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Monday, March 26, 2012

UFOs - James M. McCampbell - UFOLOGY -FULL BOOK (1)


James M. McCampbell
Director of Research, 1975-93
Mutual UFO Network, Inc.
Contents


Preface


Chapter 1 Certified UFOs Reliability of Reports
Air Force Experience
Residue in Colorado
Civilian Groups
Scientific Analysis
Springboard to Discovery
Footnotes

Chapter 2  The Vehicles Discs
Fuselages
Spheres
Potpourri
Size
Structural Details
Footnotes

Chapter 3 Composition & Luminosity Metallic Surface
Soft Glow
Rainbow Colors
Dazzling Brightness
Sequential Multi-Colors
Simultaneous Multi-Colors
Other Lighting Details
Footnotes

Chapter 4  Sounds Violent noises
Humming
Rush of air
High Pitch
Coded Signals
Footnotes

Chapter 5 Electrical Interference Internal Combustion Engines
Radios
Household Receivers
Power Transmission
Footnotes

Chapter 6 Physiological Effects Primary Symptoms
Heating
Paralysis
Electrical Shock
Loss of Conciousness
Secondary Symptoms
Scientific Uncertainty
Observer's Reactions
Animals Too.
Footnotes

Chapter 7 Flight & Propulsion Hovering
Descent & Ascent
Acceleration & Relativity
Undulation
Speed & Shock Waves
Wobble & Spin
Evidences of Power
Microwave Propulsion
Limits of Theory
Footnotes

Chapter 8 Pilots & Passengers Diminutives
Normals
Giants
Relationships
Languages
Clothing
Body Clothing
Belts
Helmets
Boots & Gloves
Footnotes

Chapter 9 Activities On Earth Collecting Samples
Inspections
Emergencies
Personnel Transfers
Summary on Landings
Infiltration
Personal Locomotion
Weak Gravity
Flying
Attitudes Toward Humanity
Footnotes

Chapter 10 Some Concluding Remarks Appraising an Hypothesis
Skeptics Recycle
Improper Questions
A Program Plan
Footnotes

For as God was the help of our reason to illuminate us, so should we likewise turn it every way, that we may be more capable of understanding His mysteries; provided only that the mind be enlarged, according to its capacity, to the grandeur of the mysteries, and not the mysteries contracted to the nar- rowness of the mind.
- Francis Bacon
  PREFACE

