This military sighting in Project Blue Book files is listed as "UNIDENTIFIED." However, the complete file is listed as "missing."

June 7, 1952                                                                                     Seoul
 
            This Project Blue Book case was listed as "BALLOON" on the summary card. No other information is available.

June 20, 1952                      1505 Korean Time                 CT 0909 Grid area Korea
 
            This sighting was found in Air Intelligence Information Report No. 30-52 dated 16 July 1952. The summary sheet signed by Brigadier General Charles Y. Banfill, Director of Intelligence cross-referenced the following previous reports: IR-23-52, D/I FEAF; IR-52-106, and IR-52-85. Following are the salient details from this report:
 
            "1. Object was oval in shape, from ten (10) to twenty (20) feet in diameter, was either white or silver. There was only one (1) object and no vapor trails or gas trails of any type were noticed. The object approached from the south, made a complete left-hand orbit of the target area just worked by the flight and headed away in an easterly direction, where it was soon lost from sight
 
            "2. It was first observed at 1503/I and was out of sight at 1504/I on 20 June 1952.
 
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            "3. Visual observation was made from approximately 5300 feet, aircraft were in a left orbit south of their target indicating 180 knots. Type aircraft flown were F4U-4B (Figure 9).
 
            "4. Observers were (at) CT 0909 over the west central sector of Korea. Object was approximately 4000 feet below and about two (2) miles away from the reporting aircraft. Altitude of object was estimated at 1000 feet. It approached from the south and made a 360 deg
 
 
 

 
Figure 9
 
F4U-4B Aircraft in Flight
 
(Reproduced by permission of the
National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution)
 
 
 
               
Page 50
 
 
 
 

 
orbit of the CT 091129 area and headed off on an easterly direction and was out of sight at CT 120118. One (1) pilot made a dive at the object but was outdistanced. Aircraft's speed in dive was 250 knots indicated.
 
            "5. Four (4) pilots in a flight of five (5) observed the object after it had been called to their attention by the flight leader. All of these pilots are well trained and have flown an average of 44 combat missions in Korea. The reliability of the report is considered A-l. Pilots’ names are:
 
Captain Bobbie Foster 024474/7302 USMCR
Captain Richard Francisco 038989/7302 USMCR
Captain Teddy L. Pittman 036251/7302 USMCR
Captain Ronnie A. McDonald 039833/7302 USMCR"

 
June 23, 1952                               0608 Korean Time                      CV4 Grid Area Korea
 
            A pilot of the 18th Fighter Bomb Group reported seeing a black disc shaped object about seven times wider than thick. "The object was observed at 12,000 ft. altitude descending rather irregularly at 6,000 ft., flew at that altitude for six or seven seconds, approached the observer within 1500 ft., and then disappeared into the clouds. The size of the object was estimated to be 15 to 20 ft. in diameter. The speed was estimated to be approximately 250 mph. This Air Force, D/I Comment: "To date there has been no additional info obtained regarding these sightings: therefore, positive identification cannot be made at this time."
 
            "D/I FEAF Comment: No logical explanation can be definitely given to these sightings (reference to the June 6th case). (This case) could possibly be due to light reflections on the clouds, so the report does not indicate whether the clouds were above or below the observed aircraft."
 
            Note. The D/I's reference to the "observed aircraft" seems to make it easier to simply dismiss (his sighting as a misidentification of a manmade object rather than a UFO.
 
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August 9, 1952                                2057 Korean Time                      K-3 Area of Korea
 
            This case was filed as Air Intelligence Information Report Nq. 37-52 dated 25 August 1952 from the 1st. Marine Aircraft Wing, Korea. Cited as a cross reference, was IR-35-52. The file contained a report by a pilot flying at 10,500 feet altitude near coordinate K-3 and by a ground radar observer. First the pilot's report:
 
            "Richmond 18 (flight name) reports strange non-conventional aircraft passed him 500 yards on starboard wing about 1000 feet higher. Aircraft had ball of fire at the rear with a very long streamer of flame. Object (was) glimpsed at front before passing was not of any type known. Aircraft was going at a very high rate of speed. He notified me when he checked in over K-3 at 2057. I verified seeing several radar blips on scope in direction 205 degrees at approximately the same time Richmond 18 reported seeing the strange aircraft. Very conservative estimate of speed of 600 to 800 knots because speed of 1200 to 1400 knots was too high for one aircraft. It was probably two, one behind the other."
 
            A statement made by 2nd. Lt. Leo N. Nagrodsky 053011/6709 Marine Corp to Commanding Officer, Marine Ground Control Intercept Squadron dated 11 August 1952 included the following ground radar information on this sighting:
 
"1. On 9 August 1952 I had the duty as Senior Watch Controller at MGCIS-3 CIC from 2000 to 2400.
"2. On coming on watch I noted that AC-CI phone circuit was weak and instructed the duty telephone man to check it. He advised Devestate Able that their transmitter batteries were apparently weak. Devestate Able stated that they would work on the circuit
“3. (6 lines of initial text omitted here by author) "On the third sweep Richmond 18 was turning toward K-3 and was about 17 1/2 miles from MCCIS-3. A target appeared at 205 degrees, 27 miles and I started to adjust the scope to get a maximum pick up on that target. On the fourth sweep Richmond 18 was at about 215 degrees, 15 miles, and a target appeared at 205 degrees, 32 miles. I did not connect this target with the third sweep target, because it was so far
 
