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Monday, March 26, 2012

UFOs - THE CHALLENGE OF UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS -Charles A. Maney, Richard Hall (6)


SECONDARY CASES 

            These borderline cases have some characteristics in common with those of the main chronology. In each case a definite E-M effect was reported. In seven of the nine cases some aerial phenomenon did coincide with the E-M effect (i. e., flashes of light, glows, etc). In the other two cases distinct UFOs were seen, but it could not be determined that they coincided with the E-M effects reported nearby. 
a.       July 20, 1952: Cumberland, Maryland. Engineer reported unusual type, of TV interference. Occurred within a few hours of the famous Washington UFO sightings all over the D. C.-Virginia area, including radar trackings by CAA.
b.      Jan. 21, 1957: Bristol, England, TV pictures disrupted and noise heard on audio; same time as firey light in sky with rays running through it.
c.       Jan. 27, 1957: Glendora, California. Unexplained power failure. Two UFOs reported same night in general area.
d.      May 7, 1957: New York City. TV disrupted, citizens complained about low-flying "aircraft. " Commercial test plane blamed, but Air Force reported several unidentified blips on radar.
e.       Sept. 1, 1957: LeMars, Iowa. Car motor and headlights failed (as flash of light seen in sky).
f.       Nov. 2 or 3, 1957: Las Cruces, New Mexico. Car motor and headlights failed twice (as UFO skeptic saw flashes of light in the sky). Blamed on "Static atmosphere. "
g.       Nov. 28, 1957: Hakalau, Hawaii. Car motor failed, driver felt numb (as bright flash of light seen in sky about 20 feet above highway ahead of car).
h.      Dec. 1. 1957: Ann Arbor, Michigan. Telephone lines affected by odd noise (as numerous red lights observed in Sky).
i.        Dec. 7, 1959: Bangor, Maine. Airport runway lights went out. (Airliner circling over field reported unexplained blinding glow around plane.) 

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Statistics Based on the 81 Cases in the Main Chronology




Table I.  Equipment Affected

Table II.  Automobiles (43 cases)





Ground Vehicles (Autos 43, Others 6)
49
Motor Only 
12
Radio, TV (Excluding auto radios)
16
Radio Only
7
Aircraft 
7
Lights Only 
3
   (Engines 2, engines & lights 1, radio 3, and Radar 1) 

Motor & Lights
15
Building Lights
7
Motor & Radio
3
Other
2
Motor, Radio & Lights
1
Total
81
Other
2


Total
43


    Motor: 31 cases, Lights 19



       and Radio cases: 13






A NOTE ON THE QUESTION OF CAUSE AND EFFECT

            One of the better examples of electromagnetic (E-M) effects apparently caused by a UFO is the case of the sightings near Levelland, Texas, November 2-3, 1957. In a period of about three hours, the sheriff's office in Levelland received dozens of calls from excited people who had seen flashing lights in the sky. In addition, more than 15 calls were received from people who had actually seen a distinct UFO, and all 15 descriptions were remarkably similar. Four of the 15 also reported that the motors and lights of the car or truck they were riding in at the time had failed at the approach of the UFO. When the UFO retreated, the lights came back on and the engines could be started again. Patrolman A. J. Fowler said: "They seemed to agree that this something was 200 feet long, shaped like an egg and lit up like it was on fire--but looked more like neon lights." Coincidence and hallucination must be ruled out when more than 15 people at different locations but in the same general area give identical descriptions of something which they have just seen. The four who reported engine and light failure also described their experiences in the same way. There can be little doubt that a UFO was seen and did cause engines and lights to fail.
            A direct cause and effect relationship is also apparent in the following cases: 15, 18, 25, 29, 64, 65, and 75. 
ENGINE-FAILURE CASES 