Very few subjects have attracted as much attention throughout the world as Unidentified Flying Objects. Nearly everyone in the civilized world has at least heard of them. Even some natives beyond the reach of modern communications have described things in the sky that fit the definition. Beyond that, however, there is little unanimity. Every individual has naturally formed his own opinion on the topic, and beliefs vary greatly. Most reasonable people would accept a full and convincing proof of the identity of these mysterious objects. UFOs remain controversial, however, because no attempt at explaining the phenomenon has been entirely successful.
The fundamental fact confronting us is the existence of a large number of UFO sighting reports. Some of these reports may be fraudulent, but most investigators have concluded that the major ity are quite valid; that is, the witnesses themselves believed that they saw something real, external, artificial, and unusual. The primary aim of this book is to seek a satisfactory interpretation, or understanding, of these experiences.
On logical grounds it may be said that all possible explanations can be subdivided into two major categories, namely, A) physically real, manufactured objects that the witness could not relate to anything in his background, and B) something entirely different, such as obscure natural phenomena, hoaxes, or psychic projections. The possibility remains, of course, that the stimulus for a report of the first type was unique to a particular witness and could prove to be quite mundane to more knowledgeable and experienced people. The heart of the whole question, there fore, is whether or not there exists a subset of experiences in Category A that are unique and puzzling to mankind as a whole, including experts in every field. The majority of witnesses think so! This conviction is shared by most of the people who have diligently studied this subject. Contrary views are more popular among those who (a) feel that examination of the data would be undignified, (b) tend to reject any new concept out of hand, and (c) suspend judgment until irrefutable evidence is presented to them. Unfortunately, little progress in this perplexing field can be achieved while the mind is preoccupied with the issue of UFO existence. The reason for this dilemma is that while mentally coursing through the arguments pro and con, one's attention is deflected from discovery of more meaningful detail. The mind is then blocked from further enlightenment. Rational progress can be achieved only by setting such unwarranted skepticism aside, if only temporarily.
For the present purpose, the reader is requested to suspend his doubts and follow the argument that is developed in this book. Simply consider, for the moment, that UFOs are mechanical constructions that appear and behave in general accord with the accounts of the witnesses. Adopting this point of view cannot be harmful and may prove to be beneficial. As a working hypothesis, it will at least free the mind long enough to explore the available data. That alone is considered to be worthwhile. But its ultimate value can be assessed only upon completion of this book. At that time, we will recall that the reality of UFOs was merely assumed, as in a game, and not proven. One can then ask if this stratagem led to a more thorough, comprehensive understanding of the topic. Did it unravel some of the previous mysteries and reveal their true meaning in terms of scientific facts? Did it suggest some experiments in which new ideas may be tested? Affirmative answers to these questions will establish the value of the hypothesis. On the other hand, if the hypothesis fails to bear fruit, it must be uprooted like a barren tree and thrown out of the orchard. The importance of accepting the reports at face value can hardly be overemphasized. The reader should retain this new perspective throughout the book, otherwise he may become uneasy when some detail of a sighting is brought forth and discussed uncritically. Nowhere does the author attempt to prove the validity of sighting information, or even to evaluate it. The raw data are merely accepted without bias for the purpose of exploration. It is not necessary to believe the data in order to study it. Its truth or falsity will be considered only in the final appraisal.
A fundamental precept of science is the freedom enjoyed by the theorist in devising hypotheses. While hypotheses must accommodate confirmed facts, they need not be reasonable. In fact, major advances in science have been built upon hypotheses that seem to be wildly unreasonable. Even after earning a permanent position in scientific thought, they may yet appear to be quite arbitrary and at odds with reason. In searching for new truth, one simply can not forecast the form it will take. Therefore, justifying an hypothesis is not at all necessary. As a Concession to the reader, ample evidence is presented in Chapter 1 to illustrate why our hypothesis was selected. This data can be a helpful transition for the novice, but it may be skipped by the sophisticated reader who is familiar with it or who recognizes that it is logically extraneous.
The search for truth about UFOs is severely handicapped. First of all, a sighting experience cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. Neither can a UFO be captured for detailed examination. The time and location of future sightings cannot be predicted. Spontaneous sightings are so brief and widely scattered that experts and scientific instruments can not easily be brought to the scene in time to observe the action. Is further understanding, therefore, out of the question? Probably not. But this pursuit of knowledge involves a curious irony. Although the sighting re ports have been derided as "anecdotal records," they are the only source of information on the subject. This reservoir must obviously be tapped if further insights are to be developed. This collection of reports undoubtedly contains some examples from Category B. Some reports that appeared to be well documented have later been exposed as pranks. Such material has occasion ally been accepted uncritically, with adverse effects. -But most worldwide and issuing from diverse cultures. The common discard it. Excessive zeal in this screening process has probably deprived the investigators and the public of some valuable information. To avoid this problem and the corollary one of assessing each report, a different approach has been taken here. Reliance is placed, not so much upon the details of an individual report, as upon the correlations of many independent reports scattered world wide and issuing from diverse cultures. The common elements threading their way through a large number of reports take on the greatest meaning. Several scattered but similar reports afford the opportunity of picking up some detail from one, more from another, and so on, until a composite picture of a typical event can be drawn. The present analysis relies heavily upon these concepts, even at the risk of unwittingly including a few hoaxes, hallucinations, internal eye flashes or whatever. The total number of reports is so large that such contamination of the source material is unlikely to distort the general findings.
The full magnitude of the UFO phenomenon is not commonly realized. A casual observer may have noted a dozen or so newspaper accounts in about as many years. He may have accidentally seen a few magazine articles sandwiched between sensational treatments of hunting polar bears and searching for treasure in the steaming Amazon. He may know of a few books on the subject, but not read them. Newspaper comments on the Condon Report (also unread) have assured him that there was nothing of special interest in the subject. It may be somewhat shocking for him to learn that the average number of reported sightings since 1947 is greater than 200 per year. Over 1,000 sightings were reported in 1967. As these figures apply only to the United States and UFOs are a global problem, the number of sighting reports is substantial. The total is not known, but there is every indication that it is on the order of 500,000 or larger.
While an individual author can do no more than scratch the surface of this voluminous collection, the results of analysis need not be proportionately compromised. After all, the portrait of a tiger can be painted from an adequate number of descriptions, although no testimony is received from the hundreds of people that have been eaten by them. To avoid bias in selecting source materials, the investigation should depend upon catalogs of sightings that have been laboriously compiled by others. As discussed in Chapter 10, the present work is considered to be only a preliminary investigation that should eventually be repeated and extended on a much more comprehensive scale. It will suffice here to demonstrate a productive method of research by unveiling some new vistas of UFOs even if, at this stage, they are seen "through a glass, darkly."
The nature of the material itself and the anticipated retracing of the steps dictate the need for extensive citing of references. Other considerations also reinforce this choice. Information throughout the book falls into several categories that should be distinguished. Yet the continual use of qualifying language for this purpose would be very burdensome and tedious. Within the framework of the hypothesis that has been adopted, we will allow ourselves to say merely that such and such happened, whereas it is actually known only that it was reported. Under the circumstances, however, the reader is entitled to know where the information came from so that he can investigate a particular incident further. Much of the information herein comes with impeccable credentials from technical and scientific sources, which can be most helpful in verifying or expanding upon points that are made. Distinctions are sometimes needed between deductions in which the author has every confidence and extrapolations or hunches that have far less secure foundations. Occasional notes can help to keep these chickens and ducks in separate coops. References and comments have been numbered serially and assembled at the end of the book so that a quick referral can usually resolve any fleeting question.