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from it and thought that two Richmond aircraft were coming up from the south. On the fifth sweep, fifty seconds after the first faint target had appeared, Richmond 18 was at about 220 degrees, 15 miles and a strong peculiar blip about 2 miles in length and curved at an angle of about 80 degrees from the trace of a normal target appeared at 206 degrees, 38 miles. I could not tell whether it was an aircraft or some type of interference and did not connect it with the previous blips. No more unusual blips appeared and I decided that they had all been due to interference of some type. The above bearings and distances are as I recalled them about seven or eight minutes later, but I believe them to be accurate within two miles and five degrees. The radar teller's scope was not peaked as high as mine and he did not see any blips other than Richmond 18. I did not call the radar teller's attention to the unusual blips I had seen, because he was accurately reporting all other tracks, and I believed that interference had caused the widely spaced and peculiar blips.
            "4. At 2057 Richmond 18 reported in and then asked if I had seen any plots in his vicinity seven to nine minutes before. I replied that I had seen what would have been either several planes or noise at the time. Richmond 18's comment was that it was not like any airplane he had ever seen and described the object as follows: "a large dark object with (text unreadable) and very long streamers or flare which did not resemble a jet exhaust.
 
            "He estimated that it had passed him about 500 yards to his right and about 1,000 feet above his altitude 9400 feet."
 
            In his assessment of these two reports. Captain Charles J. Malven, USAF, ATLO stated:
 
            "2. Further, the charts admit to an error of 2 miles and five degrees. Therefore the constant course heading of a meteorite seems to be substantiated.
            "3. A meteorite entering the earth's atmosphere at 18,000 m.p.h. especially if flying a near-horizontal course,
 
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would probably decelerate very rapidly. A speed of 1500 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft. altitude may be concomitant with these conditions."

August 23, 1952                              0104 Korean Time                      Sinuiju, North Korea
 
            This UFO report was classified as a possible MISSILE in Air Force Report IR-3-52 made by a B-29 combat crew of the 19th Bombardment Group, Medium while flying a weather reconnaissance mission in the Sinuiju area (coordinate KE 2841). The report states:
 
            "At 0104I on 23 Aug 52 over KE 2841, aircraft 5369 which was scheduled for weather reconnaissance in the Sinuiju area, sighted an unidentified object. The aircraft was on a heading of 044 degrees at an altitude of 22,000 feet, weather was 1/8 to 3/8 undercast with no moon. The sighting was made by the Airborne Commander. Aircraft Commander, Pilot ____ C.F.C. and Right Scanner. The object was described as appearing to be 6 or 7 feet long, cigar shaped, orange-red in color and red particles ____ 1 ft.
____ _____ appearing to shoot off at right and left from the path of ____ _____ trail was seen but the whole object seemed to glow with an orange-red color. The object was first seen at the 3 o'clock level position approximately 300 feet away. It was travelling up at an angle of 45 degrees approximately ____ ____ ____ ____ the B-29 and disappeared when it was 150 feet above the ____ altitude. The sighting lasted not more than 3 seconds after it was first seen. Speed of object was estimated as over 300 MPH. The experience level of this crew ___ it missiles and all concur on the above sighting. No other information available."
 
Signed: Eugene L. Rybicki
2nd Lt. USAF
Asst. Intelligence Officer
 
            Captain Charles M. Clark, Jr., the approving officer, inserted the following remark and his initials at the end of the above report: "This object is believed to have been a rocket propelled ground-to-air missile."
 
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September 16, 1952                                                                  Grid TF-77 Area Korea
 
            C.B. Scott Jones, the pilot of a Navy F9F-2B no. 122583 Panther jet was returning to his aircraft carrier (the USS Princeton; CV-37) with the bright sun at a high angle in the clear blue sky. In a recent letter to the author he wrote "...the only possible UFO sighting I made was at the end of a combat air patrol over TF-77. We had just been recalled to land. As I rolled into a split-S to descend to low altitude from around 30,000 feet, I saw a silver disc directly overhead. I completed my roll and tried to spot it again, but it disappeared or was only a reflection of the sun on the top of the canopy in the first place. I called Passbook Control (the Princeton's Combat Air Control) and reported the sighting. They said that they did not have anything on radar. I was unable to get the same "sun reflection" even though I took up the same direction I had been on when I started to roll into the split-S. It became a non-event. It would have been otherwise if aircrews had been briefed about the other "UFO" type sightings that were being reported at the time. We received an intelligence briefing before each mission, and UFOs were never mentioned."
 
            Jones went on to say, "What may have been the result of reported UFO activity was that we were briefed on a possible Air Force sighting of a surface-to-air missile firing... (given during) ...the end of the 1952 cruise. I assume now that it was in response to the August 23, 1952 UFO sighting that was assessed as a possible SAM (surface-to-air) firing. My last combat flight off the USS Princeton was on October 15 when we flew in support of what turned out to be an invasion feint off Kojo, North Korea." The witness also provided a photocopy of his war diary for this date. It states, "CAP (during a combat air patrol) - spotted silver bogie (sic) over the force just as we were relieved. No radar contact of bogie."
 
                                                                        Signed: C. B. Scott Jones

October 16, 1952                                            Grid DT 221413                     Area Korea
 
            Project Blue Book microfilm files contain a summary sheet for the period 16-31 October 1952. Two separate sightings were recorded on this date. One from Korea and the second from North Korea. Both were classified as being BALLOONS.
 
            Following is information concerning Air Intelligence Information Report No. 52-276 dated 20 October 1952. It took place soon after sunrise.
 
