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.

POSTS BY SUBJECT

POSTS BY SUBJECT

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Monday, March 26, 2012

UFOs - James M. McCampbell - UFOLOGY -FULL BOOK (3)

A  new fact is battling strenuously
 for access to your ears. A new
 aspect of the universe is striving
to reveal itself. But no fact is so
simple that it is not harder to
believe than to doubt at the first
presentation.
- Lucretius CHAPTER 4
SOUNDS
 Whether hovering motionless, gliding along at tree-top level, or cruising across the sky, UFOs are notably silent. Astonished witnesses often report that they were certainly close enough to have heard a conventional aircraft. Of course, they expected to hear the sounds generated by the engines, jet exhaust, or propellers, all of which are associated with the means of flight. The lack of such sounds from UFOs clearly indicates that their propulsion systems are unique and unconventional. Even at supersonic speeds, when airplanes invariably produce sonic booms, UFOs remain silent. A physical basis for this unusual performance will become apparent in a later chapter. While the familiar noise of flight is not associated with UFOs, they are known to produce some sounds. In 103 instances of close encounters during the decade 1958-68, witnesses reported hearing sounds and attempted to describe them. (1) As sounds are very difficult to describe, it is not surprising to find that a wide variety of expressions were used. Imagine the sound of a quarter dropping into a coffee can and the numerous adjectives or comparisons that would be evoked from several people in the next room. Further suppose that several different sounds occurred simultaneously, such as
.
46
slamming a car door and spinning a New Year's noise-maker. Several people called upon to describe this racket would produce a bewildering assortment of words. A reasonable understanding of what they were trying to communicate would require that expressions pertaining to each component of the sounds first be isolated. Then some concept of the sources could be developed from the various expressions and allusions for each component.
While some of the adjectives used by witnesses, such as "dull" and "strange," are essentially without meaning, most of them can be associated with a limited number of different sounds having distinctive characteristics. The following table organizes nearly all the statements by the witnesses into five general categories depending upon the type of sounds that they attempted to describe.
 
Violent Low Pitch Rush Of Air High Pitch Signals
bang hum whoosh shrill whir beeping
loud explosion low hum swishing high pitch modulated whistle
thundering roar low buzz rushing high pitched hum signal- like noise
deafening roar humming hissing high speed drill strange pulsing
shock wave buzzing wings shrieking shrill beeping
blast swarm of bees fluttering strong whistling -
roar humming bees - loud turbine -
- generator - whine -
- electric motor - piercing whistle -
- whirring - jet -
- strange vibrations - whistling -
- - - painful -
- - - truck on wet cement -
                                                    (______________________________________________________________)
                                                                       transformer and wind                     vacuum cleaner
    (____________________________________________________________________________________)
                                                        whistling, roar and bangs
  It is interesting and reassuring that the descriptions by three witnesses encompassed combinations of the selected categories. For example, an allusion to a "vacuum cleaner" clearly refers to the combination of the noise from rushing air and the high-
47

pitched whine of a turbine. These combinations are designated in the table by lines curving upward toward the appropriate category.
Violent Noises
Two subtypes of violent sounds are clearly discerned - an instantaneous explosion like a shock wave and a loud, continuous noise. These occurred as "it touched the ground," "upon rising" from a low altitude, during "30 seconds before takeoff," and as a UFO "left with a roar and a series of bangs." It appears that these sounds are directly related to the application of power for rapid acceleration or deceleration but they should not be confused with the normally silent landing and liftoff. A large UFO at a distance of 700 meters from a witness was slowly cruising at an estimated 80 km/hr, certainly subsonic; about three seconds after an intense blue light came on, the witness heard a "shock wave.''- If the blue light generated a compression wave, it would travel at approximately 1100 ft/sec and reach the witness in just over two seconds. This internal consistency supports a general association between the blue light and the shock wave and the technical implications will be explored later in an analysis of propulsion.
Humming
The second category of sounds, typified as humming, denotes a low level that would not be heard at great distances. The allusion to bees is significant as it provides a specific basis for estimating the frequency or pitch of the sound. Of course, the humming noise of a flying bee comes from the wing beat of about 270 times per second, (3) corresponding closely to the musical note of middle C. Much lower tones, also referred to as humming, are generated by hummingbirds, specifically for the ruby-throated variety, at 70 beats per second for the female and 50 for the smaller male. (4) These tones correspond approximately to the C below the bass clef and the next lower G. They are certainly consistent with the
48

60-or 120-cycle hum produced by electrical apparatus mentioned by several witnesses. It would seem farfetched to search for other causes of this sound when electrical machinery will do so nicely. In view of the brightly lighted interior of UFOs, their numerous navigation lights, and occasional intense beams, a source of electrical power is required. One witness might even be taken at his word, namely, it sounded like a "generator."
Implied in the discussion thus far is the assumption that witnesses heard the humming sound in the normal fashion, namely, by the pressure of sound waves on the eardrum being transmitted by the bony structure of the inner ear to stimulate the auditory nerve. Any possible alternatives should be taken into account. It was suggested previously that UFOs emit high frequency, electromagnetic radiation that, like radar, would have no effect upon the eardrum. However, medical experiments have shown that some people can hear modulated, radio-frequency energy that they interpret as a "buzzing or knocking" sound. All subjects felt that the sound originated behind their heads regardless of the actual location. (5) Apparently, the pulsed energy bypasses the ear structure and induces signals directly in the auditory nerve. The physical reality of this mechanism was demonstrated when microelectrodes were inserted into a single nerve fiber with subsequent exposure to microwaves, electromagnetic energy in the range of 200 to 3,000 megacycles per second. Electrical potentials from millivolts up to 0.10 volts were measured between the inside and outside of the surface membrane. (6) As these tests were conducted with modulated microwaves it is obvious that the subjects were sensing the pulses of energy, not the carrier frequency. Pulse repetition rates as low as 160 per second are used on the FPS 16 radar at Jodrell Bank, England, (7) and rates as low as 300 per second appear to be common. (8) Thus the buzzing sound heard from UFOs may be stimulated directly within the head of the witnesses by high-frequency radiation being pulsed at a low, audio rate.
In passing, it is noted that voice modulation of microwaves might be developed to communicate with totally deaf people
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whose ear structure has been destroyed but whose auditory nerve is still intact. Should such prove to be possible and safe, one could also transmit a voice signal some distance on a microwave beam to a person without an electronic receiver. As shall be seen later, something like this may be a part of the total UFO phenomenon.
Rush of Air
Now to the third category of UFO sounds, something similar to the rush of air. Because of the consistency of the descriptions, the sound seems to be well-enough identified but there are no clues to its cause. At this stage of investigation, it can only be guessed that the sound is emitted by agitated molecules in an ionized "skin effect" on the surface of the vehicle. In the electrical breakdown of air along a high-voltage transmission line, called corona, a glow can be seen in the dark and a "hissing" sound becomes audible. (9) A similar electrical discharge may account for the sound of this general type.
High Pitch
It would be of interest and possible value to establish an approximate frequency range for the sound that is characterized by high pitch. At first glance, a "truck on wet pavement" seems to offer little help but it is a useful springboard for understanding the intent of the witness in technical terms. This vague reference is assuredly related to the reaction of the tire tread on the road surface. In seeking a technical interpretation, it can be estimated that the characteristic dimension between elements of a typical tread is one-half inch, that a medium-sized truck has tires of about 3-ft diameter, and that the witness is referring to the nominal speed such as 40 m/hr. Under these conditions, the tread elements would impact upon, and release from, the roadway about 1,400 times per second, creating a moderately high-pitched tone roughly equivalent to the F one octave above the treble clef. This
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value can only be considered as a crude estimate as it could easily be off by a factor of 2 to 3 in either direction.
Many of the expressions used to describe this sound, "shrieking," "piercing whistle," and "whine" bring to mind the distressing noise of a jet aircraft as the engines are revved up to taxi away from a loading area or in preparation for take-off. This impression is strongly reinforced by explicit comparisons such as "loud turbine" and even "jet." Apparently the witnesses were attempting to describe the high-pitched scream of the engine rather than the roar of exhaust gases.
Most of the offensive noise from jets is generated by the high-speed rotation of the first stage compressor. It consists of a broad spectrum of noise plus several discrete frequencies related to the engine parts and their speed of rotation. A principal source of discrete frequencies is the siren interaction of the inlet guide vanes and the first stage rotor blades. The fundamental frequency can be calculated as the product of the number of blades on the rotor times its speed of rotation. Typically, 30 blades at 10,000 rpm would produce a fundamental of 5,000 cycles per second. In addition, low-order harmonics of significant intensity could be generated with frequencies up to about 12,000 cycles per second. Thus the high-pitched noise of jet engines is composed of several discrete frequencies in the range of 5,000 to 12,000 cycles per second superimposed upon a broad-band background. (10) Tones corresponding to these discrete frequencies, which are very high, can be described accurately as a "whine" or, for the higher ranges, a "whistle." As a point of reference, a l0-kc whistle can sometimes be heard between stations on AM radio.
As the sound heard by one witness reminded him of a "high speed drill," another basis for estimating the frequency is available. Most high-speed drills are driven by electric motors at about 25,000 rpm, or 420 revolutions per second. (11) Fans are normally attached to the spindle for cooling the motor windings, with 15 blades being typical for small sizes. Thus the fundamental frequency from the fan would be about 6,300 cycles per second, not at all inconsistent with previous estimates. Other drill compo-
51