A thorough investigation of UFOs cannot be arbitrarily confined to a few technical fields in which a particular author may be trained. It becomes necessary to follow the tracks of the elusive quarry wherever they may lead. As shall be seen later, they lead into many areas of technical specialty. It can hardly be expected that an author could be uniformly competent in all of them or that his treatment of these subjects would be free of error. It can only be hoped that the general findings are valid, that the various invasions into professional provinces are not offensive to the practitioners, and that their aid will be forthcoming to correct any deficiencies.
-----------------------------------------
......one is not entitled to a nega-
tive opinion or any opinion at all
for that matter  about the reality.
of UFOs..........until after he has.....
examined....................the data........
            - Stanton T. Friedman.
.
CHAPTER 1
.
CERTIFIED UFOS
.
Strange, disc-shaped objects started flying through the atmosphere shortly after World War II. At least that's what a lot of people said. Speculation ran rampant. Some kind of secret aircraft was being tested by the Air Force. Ours, of course. Or perhaps the Russians had made a breakthrough. Other explanations produced a long list of possibilities. People were lying for notoriety or profit. They only thought that they saw something unusual. Common things that belong in the sky were being viewed under abnormal lighting conditions. Some natural phenomenon, as yet unknown to science, was the answer. Pranksters were on the loose. Vehicles from some unknown civilization were surveying the earth. Flying saucers, as they were called in those days, became a sensation. Newspapers, radio, and television told of new sightings. Magazine articles and books played up the idea of space craft from the cosmos. To many observers, the scene resembled a low-grade infection - the objects were present but unimportant. The Air Force, however, took the matter seriously and started a nationwide investigation. It was hoped that the phenomenon would prove to be a manifestation of human silliness and fade..
1
. .
away. It did not. A quarter of a century passed and the situation did not change much. True, the Air Force finally tired of its mission and abandoned the chase. But the UFOs are still with us. The possibility that the witnesses may have been telling the truth is strongly suspected when a general uniformity of the reports is noticed. For example, one may be impressed that the same type of object was reported by, say, a French physician in 1954 and a Brazilian peasant in 1968. It is especially significant in such cases when a particularly bizarre detail is mentioned by both witnesses. One might suspect collusion, but this is usually extremely unlikely or completely impossible. As in this example, the Brazilian peasant may have been deprived of all communication beyond his own village and never heard of UFOs. It would have to be considered remarkable if his report echoed the content of another one from a distant land. Is there any way in which the trustworthiness of such reports can be established?
Reliability of Reports
The theoretical question of reliability became quite important during the years when intercontinental ballistic missiles were being developed. These weapons, implanted in underground silos in the western states, must remain on stand-by for long periods but they must always be operable. They are extremely complex mechanisms; consequently, many things can go wrong with them. The strategic posture of the United States is defined by the existence of these missiles plus the assurance that they would work if called upon. Every aspect of these weapons, from their control systems to their maintenance schedules, had to be planned to meet the stringent demands of reliability. This obligation fostered a new and powerful tool that is known as Reliability Theory. (1) This theory establishes the relationship between the performance of a complex system and its subsystems and components. If the reliability of the individual components is known, the theory may be employed to compute the reliability of the complete system. Conversely, if the required reliability of the.
2
.
overall system is specified, the theory can be used to establish the requisite reliability of all the constituents. In the latter case, each element that goes into the system must be tested extensively to prove that it meets the prescribed standards. The mathematical statement of reliability is a single number from 0 to 1.0, similar to the scale of probability. Absolute reliability, represented by 1.0, is theoretically unattainable. This theory has been successfully applied to UFO reports. As with any complex system, the problem was first broken down into its finest elements. Such factors as the number of witnesses, their training in aerial observation, and the circumstances of the sighting were isolated. Details of the original documentation were accounted for with emphasis upon interviews of the witnesses and the professional qualifications of the interviewers. Finally, the quality of secondary reports that had been prepared from the original documents was assessed. Reliability Theory was then used to derive an equation expressing the reliability of a report. One hundred sixty (160) sightings from Japan, France, Venezuela, and the U.S.A. were selected and analysed. (2)
In 1961, a large, spherical object was observed by a famous television commentator and hundreds of other people. It hovered over the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, at two different altitudes before moving away rapidly to the south. It was apparently metallic with a steady green light on top and flashing red lights on the bottom. Just above its equator was a row of windows. The Reliability Index for this sighting turned out to be in excess of 0.999! In other words, one can be well assured that this incident took place according to the reports, although absolute certainty is ruled out. Even the structural details of UFOs, such as the windows in this instance, must be taken seriously when they are included in highly reliable reports.
Other interesting sightings whose Reliability Indices were also found to be greater than 0.999 are summarized below:
a. Bright light on shadowy object. Confirmed by radar. Scrambled jet fighter had radar lock-on. UFO broke into
3
.
three pieces that all flew away. b. Rigid submarine-shaped cloud with metallic disc spiraling around it. Disc flew over a four mile area then returned to the "submarine."
c. Bright, cigar-shaped object with windows. Hovered then left rapidly. Emitted strong strands or fibers that evaporated upon touch and stained hands.
d. Ovoid, aluminum-colored object. Landed on a hill. Grass flattened in rough circle 60 ft in diameter. Moved as a white cloud with fuzzy edges.
e. Two convex, disc-shaped objects near a large balloon. Speed changes and extremely fast departure. Size estimated between 200 and 300 ft.
f. Night lights in rigid pattern. Approached, hovered, then flew away. Inferred size about 150 ft. No structure discernible but impression of metallic surface. Car could not catch it upon departure.
g. Bright glowing object proceeding over hills in undulatory path.
These examples are especially important because they are quite typical UFO reports. It would be difficult to dismiss these events or to interpret them in any way other than at face value.
One word of caution: A report is not proven to be fraudulent even though it may warrant a low Reliability Index. A single witness who is neither technically trained nor professionally involved in aerial observations would rank low on the reliability scale. Yet a sharp-eyed farmer from Pennsylvania would be perfectly capable of reporting a sighting with sincerity and accuracy. Consequently, all reports should be studied without prejudice, unless of course, a hoax or misinterpretation has been proven in a particular instance. Only on this basis can the maximum amount of information be brought to bear upon the perplexing problem of UFOs.
.
4
Air Force Experience The involvement of the U.S. Air Force in the UFO phenomenon is practically synonymous with the modern history of UFOs. It is a long and intricate story. As previous authors have handled that subject expertly, it will be omitted here. (3) Let it suffice to recall that Air Force investigations were handled by an office at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio under various code names, the latest and longest-lived being Project Blue Book. The period of active investigation began in the summer of 1947 and continued until December 1969, at which time the Air Force disbanded the investigative team and stored its UFO files.(4)
The general impression left by this activity was that all UFOs had been explained in terms of familiar things. But hardly anything could be further from the truth. According to Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, former head of Project Blue Book, a panel of distinguished scientists was convened in 1953 to consider, among other possibilities, if UFOs were interplanetary space craft. (5) By that time, an analysis of 1,593 sightings had been prepared for their examination. Considerable effort had been expended in attempts to determine what familiar entity might have stimulated each report. Many reports were definitely established as having been confused observations of airplanes, balloons, astronomical bodies, etc. Yet there remained 26.94%, or 429 cases, that were "Unknowns." If the stimulus for an observation could have reasonably been an airplane, the case was tagged as "Probable" airplane. If it were remotely possible that the witness could have been viewing an airplane, the case was tagged "Possible" airplane. Other interesting pigeon holes for parking hoary sightings were labeled "Psychological" and "Insufficient Data." The appellation "Unknown" did not mean that the object of the report had merely not been identified. Rather, it represented a definite conclusion that the object was unknown. While the above 429 cases were admitted to be unidentified, the actual number
5