            This study comprises 27 cases of the failure of engines during UFO sightings in the United States, France, Italy, South America, and Hawaii. 
            It is interesting to note that not only automobiles and trucks were affected, but also the electrical systems of a motorcycle and a tractor. Also worthy of mention is the fact that a Diesel tractor driving alongside a conventional tractor with electrical ignition was not affected while the conventional tractor was stalled.
            Studying these occurrences also refutes the skeptic's explanation that some people, seeing something which they fail to recognize right away, be­come nervous and are the very cause themselves of the stalled engine. In nine cases, the engine stalled and the drivers did not spot the UFO until the vehicle had come to a dead stop. Some puzzled drivers only sighted the strange appearance in the sky as they raised the hood to inspect the motor of their stalled vehicle.
            From these 27 cases there seems to be a definite sequence to the disturbances of the electrical systems of vehicles: First the motor stops, then the headlights go out. In a few of these cases where the car was equipped 
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with a radio playing at the time of the UFO appearance, the radio was the first to show signs of disturbance either by emitting static or by fading.
            In many of these instances the UFO appeared to be at a low altitude and quite near, though its performance was not uniform. Altitudes of the UFOs, unfortunately seldom reported with much accuracy, were estimated to be from zero (sitting on the ground) to approximately 200 feet. Distance of the stalled driver from the UFO also is very approximate since many reports do not give the vaguest estimate of distance. The estimates given in these cases ranged from 100 feet to 2 miles away, either straight ahead of the car or off to one side.
            In all these instances as the UFO vanished in the distance either straight away or angling up, the lights came back on, engines started easily, and radios resumed playing. Oddly enough in a few instances the batteries were steaming, apparently having been short-circuited somehow.

FAILURE OF AUTOMOBILE HEADLIGHTS AND OTHER LIGHTS 

            This study is based on 26 instances of the failure of lights during the sighting of a UFO. Twenty-one of these were automobile lights. In 19 instances the engines failed at the same time, and in two instances only the lights were affected. The lights failed a few second's before any UFO was sighted in seven cases, a few seconds after a UFO was sighted in ten cases. The other light failures occurred simultaneously with UFO sightings.
            The UFOs associated with the instances of light failure sometimes were seen to have a definite shape, and sometimes appeared only as a source of light. The usual shape reported was elliptical or circular.
In 17 cases colors were mentioned:
blue      2          red                    5
green    3          orange-yellow    3
white    3          multi-colored      1
            In eleven of the 26 cases of light failure, the associated UFO was reported to be either on or near the ground (estimated altitudes of 300 feet or less).
            A particularly interesting case of house lights being affected happened in Bedford, Indiana, August 25, 1955. A woman (with a companion) driving home neared her house in which the living room lights had been left on. A UFO, white with a black streak through the center, was seen hovering near the house. As the UFO pulsated, the house lights dimmed and brightened in unison with the glow of the UFO. The frightened women drove back down town to wait on their husbands, and when they returned together the UFO was gone.
            An intriguing aspect of the light-failure cases, which cropped up in at least two instances, was the failure of searchlights or spotlights after they were shown on the UFO. 

RADIO-TELEVISION INTERFERENCE 

            Of 23 cases studied, 17 involved radio interference and 6 involved TV interference. In one instance both the radio of a police patrol car and the TV sets in the area were affected by static and blackouts.
The types of interference were of four basic kinds:
            (1) Instrument went dead.      (3) Static heard.
            (2) Signals picked up.             (4) Volume diminished and decreased.
            In many of the TV cases the words "TV interference" are used and it is not stated specifically whether the video, audio, or both were affected. The radio cases are generally more specific as to the type of interference.
            In all of these cases the UFO was generally described as being low--from a few feet above the ground to an estimated 50 feet altitude; also very 
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close to the affected vehicle or building, the range being estimated from "just a few feet" to 100 feet away. Unfortunately, many reports are vague or incomplete in respect to these figures, and when estimates are ventured they must be accepted as approximations since the size of the UFO is unknown.
            As for performance of the UFO at the time of the disturbance, it varied from "jet speed" to "hovering." Some instances of swooping down and upward curves, as well as level flight, were reported. In two cases sounds were reported: One described as an explosion, the other as like "a car engine racing."
            The shape of the associated UFOs is problematic because of the lack of information in these reports. Some descriptions mentioned were: egg-like, star like, globe, disc, saucer, oval; and others were only light sources.
            One case (No. 55) is interesting because campers in Canada had an ordinary battery-powered portable radio which went dead, whereas their portable short wave radio received a rapidly modulated single-tone signal on one frequency only. This is similar to the PAA radio system case (No. 31) in Venezuela in which Morse-like signals were received on one interference-free frequency. In the latter case the signals were accompanied by slight "explosions.” After a stop of 40 seconds, different signals were received, interrupted by a sound like an aircraft travelling at great speed. In both instances the equipment was good and the people were well versed in radio. (The Canadian campers were ham radio operators.) Also, in Texas, station KEVT heard odd "roaring" static going up and down the scale during a UFO sighting (No. 4). 
PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS 