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            "On the morning of 16 October 1952, Lt. Hooper, Instructor Pilot and Lt. O'Neill, Pilot, were flying a combat mission in a T-6 aircraft (Figure 10) over the eastern sector of the main line of resistance. At 0650I, Lt. Hooper was flying the aircraft on a magnetic heading of 280 degrees, 140 miles per hour indicated air speed, 6,000 feet indicated altitude. Lt. O'Neill was checking the MLR for activity when he observed what he thought was a strange aircraft at 6,000 feet altitude, traveling approximately 200 mph and heading on an easterly direction. When he first observed the object it was at approximately UTV coordinates DT221413 and the T-6 was at DT312362. The object was 15 degrees to the right of his course traveling on a magnetic heading of 100 degrees.
 
            "Lt O'Neill called the object to the attention of Lt. Hooper who did not observe it until the aircraft and the object came parallel. He then saw it at the 3 o'clock position. Lt. O'Neill stated that as he was off the relative positions of the object for Lt. Hooper; (who was attempting to pick it up) the object appeared to be decelerating. By the time Lt. Hooper observed it, the object had apparently ceased to move and was hovering over DT2942. Both observers report the fact that the object ceased movement, but differ as to the length of time of the hovering. Lt. Hooper estimates the time at 15 seconds while Lt. O'Neill reports the time to be approximately 1 to 2 seconds.
 
                "Lt. Hooper dipped the right wing of the aircraft for a better observation of the object. It began to move, accelerating in an east-north easterly direction and disappeared from sight in the haze as the T-6 ____ ____ in a 120 degree. The speed of the object at this time was estimated by both observers to be approximately 800 mph. Lt. Hooper bases his estimate on the time elapsed in it's covering approximately 15,000 meters.
 
            "Lt. O'Neill stated that at first he thought the object was a jet or liaison type aircraft, but upon further observation it did not appear to have any aerodynamic features. Both observers concurred in the statement that the object was perfectly circular in shape and metallic silver in color with no protrusions
 
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of any type. Both observers stated that the object did not appear to have any visible means of propulsion and no vapor trails or smoke were apparent. The estimated size was 25 feet in diameter, by comparison with the 37 foot wing span of a T-6 aircraft at the same distance. No sound from the object was audible at any time.
 
            "The object was under observation for approximately three minutes from 0650I to 0653I with Lt. O'Neill observing it for the full period of time. Lt. O'Neill who made his observation with the naked eye, described the object as looking slightly (sic) while Lt. Hooper, who wore Government Issued sunglasses, did not observe anything other than that it looked just like a "ball bearing."
 
            "The nearest observation was made at a distance of 3 to 4 miles.
 
            "The object was seen against three backgrounds, clouds at the first sighting, hills at the hovering position, and sky as it travelled away, and seemed constant as to size, shape and color to both observers.
 
            "The pilots stated that at no time during their observation did the object increase or decrease in altitude."
 
            Brigadier General Charles Y. Banfill, Deputy for Intelligence, USAF FEAF commented: "Since enemy balloons are known to have been used in this vicinity, this observation was probably of the same location reported in IR-52-124, Del #1,6004th AISS, dated 24 June 1952.
 
            In Lt. Thomas A. O'Neill's official statement made on 17 October 1952, he described the sphere as "...25 feet in diameter and silver in color, and seemed to glow." He went on to say, "Object then changed path of flight to the East by Northeast heading, accelerating to a speed of approximately 800 MPH...the object flew out to sea out of our sight."
 
            This is a very high speed balloon indeed!
 
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Figure 10
 
T-6 Aircraft in Ground Bunkers
 
(Reproduced by permission of the
National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution)
 
 
 
  
 
November 15, 1952                         1307 GMT               Pyongyang, North Korea
 
            This case is presented in Air Intelligence Information Report No. 52-350 dated 28 November 1952. The sighting took place from a T-6 aircraft over the central sector of the friendly main line of resistance. Following are excerpts from this report:
 
            "At the time cited, Lt. (Layten S.) Bass was flying in the vicinity of CT795418 at 130 miles per hour indicated air speed, 10,500 feet, indicated altitude and in a northerly direction. The weather conditions were clear, with visibility from 15 to 20 miles.
 
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The sun at this time of day is in a south, southwesterly position from the incident area. Winds at 10,000 feet were generally from 240 degrees with velocities up to 20 miles per hour.
 
                "Lt. Bass first noted the unidentified object moving north, apparently close to the terrain.... The object initially dismissed by Lt. Bass as an aircraft, moved north approximately five (5) miles and then turned south and gained altitude....When the T-6 aircraft was at point #2 as indicated in the map overlay, Lt. Bass again sighted the object and identified it as not being an aircraft. This sighting was to the right of the T-6, at an estimated 100-200 yards. Lt. Bass described it as spherical in shape, silver in color and approximately 8-10 feet in diameter He further described the object as lacking any visable (sic) means of propulsion and having no protrusions of any sort. The surface was smooth. There was no audible sound.
 
            When Lt. Bass saw the object, which was moving at approximately the same speed as the aircraft, he turned the aircraft towards it slightly at which time the object headed south and began climbing at a high rate of speed, turning into a left orbit around the aircraft (note 1). Lt. Bass called the object to the attention of Lt. Barnard who saw it as it went into it's left-hand orbit. (Lt. Barnard estimated the closest distance to the object as being from 500 to 1000 yards).
 