nents, such as gears and bit, are reduced in speed by as much as 10 to 1 but are not notable noise generators.
From these data one may say that UFOs emit high-pitched sounds in the frequency range of about 1,000 to 10,000 cycles per second, probably consisting of several discrete frequencies. All indications are that the sound is caused by rotating machinery and, in particular, by blades attached thereto. In the absence of contrary indications, one would be tempted to guess that the machinery is somehow related to the propulsion system, but definitely not in the sense of ordinary jets. It might be pointed out that high-frequency sounds are significantly absorbed by the atmosphere, whereas low frequencies are practically unaffected; both are subject to attenuation according to the inverse square law. Atmospheric absorption at 8,000 cycles per second varies from 5 to 10 db per 100 meters, depending upon the temperature and humidity. (12) This selective absorption may explain why the high-pitch component is heard only at close range.
Coded Signals
Strange, signal-like sounds were reported in seven of the 447 close-encounter cases being analyzed. Perusal of the listed expressions suggests that "beeping" is the most descriptive term for this sound. While appearing only once in the above list, it was used on three separate occasions. Simultaneous radio interference was sometimes mentioned although it cannot be confirmed that the strange sound was actually emitted by the radios. In fact, radios were probably not involved. A 10-year-old boy saw a bright, silvery object standing on four legs in a wheat field. He heard a beeping sound just before the object rose from the ground and departed straight up. No radio is mentioned in the report and it seems unlikely that the boy had one in a wheat field. Another similar instance occurred on a beach when a man heard a "modulated whistling" as an object rose off the sand to a height of 20 meters.
In the famous case of Mr. and Mrs. Barney Hill, (13) "beeping"
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52
sounds played an unusually significant role. While on vacation trip through New Hampshire, the Hills saw a large UFO approach from great distance and hover low over a field. Barney, who was driving, stopped the car and got out. Overcome with curiosity, he walked toward the UFO until he could see people inside and, with binoculars, could make out a pair of strange eyes staring at him. He fled in terror. The UFO followed their car for some time as the Hills tried to keep it in sight, excitedly discussing their predicament and experiencing a premonition that the people in the UFO would try to capture them.
"Then suddenly a strange electronic beeping was heard. The car seemed to vibrate with it. It was in irregular rhythm-beep, beep-beep, beep, beep-seeming to come from behind the car, in the direction of the trunk." (14)
Since the apparent source of the sound was behind the Hills, it could not have come from a radio. When asked if the radio was on at the time, Barney replied
"No. My radio was not on. It was so late, and I did not think I could get a station. So when I left Canada, I cut my radio off....I don't play my radio when I'm driving." (15)
Upon hearing the "beeping" sound, the Hills experienced an odd drowsiness. Sometime later, a second series of beeps re turned them to normal. They were unaware of anything between the two series of beeps. Much later, however, intervening events were recalled under hypnosis. The Hills had been captured by occupants of the UFO, taken aboard a gigantic vehicle, and subjected to biomedical experiments for nearly two hours. The Hills had fallen under control of the aliens at the first series of beeps. They were released with a posthypnotic suggestion that they would not remember anything about their experience, then awakened with the second series of beeps.
The onset of amnesia in another case was also triggered by beeping sounds.(16)  A police officer in Nebraska approached to
53
within 14 meters of a UFO on the highway and heard a shrill, beeping sound. He judged that it took only 10 minutes to return to headquarters, although one-half hour had elapsed. Under hypnosis at the University of Colorado, he recalled the events during the 20-minute period of amnesia. A very small person walked toward him from under the UFO and said that he had come to earth from outer space. (17) It may be assumed that the police officer was monitoring his radio at the time of encounter. However, the similarity of his experience with that of the Hills leads one to suspect that the radio was not involved in transmittal of the beeps.
It appears that beeping sounds near UFOs need not, and probably do not, involve radios, and that they are used to induce hypnotic trances, sometimes subjecting the witness to complete control by the UFO pilots. The mechanism for transmittal of the beeps seems to be encoded signals on a high-frequency carrier in the microwave range as suggested by the correlation between the Hills' experience and laboratory experiments on human subjects. Possible use of this mechanism that is more sophisticated than raw beeps is treated in a section on language and communication.
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54
Footnotes: Chapter 4 1.  Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia, Regenery, 1969.
2.  Case 677.
3.  Shaw, Frank R., and Whitehead, Stanley B., Honey Bees and Their Management. Van
     Nostrand, 1951.
4.  Terres, John K., Flashing Wings. The Drama of Bird Flight, p.63, Doubleday, 1968.
5.  Digest of the 1961 international Conference on Medical Electronics, New York, IRE.
6.  Copson, David A., "Microwave Heating, In Freeze-Drying, Electronic Ovens, and Other
     Applications," Chapter 19, Radiation Biology of Microwaves, The AVI Publishing Company,
     1962.
7.  Taylor, Denise, introduction to Radar and Radar Techniques, Philosophical Library, 1966.
8.  Encyclopedia Americana, Vol.23, p.1 lSa, 1971.
9.  Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.8, p.215, 1965.
10. Richter, et al, Noise Reduction of Turbojet Engines. SNECMA, French manufacturer of jet
      engines, bi-lingual text.
11. Personal communication, Black & Decker Manufacturing Company, 1139 Airport Boulevard,
      South San Francisco, California.
12. Richter, et al, Noise Reduction of Turbojet Engines, SNECMA.
13. Case 524.
14. Fuller, John G., The Interrupted Journey, p.33. Dell, 1966.
15. Fuller, John G., The Interrupted Journey. p. 159, Dell, 1966.
16. Case 902.
17. Condon, Edward U. Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, Case 42, Dutton,
      1969. Much more detail on this case is given by Norton, Roy, "World's Most Incredible UFO
      Contact Case," Saga. p. 23-if, April 1970.
------------------------------------------------------
The prospect of being wrong
need not frighten us a bit..... - Alan E. Nourse
 
 
CHAPTER 5
.
ELECTRICAL INTERFERENCE
.
UFOs have been notorious for stopping automobiles at close range. It is relatively common for a motorist, cruising down the highway, to have his engine sputter, lose power, or stop running. At night, the headlights frequently grow dim or go out completely. Also, static is heard on the radio, and it may stop playing. The driver stops at the side of the road and gets out to search for the cause. Only then does he notice a large, glowing disc nearby, commonly hovering at low altitude over his car. These effects are not limited to automobiles, but occur with all kinds of vehicles that are powered by internal combustion engines, except diesels. Incidents of engine interference or failure have been reported for aircraft, motorcycles, trucks, buses, power mowers, tractors, and other farm machinery. In all cases, the engines ran normally after the UFO had departed.
A list of 106 cases of electromagnetic interference by UFOs has been compiled. (1) These examples occurred at scattered locations in North America, South America, Europe, and Australia from August 1945 to November 1963. The age of these reports need not cause concern because they are thoroughly typical of many similar events of more recent years.
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In this list, more than sixty vehicles are reported to have had their engines miss, lose power, or fail completely during the sighting. Simultaneous interference on the radio and/or fading or complete loss of headlights is common. Unfortunately, there is insufficient data to identify the cases that occurred in the daytime when headlights would not be turned on. Nor is it clear in which cases the vehicle was equipped with a radio, or whether any radio was being played. At first glance, the list appears to provide information regarding the relative susceptibility of engines, radios, and headlights to interference by UFOs. One would expect, for example, that upon approaching a UFO a driver would observe the loss of his radio, headlamps, and engine, in that order. But such is not the case. In three instances, the engine, radio, and lights were all affected; in two cases, they all failed, in the third, the engine and radio failed, but the lights only dimmed. While this last case suggests that lights may be the most resistant to UFO interference, several counter-examples belie this notion. In some cases, the lights dimmed or failed while the engine was unaffected. Thus the engines, radios, and lights appear to be roughly equal in their sensitivity to UFOs, a rather surprising observation in view of the extreme sensitivity of radios to ordinary electrical interference. Driving close to power transmission lines which operate at 60 cycles/second usually causes static on the radio without affecting the lights and engine. The implication is clear: the mechanism of UFO interference is something other than low frequency, electromagnetic radiation.
Close examination of the reported cases discloses a gradation effect and suggests that the influence on the vehicle is related to the strength of emanation or proximity to the UFO. One engine missed as the lights flickered - another engine sputtered as the lights only dimmed - a third engine ran normally as static was heard on the radio and the lights dimmed. An expected pattern thus emerges. A weak influence from a UFO at a great distance mildly disturbs the engine, radio, and lights, whereas a stronger influence upon closer approach causes all three to fail completely. In a previous chapter it was shown that the intensity of
56