            Several of the witnesses who experienced an E-M effect as a UFO was seen nearby also felt something akin to an electric shock frequently accompanied by heat. With a few exceptions noted below, this occurred mostly to motorists inside their vehicles at the same time that their headlights and motors were affected. In a few cases the motorists reported that they felt paralyzed. The paralysis, shock, and/or heat was often felt before the UFO, was seen and before the witnesses had reason to think that anything unusual was going on; thus these effects can not be attributed to fear or other psychological causes.
            On November 5, 1957, in one of the few cases of this type not involving motorists, two sentries at Itaipu Fort on the east coast of Brazil felt a suf­focating heat from a UFO which approached the fort causing the whole electrical system of the fort to fail. A psychological cause is also ruled out in this case, since the sentries actually suffered severe physical burns.
            In one instance a motorist experienced both shock and heat after stepping out of his car to look at a UFO. A policeman in Williston, Florida, November 2, 1955, climbed out of his car to investigate a low-flying UFO and saw it pass about 150 feet over his head. At that moment he felt heat and an odd stinging sensation which he had never before experienced. He described it as similar to the numbness felt when a foot "goes to sleep," tingling all over.
            Eight other cases all involved motorists driving along the highway. Six of these took place in France during the month of October 1954. Two others, very similar to the French cases, were in Peru, January 1958, and Hawaii, November 1957. The latter two were reported before the publication of Aime Michel's book listing the 1954 French cases.
            In a typical case (No. 18) a man with his 3-year-old son was driving along at night when he suddenly felt an "electric shock" over his whole body, along with increasing heat. The child apparently felt it too because he began crying. The motor failed and the headlights went out. Only then did a UFO become  
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visible--a brightly lighted object ahead of the car which soon climbed rapidly away. As soon as the UFO left, everything returned to normal.
            An exceptional case (g) involved a man driving home alone early in the evening. Suddenly his engine began missing, and then he saw a bright flash of light about 20 feet above the highway ahead of the car. The motor failed and the headlights went out. The car's momentum carried it forward to about the spot where the light had been, at which point the man felt "numb" and couldn't move for several minutes. Then, he said, the car started up again by itself while still in high gear (he had not touched the starter), the lights came back on and the car began to move slowly. Frightened, the man did not stop to investigate and hurried home.
            There was no clear-cut pattern to the physical description of the UFOs seen when "shocks" were felt. Most of the cases occurred at night and the UFOs appeared as luminous globular objects whose exact shapes could not be determined. The colors most frequently mentioned were red and orange.
            One definite pattern was found in the performance of the related UFOs when the "shocks" were felt. In nearly every case the UFOs (1) had just moved to a position low above the road ahead of the car, or (2) were actually on the road or next to it ahead of the car. In one such case (No. 15) one UFO from a formation of four was seen to zig-zag down toward the road ahead of the car. When about 100 yards away from the descending UFO, the motorist felt a "shock" and his motor and lights failed. No light could be seen from the UFO, which apparently had landed, and the man sat in the dark unable to move. Then the headlights came back on, and in their beam the amazed motorist saw the UFO skimming away low over the ground. From these cases it appear that "shocks" are felt only during exceptionally close approaches.
            The data are too skimpy to allow any firm conclusions about the forces involved in cases of "electric shock, "except that the same forces which have apparently affected electrical circuits in automobiles and other vehicles and devices can, at closer range, cause physiological effects on the human body. It should be noted in passing that, in many cases not involving electromagnetic effects on vehicles and devices, witnesses standing in the open have suffered mild skin burns and symptoms of radiation sickness after being ex­posed to a UFO low above their heads.
            No serious after-effects have been reported in any of the cases involving a "shock," but the two sentries in the Brazilian Itaipu Fort incident did suffer serious burns in a closely similar case.

PERFORMANCE 

            In order to determine the general performance characteristics of the UFOs during the occurrence of E-M effects, the cases of engine failure, 37 in number, were taken as a sample. Many of the cases were reported only sketchily and produced little data of value, but some possibly significant features can be noted on the basis of this sample.
            The colors reported were fairly evenly distributed across the spectrum, with a slight predominance on the red end of the spectrum. In cases where the UFO changed colors or showed more than one color, each color reported was listed separately. Usually, however, there was one predominant color.

Components of Motion
Hovering: The UFOs were reported to have hovered in at least 11 cases.
Landings: The UFOs were reported to have been on the ground in at least 11 cases.
Vertical Motion: The UFOs were reported to have moved vertically in at least 13 cases. 