            "Lt. Barnard's description of the object was that it was a silver spherical object, approximately the size of a man's thumb nail held at extended arms length, (note 2).  He further described the object as "shimmering" and having a "halo" which surrounded the object. The halo was only a hairline thickness. He further stated that the shimmering effect appeared to be more apparent when the object was between the aircraft and the general direction of the sun. The object appeared to Lt. Barnard as being darker at the edges, as a translucent sphere would appear when held up to a light.
 
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            Other details were given. "The object was viewed against various colored backgrounds, the dark terrain, and blue sky and white clouds. It remained constant as to shape, size, and color." "Both sources state that the general motion of the object was steady and gave the impression of controlled flight. They stated that it did not appear to be moving on the motion of air current." "The pilot had flown 54 missions in this theater and the observer had flown 48 missions."
 
            The preparing officer (1st Lt. James F. Power) considered both observers to be "compitent (sic) observers and sightings reported by them are considered reliable." There was no ground radar contact other than that of the T-6 aircraft. He also stated that the object "could have been (a) 350 gram (white latex) weather balloon" released from the Army's 1st Artillery Observation Battalion, a light plane unit located at Tokchong, CS3089, southwest of the location where this UFO was sighted. A balloon of this size was launched at 1257I on 15 November about 50 minutes earlier. However, Brigadier General Charles Y. Banfill, Deputy for Intelligence stated: "The 350 gram balloon released 50 minutes previous to the sighting would not be expected to be at any visible altitude at the time of the incident unless it were leaking, (which would preclude the rapid climb described). There previously have been a number of unidentified sightings in the CT and DT grid areas of Korea. Of these, at least 5 sightings have tentatively been identified as enemy balloons. Vectoring an aircraft on a free balloon is actually difficult, and false impressions of rapid movement can easily be made. From the available information it appears that the object was probably a balloon, and possibly one launched by frontline enemy troops." (See Appendix 1 for generally representative sizes and weights of U.S. balloons for comparison)
 
                                                                        Signed: Charles Y. Banfill
 
Notes:
1.         The reported behavior of the UFO is similar to that described above for October 16, 1952, less than one month before! This apparent reactivity by the UFO is intriguing.

2.         This is approximately equivalent to an angle of 1.8 degrees arc.
 
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Feb. 7, 1953                                                                                             Korea
 
            An F-94 pilot sighted a bright orange object both visually and on radar. It changed altitude and then accelerated away from the jet airplane at high speed. (Hall, pg. 21, 1964).

March 20, 1953                             1200 Korean Time     Pork Chop Hill, Korea
 
            William Morgan, USAF sighted a UFO near Pork Chop Hill. No further information is available on this case.

April 2, 1953                                  1734 Korean Time                             NW Korea
 
            Project Blue Book files contain a reference to a pilot sighting of a UFO in the Northwestern region of Korea. No other information is available on this case.

April 19, 1953                               1300 Korean Time                                 Seoul
 
            "A white shiny round object was seen over Seoul at approximately 1 p.m. today (Sunday). Aerial observers in two separate planes flying routine reconnaissance mission observed a white, rounded, delta-shaped object. It was estimated to be five to seven feet in diameter. The observers had no idea of it's depth or thickness." It was travelling between 60 and 80 mph in a vibrating motion. The course of flight was north-northeast to south-southwest over enemy territory."
 
            The object had no visible means of propulsion and sometimes flew only 100 feet above the ground. The Aerial Phenomenon Research Organization (APRO) Bulletin article citing this case stated, "The fliers, four Americans on reconnaissance flight, said it appeared to be round, only 10 feet in diameter and about 25 miles northeast of Panmunjom. (APRO Bulletin, vol 1, issue 6, May 15, 1953). This sighting occurred north of Pork Chop Hill and Old Baldy Hill where heavy fighting had occurred in the previous several days. A ground observer said that "other luminous objects travelling at supersonic speeds of 800 miles per hour, had been observed in the Baldy-Pork Chop area and tracked on radar..." within several days of this sighting (note).
 
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            Three of the four aircrew were Lt. Julius Morgan (pilot); Lt. James O. Rymus (observer), and Lt. Jack E. Myers (observer).
 
Note. This is the same area as the event described in chapter 2.

December 26, 1953                          1625 Korean Time                 CS 4859 North Korea
 
            Project Blue Book files contain a reference to a five minute-long UFO sighting over North Korea. A two page teletype report provided the following information. Lt. Barr was piloting a T-6 aircraft from K-16 to K-47 at 1625 Korean time when he noticed an object crossing his course about three miles away. It was in a shallow dive (10 degrees) and travelling about as fast as a fighter airplane. Very soon its speed began to increase to an estimated 1,000 mph. Curious as to what this strange object could be he changed course to 45 deg, maintaining 3,000 feet altitude. He was travelling at 140 mph.  Suddenly the object changed its course and turned toward his airplane. Lt. Barr "...started to circle in pursuit. The object was slightly lower and was turning inside of Lt. Barr... (who) approximated the radius of his turn at less than a thousand feet". The turn he was flying was not so tight as to cause a stall at 120 mph. "The object continued to turn inside of Lt. Barr's path so he widened his turn in order to make a straight pass." He lined up on the object at approximately 130 mph and started to close on it. The object then went straight up several hundred feet. The witness then decided to bank right in order to close or to see if the object would follow any given pattern. Lt. Barr last saw the object travelling toward the sun at about 140 mph.