.
the field radiated by UFOs was also variable; hence, the graduated response could occur while the distance to the UFO remained fixed. Internal Combustion Engines
As everyone knows, the common automotive engine operates by drawing air and vaporized gasoline into a combustion chamber where the mixture is ignited with an electrical spark. Disruption of a running engine by an object at some distance must effectively interfere with the fuel, air, or spark, or any combination thereof. The flow of both fuel and air is a consequence of the piston evacuating the cylinder and drawing air through the carburetor, where it picks up minute droplets of fuel. These functions must continue as long as a vehicle is moving and in gear, whether or not the engine is delivering power. In other words, these two essential functions of a running engine which is pulling a heavy vehicle cannot be stopped by any means short of physically halting the vehicle, like against a concrete overpass. The only way to stop a running engine, therefore, is to disrupt the electrical system. Thus the influence of UFOs upon automobiles is most assuredly electrical or electromagnetic in nature. This inference, based on the effects upon radios, is surely correct. Any doubt on this point is completely dispelled by an unlikely coincidence in Italy in 1954 when a UFO flew over a conventional tractor and a diesel tractor running side by side. The conventional tractor was stopped, but the diesel was not. (2) Similarly in England, the driver of a truck told the police that a hovering UFO knocked out his lights and radio while his diesel engine continued to run. (3)
The above line of reasoning may seem to be very elementary, but it was by no means obvious to the Condon Committee. (4) The primary effort of that investigation into the interference with engines was directed toward experimentally determining the effect of strong magnetic fields upon the components of the electrical system. In very strong fields up to 20,000 gauss, insignificant effects were measured for the spark plugs, battery,
57

and lamp filaments. For the common steel encased coil, the spark was occasionally interrupted at 20,000 gauss. It was concluded that in view of "the magnetic shielding action of the sheet steel in the car body, the strength of the field outside the car would have to be considerably greater than this." Such strong fields would permanently alter the normal magnetic pattern of the car body. Hence, a car exposed to a strong magnetic field supposedly surrounding a UFO would carry a record of the event. Tests were conducted on a car that was alleged to have been stopped by a UFO. Its magnetic pattern was essentially the same as that of another car of the same make and model. The inquiry was dropped at that point with the conclusion that the car had not been exposed to an intense magnetic field. The implication was that it had not been exposed to a UFO, but of course, it may well have been stopped by a UFO without experiencing a strong magnetic field.
Instead of focusing exclusively upon strong magnetic fields, the investigation should have encompassed fluctuating, electromagnetic fields that could have effects upon engines, radios, and headlamps without altering the magnetic signature of the car body. This approach was suggested by David R. Saunders, who held a key position on the project . (5) High-frequency electromagnetic radiation is an excellent candidate for the cause of UFO interference with cars. It might be found capable of inducing high voltage surges in the secondary winding of the coil. The resulting sparks in the cylinders would be completely out of time with the sequence of events required for an engine to run. Timing of the spark is quite critical; an engine will not run if it is only slightly off timing. This mechanism might explain why engines seem to be unusually sensitive to UFO interference. Regarding radios, it is clear that a high frequency field could cause static, or if strong enough, saturate the input circuit, thereby blocking its normal reception. A physical basis for the effect upon headlamps is the increase of resistivity of tungsten in the presence of microwave energy (6) Increasing resistance would reduce the flow of current through the lamp filament thereby diminishing the
.
58
heating. The lamp would grow dim as the temperature dropped, or become entirely extinguished when the current became too low
The "tungsten" effect offers an alternative explanation for engine failure also, in that distributor points, being made of tungsten alloy, would be subject to interference. An increase of resistance would reduce the current in the primary winding of the coil, thus reducing the spark intensity in the secondary winding or eliminating it altogether. As the distributor cap enclosing the points is non-metallic, the absence of good shielding could make the ignition system extremely sensitive to this mechanism. Two more incidental effects, related to vehicles, that must be accounted for by a valid interpretation are a wildly oscillating behavior of both ordinary compasses and magnetic speedometers.
Radios
As mentioned in the previous section, automobile radios, and those installed in other vehicles, such as aircraft, have been disrupted on many occasions by UFOs. It may be assumed that most of them were amplitude modulation (AM) sets, as prior to the mid sixties frequency modulation (FM) receivers in automobiles were comparatively rare. Among the thirty-two cases of radio interference in the Hall list, some did not fail completely but emitted "static," "shrieking," "pulsating," and "roaring." Others produced intelligible signals such as "steady dit-dit-dit," "loud beeping," and "steady dot-dot-dash." Two such sounds were produced by radios in police cars. It appears that standard AM receivers are merely disrupted, whereas a message content is detected in the bandwidth commonly used for police communication. Again, an unusual coincidence provides some confirmation. In November 1957, a Canadian observed the simultaneous failure of his battery radio and a portable shortwave radio as a UFO hovered at low altitude. The regular portable simply failed, but "a single tone was heard on one shortwave frequency." (7)
While the radio interference and the sighting were simultane-
.
59
ous, there is no indication in these cases that the recognizable signals were emitted by the UFO, and there is ample reason to suspect that they were not. Nearly all medium-power marine beacons used for radio navigation, broadcast a steady repetition of dot-dash signals corresponding to a single letter in International Morse Code. A few coastal beacons transmit only a series of dashes, and are sometimes referred to as "beepers." (8) Aeronautical beacons, on the other hand, transmit coded signals of three letters, such as SF0 for San Francisco. (9) Hence, the question arises as to whether one can identify marine beacons that are responsible for the above signals, namely,
 