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            Of the various categories considered, these three showed a significant frequency. Other categories were: Circled or maneuvered, passed (without stopping or maneuvering), continuous straight-line flight, arced, turned. In 6 cases turns were mentioned; fourth in frequency of the components considered.
Distance and Altitude
            Altitude estimated more often than distance. In about 3/4 of the cases in which an estimate of altitude was given, the UFOs were said to be below 250 feet. All estimates of distance placed the UFOs less than 500 feet away. 
LIMITATIONS OF DATA 

            Throughout its study of the E-M phenomenon, the Subcommittee has been acutely aware of the limitations of the data under consideration. It found many reports to be sketchy and incomplete, and discovered gaps of time during which no E-M cases apparently were reported. The gaps, however, are believed to be directly related to the lack of investigation and inadequacy of news reporting at certain times. Ridicule by the press and various officials has lead to periods of sparse news coverage, though UFOs still were reported to NICAP and other organizations.
            In its search of the literature on E-M reports, the Subcommittee was able to find only eight cases which occurred before the rash of E-M cases in France during 1954. Only four of these were reported at the time they occurred. One of these was the June 24, 1947, sighting in Portland, Oregon, by prospector Fred Johnson. Johnson reported that the dial of his compass was agitated as five or six disc-shaped objects flew overhead flashing in the sun. It is interesting that this early E-M case occurred on the same day as the famous UFO sighting by private pilot Kenneth Arnold, which resulted in the coining of the term "flying saucer."
            Since 1954, recorded E-M cases have been numerous. The French engineer Aime Michel, in his book Flying Saucers and the Straight Line Mystery has documented 12 instances of E-M effects experienced in Europe during the Fall of 1954. Eleven of these were in France during the month of October. (See Chronology)
            Between Fall 1954 and the next comparable period in late 1957, 13 cases were found. It is probably significant that there was very little UFO publicity in this period, after the Air Force wrote off UFOs in an official report early in 1955.
            Then in late 1957 a sudden rash of UFO reports from responsible witnesses was carried on the press wires. Personnel at White Sands Proving Grounds in New Mexico, the crew of the Coast Guard cutter SEBAGO in the Gulf of Mexico, airline pilots in Louisiana and Nebraska, and many others reported UFOs. The press coverage which resulted from this interesting batch of sightings, the most thorough since 1952, led to the reporting of hundreds of UFOs within about two months. While the relatively straightforward reporting continued, many E-M cases were reported. Three E-M cases in October then 30 E-M cases in November 1957 alone! (See Chronology)
            After a few more E-M reports in December 1957, UFO publicity once again died down. Since January 1958, only 12 E-M cases are known to the Subcommittee. However, the reports that continue to trickle in even during periods of poor news coverage are sufficient to suggest that the E-M phenomenon has been continual throughout the 13 years since the term "flying saucers" became a part of our vocabulary.
            Because the data are not as complete as we should like, we are not able to state positively that E-M effects are a standard feature of UFO reports. However, the fact that the two periods in which most E-M cases are known
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(1954 and 1957) correspond to two periods in which UFOs were well-reported strongly suggests that other E-M cases have gone unreported in other periods due to ridicule or a generally unfavorable press. It is important to note that if Aime Michel had not personally investigated the 1954 cases and published them in a book, they would be completely unknown in the United States today.
            The evidence of E-M effects, sketchy though it may be, is sufficient to warrant a more thorough investigation of UFOs, and an attempt to learn more about the E-M phenomenon through deliberate instrumentation for that purpose.
            If the following report in the "For the Record" column of National Review, February 13, 1960, is accurate, the need for investigation of the E-M phenomenon takes on new importance:
"Investigators sifting wrecks of recently crashed commercial airliners stumped by the eerie and unexplained total failure of all electronic equipment in the ill-fated craft."




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AURORA AND GEOMAGNETIC STORMS 