was very likely much greater. For example, airplanes were alleged to be the explanation of 11.76% of the sightings. Yet most of the cases in that category were not confirmed as airplanes, and were assigned the subcategories of "Probable" and "Possible" airplanes. By adding all the cases in every category in which identity was definitely established, one finds that only 11.21%, or 179 cases, were actually identified. In other words, 88.79% were not identified. The situation was evidently worse than that, because in Ruppelt's own words, "About 4,400 had actually been received." Most of these were rejected before the Air Force percentages were calculated. Considering that only 179 cases out of the original 4,400 were conclusively identified, it is obvious that only about 4% of the reports were explained. The remainder were not explained. But even accepting the Air Force figure of 179 "Unknowns" gives a clear message: they had plenty of UFOs.
Published data for subsequent years indicate that Blue Book handled several hundred reports each year, running from a low of 378 in 1959 to a high of 982 in 1957. (6)Their performance seemed to improve as the percentages of "Unknowns" fell from around 8-to-l0% in the early period down to about 2% in 1965. There were obviously so many arbitrary aspects to this numbers game that little meaningful information can be extracted from the tabulated results. It is clear, however, that the Air Force had its hands full of UFOs and officially said so.
Residue in Colorado
In the fall of 1966, an independent study of UFOs was undertaken by a staff of scientists at the University of Colorado under the direction of Dr. Edward U. Condon. This distinguished physicist had previously served the U.S. as head of the National Bureau of Standards and had been elected by his peers to the presidency of both the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Initial funding of about $260,000 for the project was eventually extended to over half a
6