            The object was kite shaped, i.e., "a diamond shape with one short end"; it came to within 600 to 800 feet of his airplane during this encounter. It was estimated to be about six feet long and 18 inches thick. "The object looked to be higher on the outer edges and from the rear looked like a flat V. From the side, the object looked like a shallow triangle. It was orange and seemed translucent, at least on the outer edge. At one time the pilot saw "...what appeared to be sparks in the air a short distance behind the object."

Winter 1954                                                                                             Pohang
 
            John A. Potter, Marine Corps weather observer, sighted a formation of about seven discs moving in a side-to-side oscillation. (Hall, pg. 31, 1964).

 

 
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Chapter 4
 
Ground Observers Report UFOs

            This chapter presents a number of UFO sighting reports obtained from project Blue Book files which involved observers on the ground. That such sightings continued long after the Korean War is shown by an interesting case which took place in 1974 which was reported by Stringfield (1977).

April 5, 1952                                        Midnight                                             Okinawa
 
            This brief summary report was found in USAF intelligence report 131-52 dated 22 August 1952 (pg. 3). It is included here only to indicate that Korea was not the only place in the Far East where these strange events were taking place. Okinawa was the location of a U.S. military base about 600 miles south of Korea. Many other sightings were also made from Japan. Following are the salient details.
 
            A single small luminous UFO was observed flying at about 20,000 feet altitude approaching Kadena AFB, Okinawa where the eye witnesses, all flight crew members, were standing. At first it flew in a straight and level path approaching from the north but then it began to maneuver over the base in violent high speed zig-zagging flight.  It stopped momentarily and then maneuved around. Then it shot up out of sight heading west. It was in sight for about ten minutes. The white steady light had no definite shape but was larger than a star. It did seem to become larger as it approached or smaller as it departed. It made no noise and had no trail, sparks, or flame. Its speed was estimated to be faster than any conventional jet aircraft, estimated at 1,000 knots.
 
 
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April 30, 1952                                    1800 Korean Time                             Battlelines
 
            "Two while, silvery objects, one behind the other, rumbled high in the sky over a valley in a frontline sector at 6 p.m., April 30th, heading south-east into South Korea," stated a Stars and Stripes article by Sgt Bill McCorkle (April 1952 issue). He went on to point out that six members of the third platoon, Heavy Mortar Company, 180th Regiment, saw the objects. PFC H. B. Webb, a jeep driver, said that their speed was thought to be about 900 to 1000 mph. "A trail different than jet streams appeared behind them," he said.
 
            Pvt. Roland Jones, another eyewitness said, "Jets passed over right before the objects, only they were Sabres going north. They were much slower than the southbound objects we saw." Mortar platoon leader, 2nd Lt. Bill Smith said, "They didn't have wings but they sounded similar to jets with their rumbling sound. But they weren't, I know. They were going way to (sic) fast .. and they started down, tumbling to earth, as they got out of view. Their trajectory before falling was flat and that proves they weren't mortars. They weren't jet gas tanks jettisoned off either as some theorized, as their trajectory knocks this idea too."
 
            Note: Later, two holes were found in the ground in a reserve area. Each hole was about 25 feet apart, two feet wide, and seven and one-half feet long. Some felt that the "fresh holes" were caused by Chinese "Katyusha" rockets that had been used occasionally at the front. While it is possible that this or another type of enemy rocket that could fly horizontally was what was seen it isn't likely that this is what produced the two holes. No rocket casings were found and the size and shape of the holes were not those of a rocket explosion.
 
May 31, 1952                                       0400 Korean Time                                  Korea
 
            This ground radar site report was found in an Air Intelligence Information Report, dated 4 June 1952 prepared by Capt. John H. Cummings, 6004th AISS APO 970. An airman on duty at post #6 heard his field telephone ring. A guard at post #4 was calling to report seeing a "bright spot in the dark sky to the northeast... approaching fast." The object was oval shaped and about the size of a fighter aircraft. It was first seen at an estimated altitude of about 3,500 feet due north. It descended slowly to about 2,600 feet where it stopped for several seconds. The observer stated that it looked like a disc at this point. It had a sound like a pulsating jet engine at idle. Then it started moving east for about a mile with jerky movements and then stopped again momentarily.
 
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(note) It reversed its direction abruptly and headed west for a short distance to almost its original position (when first seen). It stopped and hovered for a moment, then reversed direction, moving toward the east in a shallow climb and then a steep climb (about 45 degree angle) to the north and disappeared in from 3 to 4 seconds time. (also cf. Gross, pg. 90, 1982)
 
            Drew Pearson, the noted newspaper columnist wrote: (The Washington Post; March 7, 1952) "The Pentagon has hushed it up, but radar units have actually tracked 25 "flying saucers." Each was sighted by at least one eyewitness and also picked up on the radar screen."
 
Note.
            The description of the UFO given in Chapter 2 also included very erratic movements and a deep throbbing sound when the soldier's rifle bullet struck the aerial object.