Signal Letter Vicinity
*** S Kodiak, Alaska
beeping none Hammond, Indiana
**_ U Hobbs, New Mexico
If such exist, they would be tabulated in Radio Navigational Aids, Publication No. 117-A and 117-B, U.S. Navy Hydro graphic Office.
The inference to be drawn here relates to the mechanism of UFO interference. Rather than saturate or block the input circuit, radiant energy from the UFO may be disturbing the highly sensitive tuning adjustment, that is, by detuning the station from that to which it had been previously set. Thus police radios might be picking up signals from the marine band where standard broadcast receivers usually do not. This possibility seems all the more likely from the nearness of the police and marine bands. It seems odd, however, that car radios are not reported to have changed their stations.
The question remains, "How could such a change occur?" The answer may lie in the characteristics of a tuning circuit which is composed of a coil, capacitor, and resistor in series. When stimulated by an alternating voltage, the circuit carries an alternating current of the same frequency. The magnitude of the current depends upon the frequency, and it reaches a maximum
.
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when the stimulating frequency matches the natural, resonant frequency of the circuit. The frequency at which resonance occurs is governed by the values of the electrical elements in the circuit. Hence, the resonant frequency can be changed by modifying one of them; the set is usually tuned by adjusting the capacitance. A particular station is tuned in by adjusting the resonant frequency to correspond to its transmitted carrier. Competing signals from other stations are suppressed because they are out of resonance. (10)
Should the coil in the tuned circuit be exposed to a fluctuating field of high frequency, extraneous currents will be induced in it, thereby altering its normal role in the circuit. Theoretically, the circuit would continue to function but at a different resonant frequency. In other words, the set would be detuned from the original station and might pick up another one. This mechanism of detuning may account for the common report of radio transmission being lost from aircraft, police cars, and radio stations. Police chasing a UFO in Danville, Illinois, were unable to notify headquarters because their radio went mysteriously dead. (11) Possibly their transmitter was detuned so that they could not be heard on the normally operating receiver at headquarters some distance away.
The most common problem with radios, however, is that they simply fail. They cease to produce any sounds in the presence of UFOs. Their return to normal after the UFO disappears weakens the notion that loss of power might be responsible. Any other possible basis for this behavior should be identified. As the influence of microwaves upon tungsten came under suspicion previously, it is rather significant to note that another major application of that metal is for cathodes in radio tubes. (12) Electrons inside the evacuated space of a radio tube are supplied by the cathode; they are boiled off its surface in vast numbers when it is at high temperature, producing the familiar glow in radio tubes. The flow of these electrons through the tube, being easily controlled, accounts for the extreme sensitivity of radios. In other words, signals are amplified enormously by controlling the flow
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of electrons through the tube. Restricting their supply at the origin, the cathode, would have a profound effect. It would reduce the normal gain through the tube, or in the limit, stop the current completely. The output of the radio would either diminish below the threshold for hearing or cease altogether until the normal conditions were restored. This behavior is precisely the expected consequence of increasing the resistance of the tungsten or tungsten-alloy cathode with microwaves. Cathodes are maintained at their operating temperature by a separate, low-voltage circuit. Current through that circuit heats the cathode to incandescence in an exact analogy to the filament in a headlamp. (13) Increasing the resistance in the circuit would reduce the current and the rate of heating, thereby reducing or shutting off the supply of electrons. This mechanism would also hamper or prevent broadcasting of messages on transmitters by restricting the internal amplification or limiting the flow of power through output tubes into the antenna.
Household Receivers and Lamps
Hall cited eighteen cases of interference with radios, television sets, and house lights as UFOs flew over cities, towns, and populated areas. Interference with television was six times more frequent than with radios, a ratio so great that an explanation should be sought. It may simply reflect the greater popularity of television, but some technical aspects are implied. The large, rooftop antennas commonly used for TV are much more efficient than the small, ferrite antennas that are built into table-model and portable radios. This factor alone could account for the observations. In addition, the UFO interference may have frequency components closer to that of the TV carriers than to that of radio.
In any event, the specific nature of the reported TV interference, such as "dimmed," "blurred," "loss of audio," and "distortion," indicates that the trouble was not caused by loss of power. Thus, one must look to direct interference in the receiver circuits along the lines described above. A few instances of
62
household lights being dimmed or extinguished may be identical to the effect on automobile headlamps. Obviously, loss of electrical power could be responsible, and UFO interference with power transmission over large areas is another prominent feature of the whole problem.
Power Transmission
An association between UFOs and electrical power facilities has been recognized for many years. UFOs tend to hover near generating stations, switchyards, and substations, and to travel along the rights-of-way for high-voltage transmission lines. They are frequently seen at these locations at the time of, or just prior to, electrical blackouts over extended areas served by the facilities. Naturally, blame for the inconvenience is laid upon the UFOs, but satisfactory explanations have not been found. The deficiency is twofold: The affinity of UFOs for electrical facilities is not well understood and their method of causing power failure has not been satisfactorily identified.
During the fall of 1966, a series of UFO sightings in southern New Hampshire attracted the attention of a famous journalist who conducted a thorough, on-the-spot investigation. Armed with portable tape recorders, he collected testimony from many witnesses, some of which was later published verbatim. In 73 separate testimonies, a direct relationship was reported between the UFOs and the power lines of the Northeast Grid. (14) The UFOs typically appeared at low altitude near the transmission lines, alternately rising and falling behind the trees. On more than one occasion, a "pipe like object came down from the base of the disc and actually touched the lines, remaining there for a minute or so." (15) In view of such observations, the contention that these UFOs were merely some obscure, electrical blobs that were precipitated by the power lines is absolutely untenable, especially since many of them were also seen at great altitudes being chased by jet fighter planes. Since in thousands of other situations, UFOs have been well removed from transmission lines, this group of
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sightings, is unique and reveals a particular purpose behind their behavior. Exactly what this purpose might be is still an open question.
During the period of these sightings, on November 9, 1966, the power distribution system serving one-fifth of the American population in eight eastern states simply failed. The source of the trouble was initially reported to be a remote-controlled substation at Clay, New York, where only seconds before the blackout a pilot saw a brilliant, red ball, 100 feet in diameter. A total of five people saw this object, or one like it, in the vicinity. Investigations by the Federal Power Commission, however, officially traced the source of the blackout to a Canadian hydroelectric plant on the Niagara River. "The initial event was the operation of a backup relay at Beck Generating Station which opened circuit Q29BD, one of five 230-kv circuits connecting the generation of Beck to the Toronto-Hamilton load area." (16) Before examining these findings in further detail it is necessary to review some practices in the electrical industry. High-voltage transmission lines are subject to various natural hazards such as lightning, falling trees, and wind damage to the lines and towers. In the event of a lightning stroke, for example, the voltage of a line would suddenly rise to very high level causing an arc-over to ground around the insulators. This conducting path would continue to drain off the generated power unless the line were taken out of service momentarily. It would have to be isolated from the system, with other lines in parallel picking up its load, then switched back into service. To provide this protection, each leg of a transmission system is monitored by automatic devices that detect any abnormal conditions and take corrective action. These sensitive and fast-acting relays, in turn, operate the more massive and cumbersome circuit breakers that handle large amounts of power. It has been proposed in the past that magnetic fields accompanying UFOs induce current surges in the lines as they fly at high speed across the rights-of-way. (17) These surges would then be detected with the resulting isolation of the line. As a section of line is removed from service, the transfer of its power may cause
64
an overload on a parallel line, and so on as the disturbance propagates throughout the whole system. These relays are the points at which trouble begins, and the previously quoted FPC report indicated that "The precise cause of the backup relay energization is not known." This admission was then followed by a discussion of some possible system conditions that could have triggered it.
The clues to some of these puzzles sometimes hide in the detailed sequence of the reported events. For this reason, an obscure power failure in Brazil takes on special significance. On August 17, 1959, the automatic keys at the Uberlandia power station suddenly disconnected power to all four trunks. A technician at a substation 45 miles away immediately telephoned to report that all the keys at his location had been automatically disconnected as a UFO passed overhead, traveling in the direction of the generating station along the lines. The chief engineer then manually reset the keys at the main station, but they all automatically turned off again. At that moment he ran outside and saw a bright object in the sky approaching at high speed, later calculated to be 1,500 mph. As soon as the UFO passed, the entire system returned to normal. (18) The critical point in this report is that operation of the relays at the substation occurred when the UFO was directly overhead. Those at the main station, clearly out of range of influence from the UFO, detected an abnormal condition and apparently responded properly. A two-stage mechanism for this interference would involve first the induction of a surge in the lines and then corrective action by the relay. Instead, it appears that the influence of the UFO was exerted directly upon the relay itself without any intervening process. Design details of these devices assure that they would be sensitive to stray radiation. The heart of the induction-type relay is a small, circular plate of metal with a spindle rigidly attached at the center. Bearings at the ends of the spindle permit free rotation, and under normal conditions, the metallic disc is held in stationary balance by a spring acting against electromagnetic forces that are derived from the conditions on the line being monitored.
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In the event of an undesirable condition, rotation of the disc closes the contacts for taking corrective action. Clearly, high-frequency electromagnetic radiation from a UFO would induce eddy currents in the disc, disrupting its delicate balance and actuating a circuit breaker. Induction of stray currents could also operate a plunger-type relay that is in common use, essentially a solenoid like an electric door bell, although these devices should be more resistant to interference than the others. The possible effect upon a third type of relay utilizing solid state electronics is simply not known. Of course, the induced operation of the electromagnetic relays would cause no damage. "Ostensibly, backup relay #Q-29 at the Sir Adam Beck generating station, Queenston, Ontario, was eventually pinpointed as the source of the massive failure. But further investigation, hardly noted in the press, showed that nothing in the relay was broken when it was removed for inspection. In fact, it went back into operation automatically when power was restored. The line it was protecting was totally undamaged." (19) Induced operation of the protective relays by electromagnetic radiation from UFOs is probably the reason for these power blackouts.
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Footnotes: Chapter 5
1. Hall, Richard H., Editor, The UFO Evidence, National Investigations Committee on Aerial
    Phenomena, Section VIII, May 1964. Individual cases from this source are designated by the
    case numbers prefixed by the word Hall.
2. Originally reported in Michel, Aime, Flying Saucers and the Straight Line Mystery, p. 143,
    Criterian, 1958.
3. Case 896.
4. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, conducted by the
    University of Colorado, p.100, Dutton, 1969.
5. Saunders, David R. and Harkins, R. Roger, UFOs? YES! Where the Condon Committee
    Went Wrong, New American Library, 1968.
6. This obscure point came to the author's attention a few years ago and, unfortunately, all efforts
    to locate the source have been unavailing.
7. Hall, Case69 p.75
8. Dodge, H. S., RDT, A Radio Guide to Marine Beacons, Aeronautical Beacons, and
    Broadcast Stations, Steve Dodge Marine Electronics, Richmond, California, 1964.
9. Local Aeronautical Chart, San Francisco, U.S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic
    Survey.
10. Terman, Frederick Emmons, Fundamentals of Radio, McGraw-Hill, 1938.
11. Hall.Case 67, p.75.
12. Hampel, Clifford A., Editor, Rare Metals Handbook, 2nd Edition, p.593, Reinhold.
13. In an alternate design, the heat is supplied by a separate tungsten filament inside a cylindrical cathode.
14. Fuller, John 0., Incident At Exeter, p.220, Putnam, 1966.
15. Fuller, John 0., Incident At Exeter, p.199, Putnam, 1966.
16. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p.112, Dutton,
      1969.
17. McDonald, James E., Prepared Statement, Hearings Before the Committee on Science and
      Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, p.79, July 29, 1968.
18. Lorenzen, Coral and Jim, UFOs The Whole Story, p.152, Signet, 1969.
19. Fuller, John 0., Incident at Exeter, p.207, Putnam, 1966.

 --------------------------------------------------------
The history of science has shown that it is the things
that don't fit, the apparent exceptions to the rule,
that signal potential breakthroughs in our concept
of the world about us.  - J. Allen Hyneck
 