million dollars. Results of the study were published in a tome with more than its share of heavy, technical jargon. Certainly more people have scanned newspaper summaries of its findings than have studied the full report. Several hundred UFO sightings were considered by the scientists, but attention was focused upon 59 individual examples for in-depth analysis. One of the more widely circulated quotations from Condon was the general conclusion that "nothing has come from the study of UFOs in the past 21 years that has added to scientific knowledge." (7) He further elaborated "that further extensive study of UFOs probably cannot be justified in the expectation that science will be advanced thereby." These appraisals were largely responsible for the sharp decline in interest in UFOs, the reluctance on the part of news media to publish subsequent sightings, and the folding of Project Blue Book. An overwhelming mass of technical detail was assembled in the report. Much of it is most helpful in the study of UFOs, but some curious aspects are found in the case studies.
.
In analyzing a famous sighting that occurred in McMinnville, Oregon, and the photographs taken by the witnesses, all the factors that were considered appeared "to be consistent with the assertion that an extraordinary flying object, silvery, metallic, disc-shaped, tens of meters in diameter, and evidently artificial, flew within sight of two witnesses." (8) That sounds very similar to an ordinary UFO.
In another instance, a white, rapidly moving object was observed visually and confirmed simultaneously by air traffic control radars at two Air Force bases. A scrambled jet fighter, vectored to the object, reported a radar lock-on. The UFO circled behind the jet and stuck with it through evasive maneuvers. The Condon report devoted eight pages to evaluating this incident and concluded that ". . . the probability that at least one genuine UFO was involved appears to be fairly high" (9) How interesting!
On still another occasion, one of three lights maneuvering over a school flew silently toward three women and an 11-year-old girl and stopped overhead at an altitude between 20 and 30 ft. It was described as a solid disc about the size of a car. That an unusual
.
7
object was flying over the school was verified by two policemen who had responded to a telephone call. Most of this sighting was ascribed to the planet Jupiter except that the conclusion stated "No explanation is attempted to account for the close UFO encounter reported by three women and a young girl." (10) How quaint!
Actually, no more than 25%of the cases studied by the Condon team were successfully identified. Here is another official pronouncement that indicates the existence of unknowns in stark contrast to the general impression that there are no such things. It should be observed that this study did not undertake a systematic examination of the many thousands of cases on record at Project Blue Book, nor the approximately 700 cases that had been at that time officially designated as "Unknowns."
Civilian Groups
Probably the most effective work in the UFO field has been conducted by unofficial, civilian organizations. Most notable among these are the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena of Washington, D.C., founded by Major Donald Keyhoe, and the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization of Tucson, Arizona, founded by Coral and Jim Lorenzen. The number of cases of unexplained observations is enormous, and many of them have been well researched. It is estimated that the files of these organizations amount to 15,000 and 10,000 cases, respectively, with very limited overlap or duplication. Although publications issued by these organizations were reviewed during the Colorado study, these reservoirs of information on UFOs were not consulted.
Scientific Analysis
One of the most prominent and respected individuals of long term association with UFOs is Dr. J. Allen Hynek. Dr. Hynek is a noted astronomer at Northwestern University and is in charge of
.
8
the Dearborn Observatory. He is best known to the public through his role as a civilian consultant to the Air Force during its investigations of UFOs. It is most instructive to trace the evolution of his views. He was initially called upon to examine reports received by the Air Force to determine which ones might be instances of astronomical objects causing UFO reports. Apparently quite a few people thought that Venus, other planets, or astronomical objects were UFOs. Of the first 237 reports received by the Air Force and analyzed by Hynek, approximately one-third appeared to be of astronomical origin. (11) The remaining two-thirds, apparently not associated with astronomical displays, were about equally divided between those for which some reasonable explanation was suggested by the nature of the report and those for which no explanation was evident. At that time, Hynek had a low opinion for the concept of UFOs and "regarded the whole subject as rank nonsense, the product of silly seasons, and a peculiarly American craze that would run its course as all popular crazes do." (12) During the middle years of his association with the Air Force, however, he became troubled by a hard core of reports that continued to defy explanations in common terms. In a magazine article he listed outer space as a possible source of the unidentified objects and called for serious, scientific study of UFOs. (13) In an open letter to his scientific colleagues he "strongly urged the Air Force to ask physical and social scientists of stature to make a respectable, scholarly study of the UFO phenomenon." (14)  He went on to say that he could not shrug off the UFO problem because the unexplained cases contained "frequent allusions to recurrent kinematic, geometric, and luminescent characteristics," a point that will take on extraordinary significance in later chapters. Before the Committee of Science and Astronautics of the U.S. House of Representatives he pressed his suggestion ". . . that there is scientific pay dirt in the UFO phenomenon - possibly extremely valuable pay dirt - and that therefore a scientific effort on a much larger scale than any heretofore should be mounted for a frontal attack on this problem." (15) The following year, a similar appeal for action was issued at a session devoted to UFOs at the annual meeting of the
9