            One explanation that has been advanced for E-M effects is that they must be related to solar activity and resulting "'disturbances of the earth's magnetic field.
            The International Geophysical Year (IGY) world warning system, to enable an extensive study of the results of solar activity, was in operation during the last quarter of 1957 when 36 E-M cases occurred. The following information is taken from IGY Bulletin No. 10, April 1958, published by the National Academy of Sciences:
            "During the first three months of IGY [July, August, September 1957] 14 periods of Alert and 4 SWI (Special World Intervals) were declared by AGIWARN, the IGY World Warning Agency... During the next three-month period [October, November, December, 1957], solar activity was in general lower; only six periods of Alert, totaling 23 days, and two SWI, totaling four days, were declared. One of the SWI was unsuccessful in that no major solar disturbance with associated terrestrial effects followed. During the other SWI a short but relatively severe geomagnetic disturbance took place...
1957
Oct. 14 Alert #11 starts                        Nov. 26 SWI #7 starts
Oct. 20 Alert #11 finishes                     Moderate magnetic storm starts
Oct. 21 Alert #12 starts                        Nov. 27 Magnetic storm finishes
Oct. 22 SWI #6 starts                           Alert #14 finishes
Oct. 23 Alert #12 finishes                      SWI #7 finishes
            SWI #6 finishes                        Dec. 15 Alert #15 starts
Nov. 12 Alert #13 starts                        Dec. 21 Alert #15 finishes
Nov. 15 Alert #13 finishes                     Dec. 26 Alert#16 starts
Nov. 24 Alert #14 Starts                        Dec. 29 Alert #16 finishes
            Thus, it is seen that solar activity was at a minimum during one of the major outbreaks of UFO sightings and associated electromagnetic effects. Geomagnetic disturbances therefore appear to be an unsatisfactory explanation for many E-M cases, or UFO sightings in general.
Aurora
            The following information on aurora is taken from IGY Bulletin No. 12, June 1958:
            "Auroras are the visible manifestation, in the earth's atmosphere, of a group of phenomena resulting from disturbances in the sun's interior and surface layers. They mark the paths within the atmosphere of the streams of solar particles ejected by eruptions on the sun.... The best times of the year for auroral observations are Spring and Fall. During March and September, in particular, auroras are at an annual maximum of frequency and intensity. ... In latitudes below 40°N., where auroras are rare, observations are made primarily on nights when geomagnetic disturbances are expected, i. e., during Alerts and SWI.... Four months of Weather Bureau observations indicate that auroral motions are greatest at about midnight, and are predominantly from west to east."
            Since it has already been shown that there were no geomagnetic disturbances during most of the Fall 1957 E-M sightings, and many of these E-M sightings occurred in Texas and New Mexico (well below 40° N.), auroral effects fail to account for the E-M phenomenon satisfactorily, except possibly in a very few cases for radio noise and disruption of communication at other times. Certainly no such explanation is adequate at any time for cases of motor and headlight failures which have been directly associated with the presence of an unidentified object nearby in the atmosphere. 

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SOURCES:
MAIN CHRONOLOGY

1. Stringfield, Leonard; “Inside Saucer

30. Thirouin, Marc, “Ouranos.” (27 Rue
    Post…3-0 Blue.” (7017 Britton Ave.,

       Etienne-Dolet, Bondy, Seine, France)
2. TIME: May 9, 1949; Menzel, Donald;

31. A. P. R. O.
     “Flying Saucers.” (Harvard Press,

32. Trench, op cit., ppg. 162-163
         c. 1954), page 24; etc.

33. A. P. R. O. Bulletin, Sept. 1959
3. Tulsa (Okla) Tribune, 12-1-57

34. Associated Press, 11-4-57
4. Miller, Max B. (1420 So. Ridgeley Dr.

35. Casper Tribune-Herald, 11-5-57
    Los Angeles 19, Calif.)

      Casper Morning Star, 11-5-57
5. A. P. R. O. 4407 E. Linden, Tuscon,

36. Charlotte (N.C.) Observer, 11-4-57 (AP)
    Arizona

37. Hobbs News-Sun 11-5-57
6. First-hand account on NICAP report form.

38. Amarillo Daily News, 11-4-57
7. Faria, J. Escobar (Rua General Mena

39. International News Service,
    Barreto, 527, Sao Paulo, Brazil).

      11-4-57. Associated Press, 11-3-57
8. New Orleans Item, Sept. 21, 1954;

      APRO Bulletin, Nov. 1957, Etc.
    Ruppelt, E. J. “Report on Unidentified

40. Winnipeg Tribune, 11-7-57
        Flying Objects.” (Doubleday, c.1956).,

41. Faria J. Escobar
        p. 71; etc..

42. Chicago Tribune, 11-5-57
9. Michel, Aime; “Flying Saucers and the

43. Toronto Daily Star, 11-5-57
    Straight Line Mystery.” (Criterion, c. 1958), p. 143
44. Associated Press, 11-4-57, Clark,
10. Michel, Aime; op cit., p150