CHAPTER 6
PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Effects of  UFOs upon the principal sensory organs have been explored elsewhere. It was found, in brief, that the visual experience involved images of metallic vehicles, including various structural details, which were sometimes surrounded by vivid displays in brilliant colors or dazzling halos. A study of their noises disclosed several distinct types and suggested the artificial stimulation of auditory sensations within the head. Finally, several unique odors noticed in the vicinity of UFOs were traced to specific chemical compounds that are formed in the atmosphere under the stimulus of radiant energy that is emitted by UFOs. Reception of signals by the eyes, ears, and nose have been accounted for, yet there remains a variety of ways in which the body responds to UFOs at short range.
Primary Symptoms
A sensation of body heating during a close encounter is a common complaint. A huge craft, 70
meters long, flew within 30 meters of two sheriffs in Texas causing a heat wave. (1) Six teenagers in Ohio experienced the same reaction as a disc-shaped
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machine hovered overhead.  (2) The intensity of this effect is, of course, variable and it may reach
frightful proportions. Near the Capitan Curbelo Naval Air Station in Uruguay an experienced pilot
flew his light plane to within 700 meters of a brilliant object shaped like a "musical top" that had come to a dead stop directly ahead on his flight path. "I saw that (the UFO) rocked twice in a balancing motion. Then it took off in the direction of the sea at a fantastic speed. It left a little trail in the form of water vapor....The temperature was greatly increased, so much that I had to open the windows and door of the plane, and take off my field jacket. I almost fainted."  (3) A stronger heat wave in the cockpit of an F94 jet during a UFO chase became so unbearable that the pilot and his crewman had to bail out. The plane crashed in Walesville, New York, tragically killing four people and injuring others. (4) Actual burns of first and second degree, usually on the face and hands, have been the reward of unwary people who approached UFOs too closely or of others innocently minding their own business when one flew past at very close range. (5)
Sometimes the witnesses are temporarily paralyzed while the UFO is nearby, usually within 50 to
150 meters. (6) A farmer in San Pietro, Italy, became paralyzed when he approached to within 10
meters of a UFO that had landed in the village square.  (7) Three figures moving around a landed UFO at Stratford-on-Avon held the attention of a man who could not move until they boarded the craft and flew away. (8)  In at least seven other instances, witnesses were immobilized during the encounter, but their involuntary body functions, such as breathing, heart beat, and vision, were unimpaired. (9) Return to normalcy was usually immediate when the UFO left, but it took about 20 minutes for one victim to regain his muscular coordination. (10) Approximately the same amount of time was required by a French farmer to recover, although his paralysis was probably induced by some kind of a weapon. (11)
Loss of consciousness is also relatively frequent, being reported as either an isolated symptom or in association with other symptoms. (12) Quite significantly, about half of the people who were either paralyzed or who had lost consciousness also de
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scribed feeling a prickling sensation or an electrical shock. As a man in Massachusetts explained,
"My mind was not at all affected. I just could not move, felt like shock and numbness." (13)
Because of the prominent association between the other physiological effects and the feeling of
electrical shock, one is inclined to ascribe the cause of the symptoms to some electrical phenomenon. That temptation becomes overwhelming when a tabulation of the cases reveals that, in nearly every instance of bodily heating, paralysis, loss of consciousness, or electrical shock, automobile engines were also stopped or began to misfire. In two instances, headlamps also went out (14) This definite correlation between the effects upon the human body and upon electrical circuits clearly points to electromagnetic energy as the causative agent, a relationship that has long been suspected. (15) "Loud humming" and "beeping," whose origin was probably electromagnetic, were also heard just prior to paralysis and unconsciousness. (16) Obviously the sounds must precede or follow the loss of consciousness, since by definition, an unconscious person is oblivious to external stimuli. At any rate, the instant- by-instant sequence of events in these sightings should be examined with care. Painful prickling like an electrical shock were felt by a motorist in France as his child, also riding in the car, began to cry. The pain increased, then the engine failed and the lights went out. (17) In other words, the electrical shock gradually increased up to the point that the responsible agent disrupted the electrical circuits of the car. Had the increase continued further, one suspects that the witness may have become paralyzed. While this instance stands alone, it does suggest that the prickling sensation is an early manifestation of the radiant energy, followed by electrical interference and, finally, paralysis or unconsciousness. Probably the most sensitive response to the radiation is auditory, for, it may be recalled, the Hills first heard a beeping sound and then felt the prickling sensation. (18) Both the physiological and physical responses seem to be related to a flight maneuver of the UFOs. In two cases, conditions were normal until the
69
UFOs began to rise at which time the lights of one car went out. (19) and the engine of the other failed. (20) In still another case, prickling and paralysis occurred at the same time that the engine slowed down when a nearby UFO rose off the ground. (21) The strength of the causative agent, known to be ineffective at great distance, seems to depend upon the proximity of the UFO and appears to be strongest when the UFOs apply a burst of power at take-off.
A considerable variety of other physiological effects have also been noted in isolated instances. These include amnesia, headache, eye pain, loss of vision, nausea, and vomiting. Specific instances of these ailments will be taken up after some insights are developed concerning the primary symptoms.
Several factors point directly toward microwave energy as being responsible for the physiological effects. Such energy is known to be radiated from UFOs. It is the primary candidate for disrupting electrical circuits, and the failure of headlights and engines correlates well with heating of the body, electrical shock, paralysis, and loss of consciousness, all of which are induced by UFOs from some distance. The search for an understanding of these physiological effects should begin with an examination of related physical and biological data. Further searching should not be required if the technology of microwaves and the life processes together reveal specific mechanisms that can duplicate the observations.
Heating
Diathermy is a medical process for applying heat to tissues deep within the human body. It is usually accomplished by placing the part to be treated between suitably contoured electrodes that are padded with towels. An alternating potential applied to the plates causes them to act as a condenser in which the human tissues are the dielectric. Alternating electrical fields between the plates, completely penetrating the treated part, agitate molecules in the tissue and generate the desired heat. An antenna, substituted for
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the plates at microwave frequencies, beams electromagnetic radiation into the patient with the same penetrative result. A commercial machine for microwave diathermy operates with an output power of 100 watts at 2,450 MHz. (22) The penetration is excellent at that frequency, although it diminishes at higher frequencies, tending to concentrate the absorbed energy into a shallow layer near the skin. (23) Some potential danger attends the use of microwaves on people because the human body has heat receptors only on the skin. Overheating, therefore, might occur in the deeper tissues without the forewarning of pain, especially in portions not cooled by freely flowing blood, as in bone marrow and the eyes. In the previous discussion of UFO plasmas, the gases were estimated to have temperatures in the range of roughly 2000 to 4000F. Such hot gases will radiate energy over a wide spectrum that includes the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet. Heating of the skin and even serious burns could be produced by the infrared rays, depending upon their intensity and the duration of exposure. Typical sunburns could be produced by the ultraviolet rays. As both types of radiation are blocked by clothing, they would cause localized effects upon the bare skin of the face and hands. The more generalized experience of "heat waves" that force people to remove clothing and to jump out of airplanes must have a different origin. Absorption of high-frequency radiation with the generation of heat as in microwave diathermy, is a likely candidate.
Paralysis
Control of the human body is the task of the central nervous system. It receives information on the circumstances outside the body from the senses and status reports on internal conditions such as the muscular needs for oxygen. This data is incorporated into the general experience and conscious desires of the individual. Two major sets of signals are then sent out along nerves to the muscles and glands to implement a response that is appropriate to the conditions prevailing at that instant. This process is
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continuous. Of primary concern at present are the functional properties of nerve fibers. In some ways these fibers resemble insulated electrical wires. A central core of protoplasmic material, a
moderately good conductor of electricity, is surrounded by a sheath of membrane of a fatty
substance that is a moderately good insulator. Orders to outlying muscles, sent by the central nervous system, travel along these fibers as a wave of electrical potential. The similarity to electrical wires cannot be carried very far, however, fibers have certain unique properties. The traveling pulse, known as an action potential, always has the same intensity in a particular fiber. At any point along the fiber, it is either present or it is not; it never shows up only partially or at a potential above the norm. Energy for transmission of this signal derives from the fiber itself, not from some driving force at the input end. The sheath is interrupted at intervals of about 1 millimeter, called Ranvier nodes, and the transmission energy is supplied by the passage of certain ions through the membranes in these short segments. The width of the pulse is about 1 millisecond and it travels at various speeds, depending upon the size of the fiber, typically on the order of 10 meters per second. Measurements of electrical potentials inside the sheath show that a fiber at rest is about 0.07 volts negative compared to the external solution. An action potential traveling down the fiber has a positive amplitude of about 0.10 to 0.12 volts. Therefore, at the moment the action potential occupies a position in the fiber, its interior experiences a momentary swing that is about 0.04 volts positive compared to the outside. Experimental electrodes implanted in the fiber at any location can trigger the standard pulse by impressing a potential difference across the membrane of about 0.02 volts or greater. Pulses then travel outward in both directions along the fiber, although they would normally travel in only one direction. After the pulse has been passed through one segment of the fiber, a finite time is required for that segment to return to normal. During the recovery period, it is completely incapable of transmitting another pulse. For about one millisecond the fiber cannot be stimulated at all; for roughly another
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millisecond it can, but only by a stimulus stronger than usual. (24) If a stimulus below the threshold of 0.02 volts is followed by another within about 2 milliseconds, then the second one may evoke a response even though it too is weaker than the threshold. The first stimulus opens the gate, so to speak, for the next ones. (25)
If microwave radiation were capable of providing the requisite stimulus, then an action potential
would be induced. It has been found, in fact, that microwave radiation can create the necessary
electrical tension across the membrane. By inserting miniature electrodes into nerve fibers, the
potential difference between the inside and the outside can be measured. Irradiation by microwaves induces potentials that are typically in the millivolt range, but are sometimes as high as 0.10 volt, five times stronger than the threshold value of 0.02 volt. (26) As action potentials triggered by this mechanism would be identical in every respect to those that are sent out by the central nervous system, there would be no way in which the receptors could detect them to be frauds. Muscular response would be absolutely dictated by such artificially produced stimuli.