.
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (16) Eventually, Dr. Hynek published the findings of his own scientific analysis of UFOs. (17) As a point of conservatism, he rejected any report submitted by a single witness and studied selected multi-witness cases in which he had been personally involved. His conclusions should be convincing to the most skeptical reader. He finds that disc-shaped, metallic craft of unknown origin are flying around during the daytime. At night, their presence is indicated by peculiar lights moving in typically jerky patterns. From sightings at close range he discloses a) some structural details of the craft, b) physical evidence that they have le£t on tile ground, and c) human-like creatures occupying the craft. To say the least, this book should be on every must-read list.
Springboard to Discovery
Some UFO reports have been found to be extremely reliable by methods that are technically sound and employed extensively in other fields. The Air Force, in effect, has been telling the public for many years that UFOs have been flying around in great numbers. This point was confirmed by an expensive, independent study conducted by scientists at the University of Colorado. Civilian groups have been collecting and investigating UFO reports by the tens of thousands and have written highly reputable books about them. A leading astronomer who has been professionally associated with the subject for 25 years found that his original attitude of scoffing at UFOs was gradually replaced by the conclusion, established by scientific means, that UFOs are real. It would seem that these factors lend a reasonable basis for adopting the reality of UFOs as a tentative perspective. If they are some strange kind of craft, a considerable amount of detail about them might be discovered by careful attention to what the witnesses have said.
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Chapter 1 - Footnotes 1. See article, "Reliability of Equipment and Bibliography, McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science
    and Technology, Vol II, p. 471, 1971.
2. Olsen, Thomas M., Editor, The Reference For Outstanding UFO Sighting Reports, UFO
    information Retrieval Center, Inc., Riderwook, Maryland, November, 1966.
3. For example, a comprehensive history may be found in the following book although the author
    apparently concluded that the golden era of UFOs had come to an end about 1970.
    Flammonde, Paris, The Age of Flying Saucers, Notes on a Projected History of Unidentified
    Flying Objects, Hawthorn, 1971.
4. In 1969, the American Association for the Advancement of Science resolved that the Blue
    Book files should be preserved and forwarded a recommendation to that effect to the
    Secretary of the Air Force.
5. Ruppelt, Edward J., The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, Ace, p. 275 ff, 1956. It is
    also enlightening to examine the formerly classified reports issued by Blue Book in United
    States Air Force, Projects Grudge and Blue Book Reports 1-12,, assembled and republished
    by National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1968.
6. The annual breakdown of Blue Book evaluations from 1953 through 1965 were tabulated in
    Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p.521, Dutton, 1969.
7. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects. p.1, Dutton, 1969.
8. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects. p. 407, Dutton, 1969.
9. Condon, Edward U. ,Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 265, Dutton, 1969.
10. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 270, Dutton, 1969.
11. Hynek, J. Allen, The UFO Experience-A Scientific Inquiry, p. 179, Regnery, 1972.
12. Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, Hynek, J. Allen, Statement to the Committee on
      Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninetieth Congress, p.4, U.S.
      Government Printing Office. July 29, 1968.
13. Hynek, J. Allen, "Flying Saucers-Are They Real?"  The Saturday Evening Post,  December 17, 1966.
14. Hynek. J. Allen, "UFO's Merit Scientific Study," Letter to Science. 21, October, 1966.
15. Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, Hynek, J. Allen, Statement to the Committee on
      Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representa tives, Ninetieth Congress, p.14, U.S.
      Government Printing Office, July 29, 1968.
16. Hynek, J. Allen, "The Earth, The Solar System, and the Cosmos;" Unidentified Flying
      Objects, Session II: UFO Reports, Audiotape Program, 136th Meeting, American
      Association for the Advancement of Science, December, 1969. Transcript published in
      UFOs, A Scientific Debate, Sagan, C. and Page, T., Editors, Cornell University Press, 1972.
17. Hynek, J. Allen, The UFO Experience, A Scientific Inquiry, Regency, 1972.  ----------------------------------------------
........ the scientific world at large is in for a shock when it becomes aware of the astonishingnature of the UFO phenomenon and  its bewildering
complexity.
                                                 - James E. McDonald
CHAPTER 2
.
THE VEHICLES
  