June 25, 1952                                       1123 GMT                                     Sawon
 
            A wire to FEAF from CG FEAF, Tokyo, Japan dated 25 June 1952 referred to a ground sighting of UFOs at location K-14 (note 1) at 1123I. It looked like a "coin", dull silver and appeared to be spinning in a CW direction. Its diameter was estimated to be seven (7) times its thickness. Its edges were dark blue. "It was reported for shooting a course at an estimated speed of 300 knots, alternately revolving 360 degrees in seven (7) seconds and then proceeding on a spinning course for approximately 12 seconds. The object approached K-14 from the north, paused momentarily, and then rose straight up for 10 seconds, the exact altitude unknown, and then disappeared into the sky. A few seconds later this object was again observed by a second person at the same point of observation. The unidentified object which was seen proceeding at a rapid rate of speed from the south to the north at an approximately 45 degree angle, pausing and then returning in the same manner, each time passing in front of the sun and travelling an equal distance to each side of it. The time required to progress in one direction was three seconds." (Ibid.) (note 2)
 
Notes:
 
1.  Air base K-14 was located near Sawon, just south of Seoul.
 
2.  This case contains some similar elements to the May 31, 1952 incident.
 
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July 10, 1952                                                                                       North Korea
 
            Sailors on a Canadian destroyer sighted two shiny revolving discs race across the sky. Ship radar indicated their distance was seven miles. (Hall, pg. 160, 1964)
 
September 18, 1952                        2230 Korean Time                      Western Korea
 

 
            Gross (1986) notes a report in which "...six spark-throwing cartwheels were seen over the front lines by U.N. ground troops” for about 15 minutes at about 10:30 p.m. local time. Each object seemed to be about 18 inches in diameter and moved in a fifteen foot circle. (Lorenzen and Lorenzen, pg. 48, 1969)
 
October 19, 1952                                                                              Front Battle Line
 
            Gross (Ibid., pg. 77) recounts another similar sighting as above where "cartwheel-like objects throwing sparks flew in a 15 foot orbit above the front on the west side of the military line of resistance (MLR)." J.A. Lajoie of "A" Corp. dismissed the flare possibility and suggested that the object resembled Fourth of July fireworks (Anon, 1952).

January 24, 1953                             0650Z                                       Suwon, Korea
 
            This report appeared in USAF Intelligence Report IR-1-53 dated 26 January 1953. The observer, a Staff Sergeant, was on the ground looking upward at about 45 degrees elevation toward the east when he sighted two round objects for between three and five seconds. They appeared to glow a whitish silver color and were convex with a dark line or shadow traversing the base of each one. His estimate of their size was about twelve to fourteen inches in diameter and at a distance of about four miles away from him. As he continued to watch them they flew in trail in a gentle climb. They seemed to be travelling "considerably faster" than an F-86. No propulsion features, trails, exhausts or sounds were noted. They disappeared either into or behind a nearby cloud.
 
            The following day the witness was interrogated again and changed his description of the objects. On the basis of this evidence the report states, "His judgment of speed, distance and elapsed time of observation are estimated to be unreliable." The report does not include any facts about what he said on the second day, however.
 
 
            The official explanation for this sighting was PROBABLY AIRCRAFT because two F-86 jets had flown over the field at lunch time. "During these maneuvers, the aircraft at times appeared only as silver dots in the sky. If an observer did not follow these aircraft through the complete maneuver, it would have been almost impossible to tell what they were." (Ibid, pg. 3 of 3)

February 10, 1953                           0025 Korean Time                   Cho-do, North Korea
 
            Air Intelligence Information Report 62-3-53 dated 6 March 1953 contained the following ground sighting details. A Marine Sergeant, John Muciek, on communications watch at the communications tent of the USMC garrison at Cho-do, saw an object which looked like a falling star. The light was a steady white and moved in an approximately level path. Then "it stopped abruptly, and moved back and forth in that area (KC-5555)." The light was replaced by a red light and "...from then on, at intervals of approximately three (3) seconds, the light flashed alternately red to white." Sergeant Muciek then called to Corporal Hubert Hicks inside the tent to come out, which he did. He also saw the light. After another minute or so the object began to move away to the southwest. At no time was sound heard from the object. Then Sergeant Muciek phoned the sighting into the USMC Command Post.
           
            The preparing officer was Donald Nichols, Detachment Commander. He noted that the next day he spoke with a Major Pak, KMC Commander, who said that he too had seen "...a flying saucer at approximately the same time with approximately the same phenomena as described by the two (2) Marines." (Ibid, pg. 2 of 3). The official USAF explanation on the summary card for this highly maneuverable light was ASTRO (VENUS). Nonetheless, Col. George D. Hastings, Deputy for Intelligence concluded that the witnesses saw a lighted balloon since "...a number of reports have been received of enemy activities with balloons...". (Ibid, pg. 3 of 3)

April 29, 1953                               1700 - 1705 Korean Time          Eastern Pacific Ocean
                                                                                                                             28 deg 14 min N  166 deg 5min W
 
            A small metallic appearing object the approximate size of an F-80 fighter aircraft was sighted from the USNS General A. W. Brewster enroute to FEAF from San Francisco. It was about 5:00 pm local time when officers on the deck
 
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sighted the UFO at the 3:00 o'clock relative position and 2,000 feet in the air, slightly below the clouds. It was about 1/2 mile away from the ship. The object seemed to "remain stationary for a few seconds, then turn at right angles towards the ship, gain altitude and travel in an arc to a position of 5 o'clock disappearing through the clouds aft of the ship."
           
            "The object did not perform with the smooth control movements of any known aircraft. Rather its controlled actions were erratic with some turns at 90 degree angles and near vertical climbs. The movement from 3 to 5 o'clock was in an arc." The witness who reported this sighting estimated the speed of the object to be faster than a jet fighter aircraft.

The End
 

 

 
References


Anon., Associated Press, Tokyo, Japan, October 19, 1952.
 
Anon., Aerospace Science: History of Air Power. Air University Press, Air Training Command, Maxwell A.F.B., Alabama, 1986.
 