Traveling along a nerve at 10 meters per second, the pulse would progress a distance of 1 cm in 1
millisecond. As it takes about that long for the sheath to recover, the traveling pulse carries with it a zone of desensitized fiber about 1 cm in length, like the wake of a motorboat. The zone would
actually be about twice that long since as the fibers gradually return to normal within about 1
millisecond after the first millisecond period when they are absolutely refractive. Bear in mind that this
dead zone does not remain stationary, but moves along the nerve immediately behind the action
potential with the same speed.
Now consider the chain of events that would occur if a burst of microwave radiation should stimulate the nerve fiber at several locations. Action potentials would propagate away from the sites of origin in both directions. From neighboring sites, therefore, two pulses traveling toward one another must collide. Up to the instant of contact, the two pulses are being followed by their respective wakes of desensitized fiber. They cannot interpen-
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etrate or continue traveling in their original directions because the dead zone of the other is not
capable of furnishing the propagation. For the same reason, they cannot be reflected back along their course. Upon colliding, they must both be annihilated. The last indication of their existence would be the electrical change in the small segment where they met. Centered upon the site of their disappearance would be a section of the nerve about 2 cm long that would remain dormant for about 1 millisecond. Several such events happening at the same time would take a sizeable fraction of the nerve out of service momentarily. Should a second burst of microwave energy inundate the nerve while several sections are still dormant, more action potentials will be stimulated in those normal portions between the dormant zones that have recovered from the passage of the last pulse. Then the process leading to annihilation of contra-traveling pulses simply starts again. It is most interesting to explore the conditions that might be established in the nerve by microwave energy that is itself being pulsed about 500 times per second. First of all, the effective threshold for stimulation would be lowered by the "gate effect" and action potentials could be induced more readily. The individual bursts of microwave energy would arrive at intervals of 2 milliseconds, which is approximately the time that the dead zones persist at the points of annihilation. Action potentials would be stimulated only in the responsive sections, which immediately thereafter would become insensitive. Meanwhile, previously exhausted sections would recover and become active again, just in time to be stimulated by the next burst of microwaves. One can envision a state of quasi-equilibrium in which a chain of sections, alternately insensitive and responsive, are switching their roles approximately 500 times per second. At all times, about half the nerve would be completely incapable of transmitting any signal.
Next consider the fate of legitimate impulses issued by the brain. They would obviously get wiped out upon meeting artificially induced pulses that were traveling the wrong way. They would disappear in the annihilation process- a most efficient means of disposing of signals that were intended for control of the
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muscles. As shown before, a series of pulses cannot be closer together in the nerve than the length of the dead zone. This restriction establishes an absolute upper limit to the message handling capacity of the nerve. For a nerve having a propagation speed of 10 meters per second, as was assumed for the previous discussion, the dead zone is about 1 cm long. Therefore, the absolute upper limit of signal density occurs when they are 1 cm apart. At their common velocity, they would pass a given point at the rate of one every millisecond, or 1,000 of them in 1 sec. But because the nerve membrane requires an additional amount of time to recover, the spacing will be about 2 cm and that figure would be cut in half. The maximum rate of propagation in this nerve is estimated to be roughly 500 pulses per second. The behavior of this fiber under a steady, prolonged stimulus should reveal the correct value. Consider an electrical potential greater than the threshold to be applied and maintained across the sheath. It would respond by initiating an action potential and would then enter its refractory period. As soon as it recovers, it again experiences the stimulus and responds, and so on. The rate at which the action potentials are triggered in this experiment is the maximum propagation rate for that nerve. It has been found in the laboratory that such a sustained stimulus causes the emission of a train of pulses, usually 4 or 5 with gradually increased spacing, in about 100 milliseconds. (27) Apparently the capacity of the sheath to continue at its maximum transmission rate is severely limited, a point which cannot be pursued further without access to the original laboratory reports. These findings are significant to the annihilation of the action potentials originating in the brain. Such pulses may have to travel as far as 1 meter to contract a leg muscle, a journey that would take about 0.1 sec. A microwave field pulsed very slowly would leave large gaps of time during which muscular coordination would be normal, although sporadic disruption would occur. Higher pulse rates would increase the difficulty of control. At frequencies equal to, or greater than the maximum rate that the signals can be sent through the nerve, pulses from the brain would have no chance of getting through.
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At the muscle end of the motor nerve, impulses are delivered to the receptors at the maximum rate. A single impulse causes a muscle fiber to contract for a finite period, say, 0.01 sec. If another pulse arrives during that period, the muscle is again stimulated to contract before having an opportunity to relax. Hence, a rapid series of such pulses will hold the muscle in a state of sustained contraction. A difficulty arises here, however. All skeletal muscles occur in pair-sets. Any kind of bodily motion, which is governed by one set of muscles can be compensated by another motion governed by the opposite set. A volitional action is accomplished by contracting the appropriate set of muscles while inhibiting their counterparts, an enormously complex obligation of the central nervous system. As microwaves cannot make such distinctions, all the motor nerves are stimulated indiscriminately. The net result is obvious: sets of muscles contract in opposition to each other and the body freezes into rigid immobility.
A mechanism to explain the typical UFO paralysis thus emerges. A pulsed microwave field emitted by the UFO weakens the threshold and stimulates action potentials in the motor nerves. Half of these travel the wrong way and nullify the signals issued by the brain. The witness suddenly becomes paralyzed, in whatever position he held at the time, by a stream of fraudulent pulses causing the skeletal muscles to work against each other. When the field intensity falls too low, everything usually returns to normal. As an Australian youth said after two minutes in that condition, he was "merely cognizant of things as they were without being able to react." (28) The microwaves apparently stimulate only the nerves to the voluntary muscles without producing a comparable effect upon the nerves to the involuntary body functions, including muscles and glands. Sensory channels also seem to be immune from influence, except perhaps the auditory nerve. How the excitation process can be so selective is not at all clear. It is known that nerve fibers of small diameter have higher thresholds than larger ones. (29) Perhaps the answer is very simple-the larger nerves controlling voluntary actions are easier
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to stimulate. Because of health hazards, humans have not been exposed to high-intensity microwave fields, and there is no laboratory indication of a paralyzing effect.
Electrical Shock
As the power output of many large radars has increased enormously in the last two decades, some special precautions have been taken. Several costly installations were constructed to detect missiles over the horizon that might be launched toward the United States. This system provides about 15 minutes warning time for retaliatory action. Potential exposure of 20 times the allowable flux of microwave energy at these sites prohibits the performance of routine maintenance while the radars are in operation. As it is unthinkable to shut down periodically for any purpose, special protective clothing for the technicians had to be developed. These suits cover the entire body, head, face, hands and feet. They are made from a metallized nylon to reflect electromagnetic energy away from the wearer. A special design assures electrical continuity across the seams. As electrical fields of thousand of volts per meter were also predicated, the suits have an exterior insulating layer of neoprene-coated nylon. (30) This layer prevents surges of current through the conducting layer that would otherwise be produced if a workman touched two metal pipes having different electrical potentials. In an environment of this nature, but of lesser intensity, an unprotected worker or a UFO witness might well experience an electrical shock.
Because microwave fields induce currents in electrical conductors, the military forces must take further precautions. They must make sure that ordnance is not accidentally detonated by stray radiation. This problem is most severe where ordnance must be handled close to powerful radar sets. On Navy ships, for example, the operational use of radar might have to be restricted. Primary research on this problem is conducted by the Electromagnetic Hazards Division of the Naval Weapons Laboratory in Dahlgren, Virginia. (31) In view of the importance of radiation-
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induced currents in the military experience, one would certainly anticipate an electrical effect upon the human body while exposed to microwaves. As moist skin is a good conductor and well furnished with sensory receptors, a prickling sensation would be quite expectable.
Loss of Consciousness
One component of the central nervous system regulates such body functions as sleep, temperature, blood pressure, other autonomic functions, and the emotional states. The nature of this control mechanism is fundamentally chemical; that is, the organ controls the production of small amounts of powerful agents such as adrenaline and serotonin. Experiments in 1952 showed that electrical stimulation of the thalamus increased the production of serotonin. (32) A similar electrical stimulation induced by microwaves could have the same result, that is, production of  sleep-inducing chemicals.
Secondary Symptoms
Among the less frequent but notable ailments following close exposure to UFOs is the common headache. Two UFOs that landed in Brazil discharged three small beings from one and two from the other. These beings stood around talking for about 5 minutes before conducting a thorough inspection of both craft. All the while, they were being watched by a 15-year-old boy, whose companions were up ahead of him en route to a movie. After the UFO took off, the boy suddenly suffered violent headaches. As standard medication gave no relief for 5 days, he was taken to a doctor by his father. (33) In another situation, a bright disc-shaped craft, producing a high-pitched sound, came down near Rio de Janeiro and hovered, while three of its occupants walked nearby. One of the witnesses later suffered severe headaches. (34) Not only are the headaches clearly associated with the sightings, but in these two cases, the headaches began after
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the UFOs had left, a most puzzling detail. Whether the radiation received during the observation had anything to do with this symptom is doubtful, but it should be noted for the record that headaches are sometimes produced by microwaves. A study was conducted in 1943 involving 45 men with histories of exposure to low levels of microwave radiation spanning periods of 2 months to 9 years. "Several of these men reported frontal headaches and a flushed heating sensation when standing within 3 ft of a generating antenna." (35)  The abbreviated source material unfortunately does not indicate the strength of the beam or whether the subjects were exposed directly to it. Also, these histories of exposure to microwaves are not typical of UFO witnesses. But the important aspect is that headaches were experienced and, apparently, only while the subjects were being irradiated. Because of the gross disparity in the time factors here, the cause for headaches associated with UFOs is lacking an explanation.