The belief that people are poor observers is widely held; they are easily mistaken about what they have seen, or they fail to notice details correctly. Experiments by psychologists, on the contrary, have shown that the inherent ability of people to absorb visual information is very great. Subjects in one experiment were shown 600 different pictures in rapid succession. Shortly thereafter they were able to identify new ones that had been added to the collection, with an average accuracy over 98%. Their score fell to only 92% when the test was delayed for one week. Not only is the power of visual recognition evidently quite strong for most people, their retention is also good, at least for short periods. In discussing UFO sightings before a Congressional Committee, a noted psychologist explained that, even in unexpected and stressful situations, ". . . the average witness often retains an accurate, almost photographic record of the event." (1) A person's recollection of an event can be recovered in considerable detail on the basis of recognition. The victim of a criminal attack, for example, may recognize his assailant in a line-up although he may be unable to describe him accurately. Similarly, the use of graded sketches of eyes, noses, and mouths permits a witness,
11

with the help of a police artist, to develop a satisfactory portrait of a suspect that could not be done solely from a description. People simply are limited in their ability to describe what they have seen or to communicate an experience. Because advanced psychological techniques involving recognition have seldom been employed in eliciting information from UFO witnesses, the available data is handicapped by being almost exclusively descriptive in nature. This fact has undoubtedly frustrated progress in this field.
Discs
Nine large discs flying near Mt. Rainier, Washington, set off the modern hubbub about UFOs. They were sighted by businessman Kenneth Arnold from his own plane in June 1947. He estimated that they were 100 ft in diameter and traveling at least 1,200 miles per hour.(2) These objects resembled pie plates, but news paper accounts of "flying saucers" introduced a new expression into English. The term eventually became obsolete, however, as people began reporting objects with shapes very unlike saucers: the more generic term "unidentified flying objects" became more suitable.
Even a cursory examination of a file of sighting reports will impress the researcher that most of the objects appeared to be discs. Seldom will the descriptions be entirely clear, and some will admit alternative interpretations. An object described merely as "round" may have been a disc, but it may also have been a sphere, or a cylinder viewed from one end. An object may have appeared "oval shaped," while in reality it was only a disc that was tipped slightly off the line of vision. It is not always easy to establish the exact shape of the reported objects, nor even to select several categories of shapes that are mutually exclusive and free from ambiguity. At any rate, the disc-shaped UFO with a diameter about 10 times its thickness is almost universally accepted as standard. This point was raised in an Air Force report (3) as early as 1949, and it has been verified by several statistical studies. Because various and non-compatible categories were
.
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selected in the independent studies, results cannot be directly compared. However, the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena found that the discs in Air Force cases through 1963 ranged from 26% to 56%, depending upon several reasonable assumptions regarding the ambiguities just mentioned. (4) The author independently analyzed 447 short-range sightings that occurred in the decade from November 23, 1958, through November 22, 1968. These sightings should have provided the witnesses excellent opportunities to observe the shapes. In 77 instances in which the shapes were noted, roughly 50%of the objects appeared to be discs. (5) A similar result may be calculated from still another study, although it is extremely difficult to determine which of the 33 categories used in it should be taken as discs. (6)
The most important contribution of this last investigation is an organized disclosure of different types of UFOs within the general category of discs. One must be cautious here, for while the primary common feature is axial symmetry in the vertical direction, some of the shapes could easily be labeled something other than "disc." The researcher obtained 150 photographs of UFOs from which were culled those showing mere blobs of light devoid of any details. He then made sketches of the remaining 63 objects at the same scale, and suppressing all backgrounds, assembled the images in a single diagram. Rather than displaying a general uniformity or a clustering of a few types as would be expected, these sketches show a wide diversity of appearances.
One object had been photographed at different angles by the same witness. In a few other instances, the same type of UFO had apparently been photographed by different people at different places and times. Of special interest in this regard is a photograph taken at McMinnville, Oregon, in June 1950 that stumped the Condon staff. An almost identical object was photographed by a French military pilot near Rouen, France, in March 1954. Another pair of photographs also seem to depict the same type of object that is easily distinguishable from the McMinnville-Rouen pair. One of these pictures was taken near Rio de Janeiro in May,
.
13
1952, while the other was taken from a fighter plane in Argentina about 2 years later.
Also included in the 63 diagrams were 7 instances in which hoaxes were suspected or had been proved. Setting these cases aside, along with the duplications above, still leaves a total of about 500 different UFO models in this general category. Variations of shape in this category that appear to be most common are:
      a)    Discs having one or both sides that are convex, thus resembling either a discus or
             a lens, and
      b)    Discs with a dome on the top sometimes giving the appearance of a hat or a World
             War I helmet.
Fuselages
A famous sighting that was carried by Project Blue Book as an "unknown" took place early one morning in the spring of 1966. While driving near Temple, Oklahoma, a man had to stop his car because a large object was blocking the highway. Its shape reminded him of the fuselage of a Douglas C-124 Globemaster. He could detect no appendages, such as wings, engines, or tail, although there was a transparent blister on the top. Its surface was very smooth. As the witness approached, the object rose into the air and departed at high speed. (7) During the summer of 1973, a similar object was observed from a distance of a city block as it hovered and maneuvered over Macon, Georgia. Five people described it as a "long tube" like a cigar, being larger than a light plane but smaller than a Boeing 727. (8)  According to the previous statistical studies, these elongated UFOs apparently account for about 10% of all sightings. They have been aptly compared to airplane bodies as more explicit descriptions have indicated that they are rather blunt on one end but somewhat tapered on the other.
Spheres
Throughout the spring of 1973, hundreds of sightings were reported in southern Missouri. Notices of this activity were
14
carried in specialty periodicals, but few, if any, metropolitan newspapers commented on it. (9) Several teams of investigators converged upon the area, including the principals of the International UFO Bureau. These investigators, during a total of 11 days of research over a period of several weeks, located 200 people who had seen a UFO and tape recorded interviews with them. They, themselves, also experienced two sightings. On one occasion, the relative size of the object was compared to a pea held at arms length, giving ample opportunity to observe its shape, to discern some structural details, and to estimate its size. It was a sphere about 15 ft in diameter. (10)
Near the end of the war in Vietnam a spherical object with a luminous, orange glow was sighted at high altitude over Hanoi where it remained nearly stationary for about an hour and a half. Thinking that some kind of air raid was imminent, the North Vietnamese fired three anti-aircraft missiles at it. They were completely ineffective, however, as none could reach the extreme altitude of the spherical UFO. (11)
These two examples will illustrate the dozens of reports of this relatively common type. They seem to be most often perfectly spherical but some variations occur, as follows:
      a)    Flattened spheres or spheroids, and
      b)    Spheres with a flange around the equator like the rings of Saturn.
Potpourri
Witnesses have used a wide assortment of words and comparisons in describing UFOs. While some of them may be synonyms for the major types discussed above, it appears that many are not. Because some of the more odd-ball expressions have been used several times in widely scattered sightings, the descriptions are more likely to be valid than mere bumbling attempts at communication. Typical, but rarely occurring, examples are:
football, water tank, dumbbell, plates rim-to-rim, oval, mushroom, egg, toy top, diamond, parachute, cone, cushion,
hamburger sandwich, lampshade.
 .
15
.
Assuming that a few of these allusions are moderately accurate leads to a proliferation of UFO models that begins to stretch the imagination. But that discomfort is an inadequate basis for discounting the record. A native boy, suddenly transported from the familiar bush of his homeland to a freeway in Los Angeles, would be amazed at the diversity of vehicles passing by. He might quickly realize that part of the reason was related to their different purposes. He could see that the size of the load was important, pickup trucks and huge trailer rigs being used to haul different amounts of freight. Similarly for the number of passengers carried by sports cars versus buses. Much less obvious to him would be the very important influence of competition among the manufacturers and personal preference of the buyers concerning economy, image, and convenience. This little allegory cannot explain the multiplicity of UFO types. It should serve, however, to prevent a setback in an investigation proven to be uncomfortably complex. It is known, at least, that highly specialized vehicles may display weird configurations. Consider the Lunar Excursion Module. It is designed exclusively to lower two men gently onto the surface of the moon and lift them back into lunar orbit for a rendezvous with a companion vehicle. Major determinants of its design are the need to fly in a vacuum and a gravitational field that is only one-sixth that on earth. By its ungainly aspect it mimics a giant insect much better than a proper spacecraft.
Size
Another old bugbear has plagued the study of UFOs: theoretically, the size of an unknown object flying through the sky at a
16
considerable distance cannot be judged at all. A relatively small object at short range may subtend the same angle at the observer's eye as a larger object farther away. Without some additional point of reference, therefore, the estimated size of a UFO is of little value. But the circumstances of many sightings provide the necessary clues. Very great distance is suggested when an object is obscured by atmospheric haze in comparison to another whose distance is known. Also, the relationship of a UFO to its surroundings often helps. A UFO may be seen rising from behind a row of trees, passing in front of a mountain range, hovering under a cloud bank, or fleeing from a military jet. For limited ranges, the depth perception afforded by having two eyes provides a subjective measure of the distance. Disturbances on the ground directly under a UFO may be located. At low altitude, the width of a UFO can be readily assessed if it is seen to block a two-lane highway. Marks left on the ground by a landed UFO are a very reliable basis for judging its size. As these reference points have been involved in thousands of sightings, the data on UFO sizes is far from meaningless, especially when they are derived from close-hand observations.
One would expect the conventional methods of statistics to be most helpful in analyzing the size data. By separating cases involving only discs, for example, one should discover estimated sizes clustering about the actual dimensions of several different models. But that has not been the author's experience. The data simply display no such tendency. Contamination of the sample is suspected to be the cause of this difficulty, namely, unwitting inclusion of various types of UFOs within a particular classification. In addition, people are known to be rather poor at estimating dimensions.
The diameters of discs, nevertheless, have been estimated to cover the enormous range from about 2 ft to 300 ft. Familiar objects with corresponding dimensions would be a large serving tray and a football field. But let there be no mistake here, several different models of UFOs are involved and this disparity has nothing to do with human error. Other shapes have also been estimated at various sizes:
17


Shape Dimension (feet) Range Of Size (feet)
Cylinder length 12 to 210
Egg length 9 to 75
Sphere diameter 6 to 21