      Terry, (The Day All Roads Led to
11. Michel, Aime; op cit., p157

       Alamogordo” Writer’s Digest,
12. Michel, Aime; op cit., p158

       December 1957, etc.
13. Michel, Aime; op cit., p160

45. Anchorage Daily News, 11-6-57
14. Michel, Aime; op cit., p175

46. Amarillo News, 11-7-57
15. Michel, Aime; op cit., p185

47. El Paso Times, 11-7-57
16. Michel, Aime; op cit., p198

48. Aurora (Ill) Beacon-News, 11-7-57
17. Michel, Aime; op cit., p203

49. Marietta (Ohio) Times (AP) 11-6-57
18. Michel, Aime; op cit., p204

50. Associated Press, 11-5-57
19. Michel, Aime; op cit., p204

51. Faria, J. Excobar; APRO Bulletin, Sept. 1959
20. Michel, Aime; op cit., p211n

52. Houston Chronicle, 11-6-57
21. North East Breeze (weekly), week of

53. Michel, op cit., p248; Santa Fe
      Dec 5, 1954

      New Mexican, 11-6-57
22. Keyhoe, Donald; “Flying Saucer Conspiracy”,

54. Hammond (Ind) Times, 11-7-57
      (Henry Holt, c. 1955) p249.

55. Michel, op cit., p248, CSI Newsletter
23. Keyhoe, Donald; op cit., p265

       #10 (67 Jane St., N.Y., 14)
24. Michel, Aime; op cit., p236

56. Michel op cit., p248; APRO Bulletin,
25. Indianapolis Star, 8-27-55

      January 1958
26. Fulton, H. H. RNZAF (from Japan News)

57. Michel op cit., p254; APRO Bulletin,
27. Trench, Brinsley lePoer, Ed.; “World

      January 1958
       UFO Roundup.” (Citadel, c. 1958) Ppg. 96-97.

58. Michel, Aime; op cit., p263
28. Mobridge (S. D.) Tribune, 11-22-56.

59. APRO Bulletin, November 1957
      Bowman (N. D. ) Pioneer, 11-22-56.

60. APRO Bulletin, November 1957
29. NICAP (From Air Force Intelligence Report).

61. Hammond Times, 11-13-57


62. Plymouth Record, 11-14-57


63. Hazelton Plain Speaker, 11-13-57


64. Chicago American (INS), 11-15-57


      St. Louis Post-Dispatch, (AP), 11-15-57

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65. Faria J. Escobar.

74. Baltimore Sun, 1027-58; Baltimore
66. Faria J. Escobar

       News-Post, 10-27-58
67. Ellensburg Daily Record, 12-4-57.

75. Greenville Record-Argus, 1-31-59
68. Ontario Daily Nugget, 12-4-57

76. Flying Saucer Review (London),
69. First-hand report to NICAP

      Sept – Oct, 1959
70. UFO Bulletin, March 1958, (Box 1120,

77. Associated Press, 2-26-29
       G.P.P. Sydney, NSW, Australia.

78. APRO Bulletin, November 1959
71. La Presna, 2-1-58; United Press

      from El Tribuno
72. Faria, J. Escobar, from Italian Newspapers.

79. APRO Bulletin, September 1959,
73. Faria, J. Escobar

80. Columnist Whitney Bolton, Newark


       Evening News, 11-5-59


81. Grand Forks Herald, 1-21-60

SECONDARY CASES 
(a) Cumberland, Md. (AP) 7-23-52                  (e) Miller, Max B., Saucers, Winter, ‘57-58.
(b) Trench, op cit., ppg. 115-116                      (f) Houston Chronicle, 11-7-57.
(c) Glendora Press, 1-31-57.                              (g) Honolula Star-Bulletin, 11-29-57.
(d) Washington Star, May 8-9, 1957.              (h) Ann Arbor News, 12-2-57.
                                                                              (i) Portland Press-Herald, 12-8-59.




  Appendix F
APPENDIX F
NICAP ADVISORS, AFFILIATES, AND SUBCOMMITTEES
Panel of Special Advisors