On rare occasions, the witnesses describe a loss of vision, either total or partial, resulting in cloudy or hazy images. A typical example involved a 37-year-old man in Pennsylvania who saw a large disc fly in front of the moon. Twenty minutes later both eyes became pained and his vision hazy. He gradually lost vision in both eyes; within several days, it returned to normal. His entire body was "sunburned." A doctor who examined him attributed the effects to ultraviolet exposure. (36) That diagnosis may well be correct, since unique blue light on or about the UFO was reportedly very intense for about 3 seconds at the end of the sighting. Consider, however, the oddity that the skin irritation was not confined to exposed portions of the body. As the witness had just put his car in the garage, according to the report, it may be presumed that he was normally attired. His clothing should have protected most of the body, since ultraviolet rays are easily stopped by a cotton shirt. Whatever troubled his eyes also penetrated his clothing. Recall that the propulsion system of UFOs involves the emission of microwave energy that, on occasion, excites the xenon molecules in the atmosphere to emit their characteristic bright blue. Microwaves pass through clothing
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without significant loss, but at frequencies used in diathermy they also penetrate deeply into the human body. At somewhat higher frequencies, above 3,000 MHz, tissue penetration is greatly abated and nearly half of the impinging energy is absorbed on the skin. Absorption of microwave energy in the skin produces conditions that are indistinguishable from ordinary sunburn arising from an excess of ultraviolet rays. In all probability, this witness suffered a flash burn on the retina and "sunburn" over his entire body by a 3-second exposure to microwaves at a frequency greater than 3,000 MHz.
The eyes are especially sensitive to microwaves, whose energy is readily absorbed by the internal fluid, the aqueous humor. In addition, when wavelengths of the radiation are approximately the same dimension as the eyeball the conditions for a tuned cavity prevail in which absorption is further enhanced. Absorbed energy raises the eye temperature, a very dangerous condition even for small increases that cannot be felt. As the lens is very intolerant of stress, the abnormal temperature can generate cataracts. Furthermore, microwaves produce a direct effect upon the lens involving chemical changes resulting in the formation of cataracts. (37) For these reasons, the allowable exposure to the eyes is severely limited and eye protection is a must. Cataracts produced by microwaves do not normally progress to total blindness, and they gradually disappear. That such lenticular opacity, or cloudiness of the aqueous humor, has been induced by UFOs seems fairly clear. A doctor examining one witness with hazy vision "could not see the retina," presumably because of opacity of the lens or eye fluid. (38)
After stopping the car of an Australian businessman, a mushroom shaped UFO aimed a strong beam of light toward him. He later found himself driving down the road, unable to remember starting the car.(39) He had suffered amnesia covering a brief span of time, and the reported beam of light indicates a purposeful act by the UFO occupants. In a previous chapter, review of two other instances of memory lapse showed deliberate action also. Amnesia, however, appears to be rare and not merely
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a consequence of being too close to a UFO.
Sighting a UFO is sometimes quite a shock to the witness. Anything so completely out of the ordinary could overwhelm a person's effort to adjust to his surroundings. The most sturdy personality might have some difficulty, and the experience could prove to be too stunning for an individual whose struggle with life has left little reserve strength. In order to escape from the anxiety of the situation, some witnesses may subconsciously respond hysterically, they may experience unusual sensations of vision, hearing, taste, or smell, their body might suddenly go rigid for a moment, waves of nausea could trouble them for days; or their subsequent behavior patterns may be completely out of character. These reactions to stress, being of purely psychological origin, can obviously mimic some of the physiological responses that have been described above. It would be moderately easy to confuse some of the emotional and physiological effects. The error in either direction would be serious, namely, falsely ascribing a physiological cause to a purely emotional reaction, or inadvertently overlooking a valid physiological explanation. Some protection against the latter pitfall is afforded by automobile engines and radios that are not inclined to be neurotic. Their malfunctions require a specific, physical agency. When that agency is identified and it produces a physiological response in the witness, a psychological explanation is not required and, indeed, is superfluous.
Scientific Uncertainty
In the face of substantial evidence to the contrary, most American researchers cling to the notion that absorption of microwaves in the human body produces nothing but heat. Varied biological changes, they contend, are traceable to a rise in temperature. The concept of a direct biochemical effect is rejected with several arguments. The radiation dosage, for example, cannot be reliably reported because there are no generally accepted standards of instrumentation. Or, perhaps, the possibility of a purely thermal
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response in the tissues has not been disproven. A recent review article points out that "There are many areas in which presently available data are questionable, contradictory, or inapplicable." (40) Microwave research in the United States certainly suffers more confusion than becomes a scientific discipline. On the international scene, the situation is no better. A summary of Soviet views indicates, among other things contradicting the American position, that "At the present time, the opinion of most Soviet investigators is that microwaves: ....affect the structure and chemical reactivity of neutral cells." (41) Russian research purports to demonstrate sub-threshold effects, that is, irreversible chemical changes that are produced at levels below the onset of any thermal responses. Furthermore, these changes are believed to be cumulative. Without ever being exposed to levels of radiation causing damage by heat, according to these views, a worker exposed repeatedly to low-level microwaves at his job might suffer serious injury over a period of time. These beliefs are reflected in the safety standards that have been adopted; permissible limits of exposure in Russia are 1,000 times more conservative than in the United States. (42) This disparity persists because the methods, rationale, and data of the Soviet scientists appear to be obscure and nebulous to the Americans. At any rate, most of the symptoms produced by UFOs, being inadmissible to American science, are thoroughly compatible with the Russian findings.
One Russian conclusion that is especially vague to Americans is the alleged "asthenia" syndrome, a combination of mental and personality changes. "The symptoms include weakness, fatigability, depression, antisocial tendencies, sense of fear, impairment of memory and general mental function and an inability to make decisions." (43) During the '60s the U.S. Embassy in Moscow was reportedly found to be permeated by abnormal levels of microwave radiation, presumably beamed there to confuse the diplomats and make them more tractable in negotiations. Subsequent experiments on monkeys in the U.S. by the Advanced Research Projects Agency yielded no definite conclusions on the
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matter. The Russians may have had this type of plan in mind during the international chess tournament, when the American, Bobby Fischer, was accused of using "electronic devices and chemical substances" to gain an unfair advantage. Concerning the Russian Spassky, his assistant commented that ". . . it is the first time that I observe such unusual slackening of concentration and display of impulsiveness in his playing . . ." A thorough search disclosed no incriminating evidence.
Observers Reactions
Witnesses, who have been exposed to microwave radiation from UFOs should be good candidates for displaying symptoms of the asthenia syndrome propounded by the Russians. An artificial sense of fear, for example, might be experienced when that emotion was inappropriate, or in intensities not warranted by the circumstances. For the most part, distant observations of UFOs are accompanied by entirely normal behavior. Relatives and neighbors are called out of their houses to verify the experience. Police officers and pilots contact others on their radio networks for the same purpose. A motorist may stop to watch the show or drive to another location for an unobstructed view. These patterns would be expected in events that are sometimes so distracting that witnesses forget to use their cameras. Responses at closer range vary greatly, but a few patterns can be discerned. Upon spotting a disc-shaped machine descend and come to rest on its landing gear, a witness might rush toward it for a closer examination, especially when he later affirms that the incident was entirely beyond anything else in his experience. Such behavior, however, is rare. A few people have moved in for a closer look, (44) even to the point of standing immediately adjacent to the UFOs and touching them. (45)  More typical, however, is a negative reaction in which the witness takes refuge in hiding, runs away from the scene, or if in a car, drives away in reckless disregard for traffic laws. People seem to be genuinely afraid of UFOs, but they may only be unnerved by rainbow colors cascading off their edges or
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by some other oddity. The imminent landing of a large wheel with flaming openings in front sent two Brazilian workers into hiding. (46)  Two youngsters ran for cover from an object circling overhead that resembled an up-side-down plate. (47)  Two British airmen remained unperturbed while watching a dome-shaped object land behind a hangar, but took to their heels when an opening appeared in the UFO. (48)  Two young New Zealanders also held their ground in the presence of a UFO until a similar opening made them think that it was about to land. (49)  Three hunters, a breed not easily frightened, ran away from a very large, egg-shaped object that they discovered hovering in a Venezuelan forest. (50)  Of course, stronger emotional impact has occurred. A large sphere of orange light so frightened a 16-year-old boy in Indiana that he lost control of his bicycle. (51)  A low-flying object terrified two witnesses in Georgia, who abandoned their bicycles and ran home nearly hysterical. (52)  An Italian was paralyzed with fear by a metallic object, 10 meters in diameter, hovering close to the ground. (53)  As seen in previous sections, however, this last witness may have been paralyzed for physiological, rather than emotional, reasons.
It is necessary here to anticipate the subject matter of two later chapters by summarizing the reactions of witnesses upon confronting strange occupants of UFOs. Unadulterated, bone-rattling fear seems to be found exclusively in this context. Four Canadian children were panic stricken by an extremely tall UFO pilot who held out his hand to them saying something that was unintelligible. (54)  A dark figure the size of a man, with wings like a bat, thoroughly spooked some British teenagers.(55)  A creature emerging from a UFO in Gabon terrified a fisherman who was watching from nearby. (56)  Some small creatures attacking three Argentine students enroute to school threw them into a state of terror. (57)  Several adults and children in Peru panicked at the sight of a very small creature walking the street leaving a luminous trail. (58)  And so on. (59)  It is perfectly normal for people to flee in terror from strange beings, particularly when the people are young, as is most often the case, and when the creatures act in a threatening manner, or actually attack.
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While these data carry a modest load of ambiguity, they do not generally sustain the Russian concepts. The level of fear displayed during the encounters with UFOs and their occupants seems to be within normal bounds, although rather high at times. It must be mentioned that the Russian research pertains to repeated exposures to low-level radiation whereas these examples do not.
Unfortunately, this issue cannot be put to rest so neatly, for other sources of information tend to support the opposite conclusion, namely, that abnormal feelings of fear are induced in the witnesses by UFOs at close range. In a series of sightings in New Hampshire, nearly all the witnesses were very frightened. The investigator of these incidents observed that ". . . some people were in actual shock or hysteria as a result of extremely low-level encounters with the objects." (60)  Descriptive terms used by the witnesses emphatically showed their reactions to be very intense and, under the circumstances, probably inappropriate. Despite the absence of any recognized threat to life or limb, witnesses were variously reported to be badly shaken or scared to death. (61)  Emotional experiences, described on two occasions as "shivery feeling" and "funniest feeling through me," may have been artificial or merely the natural accessory to fear. An interesting suggestion of a direct influence by a UFO occurred when a witness panicked while within close range, drove away to report the sighting to the police, and upon regaining composure, returned to the scene for a second look. While these reports are inconclusive on this point, they require that the question of UFO-induced emotional states remain open. It is hoped that further insight may be achieved from independent studies in the future and from the analysis of animal behavior in the following section.