Perhaps this situation would come into sharper focus with a large-scale analysis of the data using a computer. For the present, one can only depend upon the most reliable estimates made at close range and a general acquaintance with the literature. References are regrettably omitted here because of the prodigious scale of the data-retrieval problem. The primary UFO types appear to be:
PROBES:
Spheres and discs between 1- and 3-ft diameter that are almost certainly sensing devices, either preprogrammed or remotely controlled. They have been seen to emerge from standard craft, fly around for extended periods, then return for pick up. The kind of measurements that they take can only be guessed.
SMALL:
Three principal types eventually belong to this group;
a) An egg-shaped machine about 6- to 8-ft long that flies with the long axis vertical, comparable in size to a compact sedan.
b) An elongated cylinder without external appendages that flies in the direction of its axis, comparable in size to the body of a jet fighter.
c) A spherical object about 15 ft in diameter.
STANDARD:
This group, accounting for about half the sightings is dominated by the basic disc with numerous variations. Most common size is about 25-  to 35-ft diameter.
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          LARGE:
          Several different types. Most frequently reported is a disc about 100 ft diameter. An
          even larger one, several stories tall inside, probably has a diameter between 250- and
          300-ft. A large cigar-shaped craft should also be included here.           CARRIER:
          Seen only at very high altitude is a gigantic, cigar-shaped machine that is probably twice
          as large as an aircraft carrier and, perhaps, as much as 1 mile in length. Smaller craft have
          been seen to be discharged from them in large numbers.
Structural Details
Usually, the exterior surface of UFOs is reported to be extremely smooth. Many witnesses have commented upon this aspect, expressing surprise that they were unable to detect any line of adjoining plates on the surface or any rivets. In a few instances, a door has been seen to open in the side where the witness could not detect an outline before it started to move. Also, upon closing, the line demarking the door opening could no longer be discerned, although the witness was only a few feet away. (12) This characteristic of the surface may be related to electrical conduction in the skin as explored in a later chapter.
The exterior surface is not normally broken by any kind of structural feature although openings have been observed in great numbers. In a study of 50 such cases, openings were shown to be usually round or rectangular but sometimes of irregular shape. Their arrangement occurred in different patterns on different types of UFOs. (13)  These windows seem to be most common on the fuselage-shaped vehicles,. usually being dispersed in a single row of 4 or 5 along the side. The number, shape, and location of windows seems to vary considerably on other types. A thorough study of this detail should help to delineate specific UFO models, but again, this task would be too cumbersome without a computer.
19
A most interesting feature on some models is an elevator that is lowered while the UFO remains hovering several feet above the ground. This detail is so unique that it alone may isolate a particular type. These vehicles have evidently visited West Virginia (1965), Minnesota (1967), and Nebraska (1967). (14) It is quite possible that a careful plot of similar sightings in which all factors were compatible would reconstruct the itinerary of an individual craft.
The literature is full of accounts of other structural elements such as landing gear, stairways, balustrades, and antennas. More than once, people have looked in the windows of landed vehicles to discover chairs, benches, tables, lights, and control consoles. Others have gone inside. This very important area should receive much more attention than it has in the past.
.
20
Footnotes: Chapter  2 1. Shepard, Roger N., "Some Psychological Techniques For The Scientific Investigation of
    Unidentified Aerial Phenomena," Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, Hearings
    before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives,
    Ninetieth Congress, Second Edition, p.226, U.S. Government Printing office, July 29, 1968.
2. Keyhoe, Donald E., Flying Saucers From Outer Space, p.31, Holt, 1953.
3. Project Grudge Report No. l02-AC-49/15-lOO, U.S. Air Force, 1949, quoted in Hall,
    Richard H., Editor, The UFO Evidence, p.143, National Investigations Committee on Aerial
    Phenomena, 1964.
4. Hall, Richard H., Editor, The UFO Evidence, p.143, National Investigations Committee on
    Aerial Phenomena, 1964.
5. Data extracted from case summaries in Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia, p.273 ff,
    Regnery, 1969. Considering synonyms as indicated by the "equal" marks, the selected
    categories and the number of instances assigned to them were:
* Disc round 31
   Egg = oval  7
   Cylinder = cigar = elongated = fuselage 13
   Hemisphere = dome = helmet 5
* Plate = saucer 5
* Lip-to-lip dishes 4
   Cone 2
   Sphere 3
   Mushroom 3
   Top 1
   Lampshade 1
* These categories were all considered to be discs.
6. Shepard, Roger N., "Some Psychological Techniques For The Scientific Investigation of
    Unidentified Aerial Phenomena," Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, Hearings before
    the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninetieth
    Congress, Second Edition, p.232, U.S. Government Printing Office, July 29, 1968.
7. Complete Directory of UFOs, An illustrated History of Unexplained Sightings From Project
    Blue Book, The Official Guide to UFOs, p.47, Science and Mechanics Publishing Company,
    1968.
8. Personal communication.
9. Missouri UFO Still on the Scene, UFO Investigator, p. 2, National Investigations Committee
    on Aerial Phenomena, May, 1973.
10. Hewes, Hayden C., Earthprobe, published by International UFO Bureau, P.O. Box 1281,
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73101, 1973.
11. San Francisco Chronicle, September 30, 1972.
12. Vallee, Jacques, Passport To Magonia, p.24, Regnery, 1969.
13. Hall, Richard E., Editor, The UFO Evidence, p.145., National Investigations Committee on
      Aerial Phenomena, 1964.
14. Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia, Appendix Cases 644, 812, and 902, Regnery, 1969.
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