Braybrook, R., Supersonic Fighter Development. Haynes Publ. Group, Somerset, England, 1987.
 
Gross, L.E., UFO's: A History January-May 1952. Privately published, 1982.
 
Gross, L.E., UFO's: A History 1952: September - October. Privately published, 1986.
 
Haines, R.F., Commercial jet crew sights unidentified object-Part I. Flying Saucer Review, Pp. 3-6, March 1982; Part II. Pp. 2-8, April 1983. (Actually FSR 1981; Vol27, No04, Pp. 3-6 and No05, Pp. 2-8)
 
Haines, R.F., and J.F. Vallee, Photo Analysis of an Aerial Disc Over Costa Rica. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 3, No. 2, Pp. 113-131, 1989.
 
Haines, R.F., and J.F. Vallee, Photo Analysis of an Aerial Disc Over Costa Rica: New Evidence. Journal of Scientific Exploration. Vol. 4, No. 1, Pp. 71-74, 1990.
 
Hall, R.H., The UFO Evidence. National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP), Washington, D.C., May 1964.
 
Jackson, R., World Military Aircraft Since 1945. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1979.
 
Jacobs, D. M., The UFO Controversy in America. Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 1975.
 
Lorenzen, C. and J. Lorenzen, UFOs The Whole Story. New American Library, Times Mirror, 1969.
 
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Mahon, J.K., and R. Danysh, Infantry Part I: Regular Army. Army Lineage Series, Center of Military History, United Stales Army, pp. 501-503.
 
Marshall, S. L. A., Bayonet Charge. Combat Forces Journal I, Pp. 22-32, 1951.
 
Michaelis. M., and B. Davidson, This we learned in Korea. Collier's, Pp. 13-15, 38-39, 42-44, August 1951.
 
Momyer, W. W., Air Power in Three Wars. (Lt. Col. A.J.C. Lavalle and Maj. J.C. Gaston (eds.). Pp. 358, Privately published, 1978.
 
Morse, J. L., (Ed.), Funk and Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia. Standard Reference Library, New York, vol. 15, 1969.
 
Nowarra, H. J., and G. R. Duval, Russian Civil and Military Aircraft, 1884-1969. Fountain Press, London, 1971.
 
Pearl, j., Wolfhounds: Saga of the 27th Infantry Regiment. Saga, Pp. 48-50, 69, 71-72, August 1963.
 
Pullen, R., et al., (Eds.), The Tropic Lightning in Korea. Love Publ., Atlanta, GA, 1954.
 
Slockwell, R. E., Soviet Air Power-Supplement. Pageant Press, Inc., New York, 1956.
 
Stringfield, L. H., Situation Red, The UFO Siege! Doubleday, New York, 1977.
 
UFO Information Research Center, Report 6601, Pp. 3-4 to 3-5, 1966.

Whiting, K. R., Soviet Air Power. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1986.
 
Page 69

 


Page 70
 
 
Appendices
 
1. Weather Balloon Characteristics
 
The following meteorological balloons were used by the Americans in the Korean War. This data was included in report IR-4-52, page 2 dated 7 June 1952.

___________________________________________________________
 
Weight         Size            Color             Rate of climb*                 Altitude
___________________________________________________________
10 gram     18 inches   red or black           400                          25,000 ft.
30 gram     24 inches   red, white              600                          60,000 ft.
                                       or black         
100 gram   40 inches   red, white              990                         100,000 ft.
                                       or black         
350 gram   12 ft           cream                 1100                         120,000 ft.
500 gram   25 ft           cream                 1200                         140,000 ft.
___________________________________________________________
* ft. per minute
 
 
Times of Release
___________________________________________________________
 
GMT                Local Time
___________________________________________________________
0600                1200 (noon)
0900                1800    350 gram balloons flown
1500                2400    during daylight hrs. 750
2100                0600    gram balloons flown during darkness.

            Thirty and 100 gram balloons are released from all USAF pibal stations. Ten or 30 gram balloons may be released from any station listed, whenever the ceiling is below 5,000 ft. Thirty and 100 gram balloons are occasionally released on an unscheduled basis. Five candle-power battery powered lights are sometimes attached to ten, thirty, and one hundred gram balloons during hours of darkness. "No instance of a balloon burning in the air has ever been reported in this theater." A chart of South Korea gives the 14 launching stations.

 
 
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2. Shapes and Sizes of UFO Reported
__________________________________________________________
 

 
Japanese lantern                                      Coolie hat with oblong ports
Round                                                     Ball
Globe (larger than Navy jet)                     Cylindrical with a tail
Oval (larger than a MiG)                          50 foot diameter
Round black (circular) cloud                     Round
Coin                                                        Disc (7:1 ratio and 15-20 ft)
Large dark object (long streamers)            Cigar (6-7 feet long)
Perfectly circular (25 ft diam)                   Spherical (8-10 ft diameter)
Discs (7 total in group)                             Oval object (size of fighter)
Cartwheel (giving off sparks)
 

__________________________________________________________

3. Eye Witnesses Listed by Sighting Date
__________________________________________________________
 
Event Date                   Name(s)
__________________________________________________________
Spring 1951                Frances P. Wall
Feb. 24, 1952             R. W. Smith
Mar. 29, 1952            Brigham
April 30, 1952            H. B. Webb, Roland Jones, Bill Smith
May 15, 1952             McCarthy
May 26, 1952             Martin 
May 30, 1952             Robert J. Arblaster; William Leet; Andrew J. Roe
May 31, 1952             Hufberry
June 20, 1952             Bobbie Foster, Richard Francisco, Teddy L.Pittman, Ronnie A. McDonald
Aug. 9, 1952              Leo N. Nagrodsky
Sept 16, 1952             C. B. Scott Jones
Sept. 18, 1952            J. A. Lajoie
Oct 16, 1952              Hooper, O'Neill
Nov. 15, 1952            Layten S. Bass; Barnard
March 20, 1953         William Morgan
Winter 1954              John A. Potter
 
Note to Reader:  If you served in the Korean War and know anything about UFO sightings you are urged to contact the author. Use the Publishers address: P. O. Box 880 Los Altos, Calif. 94023-0880.