I. Science                                                                              II. Aviation and Missiles
Dr. James C. Bartlett, Jr., Baltimore,                                Capt. C. S. Chiles, Eastern Airlines,
 Md. Astronomer; member Association                           New York, N.Y.
 of Lunar and Planetary Observers.                                 Samuel Freeman, Bedminister, N.J.
Jack Brotzman, Naval Research Laboratory,                     past president, National Aviation
 Washington, D. C., Physicist (electronics).                     Trades Association.
Dr. Robert L. Hall, University of                                       Morton Gerla, Jamaica, N. Y. Aviation
 Minnesota. Social psychologist and                                ordnance; Past Director, N.Y. Chapter,
 Assistant professor.                                                            American Rocket Society.
Frank Halstead, Duluth, Minnesota,                                Capt. Robt. B. McLaughlin, USN,
 Former Curator, Darling Observatory,                              Corona, California. Commanding
 University of Minnesota.                                                    Officer, Naval Ordnance Laboratory.
Dr. Leslie K. Karburn, Los Angeles,                               Capt. William B. Nash, Pan American
 California. Biophysicist, University                                World Airways, Miami,  
  of Southern California.                                                      Florida.
Prof. N. N. Kohanowski, Grand Forks,                            W. R. Peters, Coral Gables, Florida.
 North Dakota. Geologist and Mining                              Former First Officer, Pan American
 Engineer, University of N. Dakota.                                 World Airways.
Frank G. Rawlinson, National Aeronautics                    Major John F. McLeod, USAF Res.,
 and Space Administration.                                               Former Air Force pilot, Civil Air
 Washington D. C. Physicist.                                              Patrol, Jacksonville, Florida.
Kenneth Steinmetz, Denver, Colo.                                   George W. Early, B.S., Aeronautics,
 Astronomer; former head of Denver                              Hamilton-Standard Aviation Co.,
 “Moonwatch” program.                                                    Admin. Engineer, Bloomfield, Conn.
Walter N. Webb, Cambridge, Mass.                                 III. Engineering and Photography
 Chief Lecturer in Astronomy, Charles                            Norman S. Bean, Miami, Florida, Director
 Hayden Planetarium, Boston.                                             of Engineering Development,
                                                                                                 Station WTVJ.
                                                                                                Robert Beck, Hollywood, California.
                                                                                                 President, Color Control Company;
                                                                                                 Electronics, optics, and photography.

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Engineering and Photography cont’d                          IV. News and Public Relations
A. L. Cochran, Richardson, Texas                                   James C. Beatty, Rye, N.Y. Public
 Electronics engineer.                                                          Relations; Civil Defense and Ground
Ralph D. Mayher, Cleveland, Ohio.                                 Observer Corps background.
 News photographer, Station HYW.                                 Albert M. Chop, Santa Monica, Calif.
Max B. Miller, Los Angeles, Calif.                                   Former Air Force public information
 Cinematography; Producer of                                          official on UFOs.
 Documentary films.                                                           Lou Corbin, Baltimore, Md. Chief
Warrant Officer, D. C. Newhouse,                                    WFBR News Bureau.
 USN, Coronado, California. Chief                                  Leonard H. Stringfield, Cincinnati,
 Photographer (Aviation).                                                  Ohio. Public relations; Ground Observer
Wilbert B. Smith, Ottawa, Canada.                                    Corps. UFO reporting post.
 Electronics engineer.

                                                                        Affiliates

NICAP-NYC Affiliate, President, Miss                            Kansas City Affiliate, President
  Miriam Brookman, 100 E. 21st. St.,                                   Arthur H. Campbell, 4923 Troost Ave,
  Brooklyn 26, N. Y.                                                              Kansas City 10, Missouri.
NICAP BLUEGRASS Affiliate, President                       KNOXVILLE NICAP Affiliate, President
  William D. Leet,  808 Security                                          Charles Martin, 1130 Montview
  Trust Building, Lexington, Kentucky.                            Drive, Knoxville, Tenn.

                                                                         Subcommittees

California Unit #1, Los Angeles NICAP,            Indiana Unit #1
   Subcommittee (LANS).                                                     Francis Ridge, Chairman, RR #5,
   Mrs. Idabel Epperson, Vice-Chairman,                           Box 23, Vincennes, Indiana
   3790 S. Harvard Boulevard,                          Indiana Unit #2
   Los Angeles 18, California.                                               Glen E. Zook, Secretary,
Canada, Alberta Unit #1                                                     1106 West 16th St.,
   W. K. Allan, Chairman,                                                       La Porte, Indiana.
   2025-29th Avenue, S. W.,                                       Massachusetts Unit #1,
   Calgary, Alberta.                                                                  Walter N. Webb, Chairman,
Canada, Manitoba Unit #1                                         16 Shepard St., Cambridge 38, Mass.
   William M. Car, Chairman,                                     Minnesota Unit #1             
   174 St. Anthony Ave., Winipeg 4, Man.                         Hub T. Sherman, Chairman,                           
Chile, Santiago Unit #1                                                    9300 11th Avenue South,
   Juan E. Gatica Salinas, Chairman,                                      Minneapolis 20, Minn.
  Casila No. 1, El Golf, Santiago.                       Ohio Unit #1
Illinois Unit #1                                                                      Donald Skiff, Chairman,
   Gary N. Longfellow, Chairman,                                         4119 Eileen Drive,
   212 Longfellow Ave, Alton, Illinois.                                Cincinnati 9, Ohio.
Illinois Unit #2                                                          Washington Unit #1, APRA-NICAP Subcommittee,
   Robert C. Burr, Chairman, 3824                                          Mrs. June Larson, Chairman,
   N. Dayton Ave., Peoria, Illinois.                                        11323 14th Av. N. E. Seattle 55, Wash. 

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GLOSSARY
AF.
Air Force. 
AFB.
Air Force Base.
ATIC.
Aerospace Technical Intelligence Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. Home of the Project Blue Book UFO Investigation.
Blip.
Spot on radar scope indicating presence of an aircraft or other object.  Also called return" or "target."
CAA.
Civil Aeronautics Administration; now Federal Aviation Agency (FAA).
CIA.
Central Intelligence Agency.
CIRVIS.
Communications Instructions for Reporting Vital Intelligence Sight­ings; intelligence network detailed in order by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, JANAP-146 (see below).
Contactee.
Person who claims to have contacted a "space man;" usually in­volving alleged intelligent communication.
E-M case.
Electro-magnetic case; see Appendix E.
Fact sheet.
In the context of unidentified flying objects, refers to periodical Air Force publications by that name giving statistical summaries of re­cent UFO sightings.
Fireball.
Very bright meteor.
Flap.
Originally an Air Force term indicating general confusion; now connotes periods in which large numbers of UFOs are reported in a short period of time.
Foo-Fighter.
Name given to unidentified flying objects which paced allied and enemy planes in World War II.
Fortean.
Adjective implying odd or unusual happenings, such as the events chronicled by Charles Fort.
GCI.
Ground Control Intercept (radar).
GOC.
Ground Observer Corps; plane spotters formerly linked with radar networks for air defense.
Intercept(ion). 
Flying term for attempt to overtake or head off unidentified aircraft or object.
JANAP.
Joint Army-Navy-Air Force Publication; specifically JANAP-146 out-lining secret transmission of UFO and other reports of objects considered to be a potential threat to the country.
Mother ship.
A carrier aircraft which launches and receives on board smaller aircraft or missiles in flight.
PIO.
Public Information Officer.
RAF.
Royal Air Force (Great Britain.)
Scramble.
Rapid take-off of fighter aircraft to attempt interception of un­identified aircraft or object.
Skyhook.
Large plastic research balloon, translucent, generally teardrop shaped.
Temperature inversion.
Common weather phenomenon in which a layer of heated air lies below a layer of cooler air, sometimes forming a lens which bends light rays from the ground or air, making the original light source appear to be in a different position.
Theodolite.
A telescopic instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles.
UFO. 
Unidentified Flying Object.
UFOlogy. 
The study of unidentified flying objects.
Unknown. 
The Air Force term for UFOs which could not be explained in conventional terms after thorough investigation.

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PARTIAL INDEX
Air Force, UFO policy of
85-88, 100-101,120, 139-140, 167-170, 172-174
Angel's Hair 
41-43, 58-63, 79, 93-94
Brazilian photograph (frontispiece)
80-81,115
Congress, Report to
Part I, Chapter 2
Electro-magnetic (E-M) effects
71-74, 80, 82, 94
Killian, Captain Peter, American Airlines, sighting 2/24/59
101-103
Moore, Olden, sighting, November 6, 1957
103-104
Nash, Capt. Wm. B., Pan American Airways, sighting 7/14/52
22, 65
Newhouse, W/O D. C., sighting and movie 7/2/52
82, 86-87
Pacific Airline sighting, July 11, 1950
21-22
Physiological effects
74, 75,112-113, Appendix E
Red Bluff, California, sighting August 13, 1960
3-4, Appendix A
Redmond, Oregon, sighting September 24, 1959
8-9, Appendix A
Scientists, UFO reports by
35,144, 147-160, Appendix D
Scientists, comments by
7, 33, 39-40, 83,139,175; Appendix C
"Space Men" reports
28, 30, 95-99
Stokes, James, White Sands engineer, sighting, 11/6/57
73 and 74, Appendix E
Washington, D.C. sightings, July 1952
66-67, 114-115
  
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