 

Page 72
 
  1. Summary of Unusual or Provocative
UFO Flight Maneuvers

            Of major interest here are the flight dynamics of the UFO which appear to be directly related to the presence and/or behavior of the eye witness' airplane or the witness himself. For an aerial vehicle to be able to control its position relative to another vehicle rapidly it must possess (1) a large acceleration capability (which requires a large amount of energy, (2) a propulsion capability to direct the energy in a given direction efficiently, (3) a means of sensing the change in position of the other vehicle, and (4) a highly precise guidance and local "navigation" system. The airplanes and other aerial weapons which were used during the Korean War were mostly of World War 2 vintage and had only rudimentary capabilities in these four areas.
 
            The dynamics presented here are abbreviated since they are presented in detail above.
 
Spring 1951          The object changed its position rapidly, immediately after the soldier's rifle bullet struck it.
Sept. 1950            UFOs maneuvered around the three fighter-bombers whose radars had become
                        inoperative at that time. Objects then departed at a high rate of speed.
Fall 1951              Radar targets "had been circling the fleet; it (UFO) left the fleet and joined up on
                       us a position behind our wingman."
Jan. 29, 1952        UFO flew parallel to airplane at first and then approached it at the same level. It stayed
                       at a constant distance for about a minute and then departed.
Feb. 24, 1952       The object first approached the airplane from below. Then it leveled off at same
                       altitude as airplane's and then turned left to intercept the observer's airplane after
                       which it descended out of sight. (It did not look like an airplane).
 
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May 15, 1952       UFO began a steep climb but at the top it then moved forward in level flight,
                       wavering momentarily. It then descended and disappeared into the haze at an
                       estimated 1000 mph.
May 26, 1952       An object followed the observers' jet interceptor. Subsequently, the UFO was in front
                       of the jet with a positive radar lock-on. At about 6000 yards between the airplane and
                       UFO (and closing) the object started to pull  away to 26,000 yards in about 12 to 15
                       seconds (estimated at about 20-g acceleration).
May 31, 1952       A bright oval disc was seen from a ground observation post approaching fast.
                       Then it descended slowly about 900 feet when it stopped several seconds; then
                       it moved cast with jerky movements, stopped again, reversed its direction 180 degrees
                       flying to its original position. It hovered in one spot for a moment, reversed direction
                      again in a shallow climb and then a steeper climb, disappearing from sight in 3 to 4 seconds.
May 31, 1952       As jet fighter turned and descended to intercept a UFO 6000 feet lower, it (UFO)
                       began a left turn climb which silhouetted the F-94 against the dawn sky. After
                       attempting two unsuccessful passes on the object, the UFO began to accelerate away
                       out of sight.
June 6, 1952         UFO travelled at about 300 mph in a straight line (while revolving) and then stopped
                       above airbase K-14 momentarily and then rose straight up for 10 seconds after which
                       it disappeared from sight.
June 20, 1952       The oval shaped UFO approached from the south, made a complete left-hand orbit
                       of the target area and flew away to the east. The UFO outdistanced a pursuing aircraft.
 
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June 23, 1952       The UFO descended "rather irregularly", flew at a fixed altitude for 6 - 7
                       seconds, approached the pilot's airplane and then disappeared into a cloud.
 Oct. 16, 1952      An oncoming UFO on the right side and at the same altitude as the jet aircraft
                       suddenly seemed to stop when abreast of the aircraft. Then, as the aircraft banked
                       right toward it, it accelerated away at an estimated 800 mph.
Nov. 15, 1952       When first seen, the UFO was below the pilot and moving north about five miles.
                        Then it turned 180 deg and headed south and climbed. When he banked toward it
                         the perfectly spherical, silver UFO banked into a left hand orbit around the airplane.
Feb. 27, 1953        When the UFO was sighted (visually and on radar) it changed altitude and
                        accelerated away from the jet airplane.


5. Electromagnetic Effect Cases
__________________________________________________________

Sept 1950            When a Navy airplane was approached by two large discs its radar was jammed
                       and the radio transmitter was blocked by a buzzing noise each time a new frequency
                       was tried.
Fall 1951             Over 14 (ground, airborne) radar sets tracked a UFO circling over the U.S. Naval
                      fleet at speeds of from "slow" to over 1,000 mph.
May 26, 1952      Ground radar contacted a UFO and vectored a jet  interceptor towards it. The
                       radar operator onboard visually sighted the object which was subsequently locked
                       on his airborne set.
 
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May 31, 1952       The F-94's radar obtained a positive lock on the object while ground radar did not.
                       It was first sighted from the ground.
July 10, 1952    Canadian destroyer radar contacted two UFO.
Aug. 9, 1952     Marine ground control radar contacted a UFO travelling at a high rate of speed.
 


 
   

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