Animals Too
As the higher animals are physiologically very similar to man, a close parallel is expected between their reactions to UFOs and
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those of people. Any marked differences would be a clue that beckons for further research into the causes. Source materials for this section are some 200 animal incidents compiled by a British quarterly. (62)
Millions of delicate UFO detectors are already distributed in a world-wide network. Each one is carefully maintained in top condition and monitored round the clock for any response signifying the presence of a UFO. Man's best friend is also his best UFO detector. Very commonly, indeed, the first indication that a UFO is present or approaching is the excited barking of a dog or a whole neighborhood full. Suppose that some random noise sets a dog to barking; others within earshot may take up the call, and presently the whole neighborhood echoes with their racket. This kind of domino effect could be the basis for the area-wide disturbances of dogs near UFOs, although it doesn't seem likely. It is not an ordinary bark that is evoked by UFOs. In the language of the reports, one pooch was howling enough to awaken the dead, (63) one barked furiously, frothing at the mouth, (64) one carried on something terrible, (65) and one made a dreadful noise. (66)  These animals were disturbed in some unique way; they were not just relaying the neighborhood gossip. Because dogs can sense the approach of UFOs before humans, one wonders if the detection is based upon keener hearing, as with the early announcement of an approaching police siren, or if another mechanism is responsible. Dogs dislike UFOS. In fact, they are terrified by them and seek to escape from them. Under circumstances clearly indicating a landed UFO was nearby, a Canadian woman heard knocks at her door. Her dog rushed forward, then suddenly retreated, trembling as if terrified, and retired into a comer. (67) When a man opened a door to investigate the cause of his dog's howling outside, the animal crawled in on its belly in abject terror. The man found a UFO and its pilots outside. (68)  One of several dogs owned by a witness was so terrified that it ran into a barbed wire fence; the others whined while cowering on the ground. (69)  A dog became disturbed in a car when a UFO was first sighted. By the time the driver was flagged down on the highway by the UFO people, the dog was lying in a tight ball under the seat, trembling violently.
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He was still cowering there two hours later. (70)  These animals exhibited symptoms of extreme fright. In some of these cases the animals could not see the UFOs. They had never read any science fiction nor been instructed how to act in the presence of a UFO. In other words, their behavior must have been induced by the UFOs. One must face the probability that their response was stimulated by microwaves, namely, a symptom of the asthenia syndrome as reported by Russian scientists. It should be most interesting to discover in the future why this response is seen more clearly in dogs than in people. If microwave radiation were inducing this sense of fear in the dogs, one would expect that a higher intensity might even paralyze them. A Frenchman out hunting with his dog saw two people climbing out of a small UFO on the ground, 40 meters away. He fled, but his dog, running toward the UFO, soon retreated, walking as though he were partially paralyzed. (71)  Perhaps the dog didn't get close enough to become completely paralyzed. An incident which occurred during the evening of October 21, 1963, in Trancas, Argentina is especially significant:
          Three very fierce dogs inside the house, and two dozen fowls outside, were for forty minutes
          cowed and paralyzed by a vivid hot beam of light, varying in color from red to violet, directed
          at the house from one of a number of UFOs nearby. As the revolving beam returned and caught
          the dogs through the windows, they became apathetic and silent, recovering slightly in the
          intervals. (72)
Both a man and his dog were temporarily paralyzed, at the same time, when an object dived down toward them and then climbed back into the sky. (73)  It was luminous and white, a condition seen previously to coincide with the strongest emission of microwaves. In this case, the man and the dog were about equally susceptible to the induced paralysis. While there is no laboratory evidence of microwave paralysis in humans, experiments on small animals have produced motor paralysis that disappeared when the exposure was terminated. (74)
Physiological effects among animals are by no means limited
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to dogs. Among the 200 cases under study, influences were also noted upon wild birds, pigeons, ducks, geese, chickens, turkeys, sheep, cows, horses, and cats. All these creatures are severely agitated by UFOs and they seem to fear them. A cat, hissing and spitting, leaped into the air and then hid under a bed, (75) sheep stampeded, (76) cows in the field panicked and ran away, (77) horses reared up and cattle did everything but turn somersaults, (78) and so on. Some of them may have been paralyzed. With a whistling sound, a UFO landed in a meadow in Denmark. The witness became paralyzed when he approached within 50 meters and observed that nearby cows seemed unable to move. He further noted that birds had stopped singing. (79)  Any naturalist knows that a disturbance in the woods causes birds to stop singing, and other wild creatures depend upon that change as an alarm signal. But the notion that the birds stopped singing because they had been paralyzed was also a prominent aspect of a sighting by three men in Brazil who were hunting crocodiles one night. A UFO on the opposite bank of a river caused an "awful, uncanny silence" to descend upon the forest. Not even a cicada was to be heard. (80)  Not only were the usually noisy, tropical birds put out of action, but, perhaps, so were the insects.
A UFO was spotted one night standing on three legs on some railroad tracks 300 meters from a man's home. It rose silently while a dome on top started to spin and the legs retracted. It was gone in 20 seconds. The next day, the witness inspected the site with his dog. There were no marks or traces, but one sniff sent the dog dashing away, howling. (81)  Things should return to normal immediately after a UFO has flown away, but unfortunately, they don't. Presumably the dog had no prior knowledge that he was visiting the site of a UFO landing, yet something disturbed him. Direct radiation from the UFO must be ruled out and another cause for his delayed reaction found. The language of the report itself provides the best clue that an odor was responsible. In a previous section concerning that subject, various noxious gases were found to be produced by UFOs. Some of these gases, being relatively heavy, could settle to the ground and linger for many hours.
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A thick, gray disc coming straight down over a farm in Australia threw all the animals into a panic. For several days the cows could not be herded into the paddock over which the UFO had hovered. (82) similar aversion was demonstrated by some cattle in Iowa. In the middle of the night, a cigar-shaped object remained on the ground for 20 minutes amidst a vivid, red illumination, crackling noises, and the odor of ozone. In the morning the cattle were found to have bolted to the end of the pasture, from where they refused to budge toward the landing site for feeding. (83)  Fine strands resembling spider webs, known as angel hair, are sometimes discharged from UFOs for no apparent reason. This substance evaporates when touched and it has not been chemically analyzed. (84)  Such material, falling into a field in Tennessee, caused the witnesses to become nauseated and to feel itching sensations. The same effects were experienced by everyone who entered the area during the next few days. During that period, the family dog would not leave the house nor would the cows be coaxed back to the site. Everything eventually returned to normal when rainfall apparently washed away the offensive substance. (85)  Another possible source of offense to the animals is an odd, oily substance that is sometimes found at landing sites. (86)  If some of this material could be retrieved from a future landing, and if its chemical composition should prove to be unique, animal reactions to it could produce some interesting case studies. A sample of such substance, having a purple color and the odor of 3-in-1 oil, was turned over to the authorities in 1965. Its composition was never published. (87)
In summary, dogs, being sensitive to the approach of UFOs, constitute a universal detection network. They display symptoms of extreme fear when the UFO is moderately close, even though they may be indoors or inside an automobile where they cannot see it. An artificial state of fear that is induced by radiation is the suspected cause of this reaction. Many domestic animals and perhaps some wild ones panic at the approach of a UFO. The radiation that at greater intensity apparently causes a biochemical psychosis, also paralyzes dogs, cows, probably birds, and possibly insects.
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Footnotes: Chapter 6 1. The primary source for this chapter is Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia, Regnery, 1969,
    referred to merely by case number, in this instance, Case 694.
2. Case 903.
3. Lore, Gordon, Strange Effect From UFOs, p.16, National Investigations Committee on
    Aerial Phenomena, 1969.
4. Keyhoe, Donald E., The Flying Saucer Conspiracy, Holt, 1955.
5. Hall, Richard E., The UFO Evidence, National Investigations Committee on Aerial
    Phenomena, p.97, 1964.
6. Cases 199, 274, and 358.
7. Case 558.
8. Case 480.
9. Cases 477, 613, 142, 182, 823, 905, and 912.
10. Case 823.
11. Case65O.
12. Cases 482, 524, 720, 906, 912.
13. Lore, Gordon, Strange Effects From UFOs, p.8, National Investigations Committee
      on Aerial Phenomena, 1969.
14. Cases 274 and 314.
15. Hall, Richard E., The UFO Evidence, p. 97, National Investigations Committee on
      Aerial Phenomena, 1964,
16. Cases 682 and 524.
17. Case 300.
18. Case 525.
19. Case 323.
20. Case 413.
21. Case 337.
22. Bukstein, Edward J., Medical Electronics, p.131, Ungar, 1959.
23. Copson, David A., "Microwave Heating-In Freeze-Drying, Electronic Ovens, and Other
      Applications," Chapter 19, Radiation Biology of Microwaves, AVI Publishing Co., 1962.
24. Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.16, p.38, 1965.
25. Fitzhugh, Richard, "Mathematical Models of Excitation and Propagation In Nerve,"
      Chapter 1, Schwan, Herman P., Editor, Biological Engineer ing, McGraw-Hill, 1969.
26. Copson, David A., "Microwave Heating-In Freeze Drying Electronic Ovens, and Other
      Applications," Chapter 19, Radiation Biology of Microwaves, AVI Publishing Co., 1962.
27. Fitzhugh, Richard, "Mathematical Models of Excitation and Propagation in Nerve,"
      Chapter I. Schwan, Herman P., Editor, Biological Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 1969.
28. Case 402.
29. LeaveIl, Lutie, C., et al., Anatomy and Physiology, 15th Edition, p.239, MacMillan, 1966.
30. Reynolds, Martin R., "Development of a Garrnent for Protection of Personnel in
      High-Power RF Environments," Peyton, Mary Fouse, Editor, Biological Effects of
      Microwave Radiation, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Tn-Service Conference,
      p.71, Vol.1, 16-18 August 1960, New York University, Plenum Press, 1961.
31. Payne, James N., "Similarities and Differences Between Technical Aspects of the Navy
      HERO Program for Ordnance and the Personnel Hazard Program," Peyton, Mary Fouse,
      Editor, Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation, Proceedings of the Fourth
      Annual Tn-Service Conference, p. 319, Vol. 1, 16-18 August 1960, New York
      University, Plenum Press, 1961.
32. Finch, Bernard E., "Phosphenes and the UFO Phenomenon," Flying Saucer Review,
      Vol.16, No.5, p.9, September/October, 1970.
33. Case 662, original source.
34. Case 900.
35. Milroy, William C., and Michaelson, Sol M., "Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation,"
      Health Physics, Vol.20, p.570, Pergamon Press, June 1971.
36. Case 677.
37. Neville, Roy 0., et al., "Microwaves," Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical
      Technology, p.58S, Wiley, 1971.
38. Case 000.
39. Case 893.
40. Milroy, William C., and Michaelson, Sol M., "Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation,"
      Health Physics, Vol, 20, p.573, Pergamon Press, June 1971.
41. Michaelson, "Sol M., and Dodge, Christopher H., Soviet Views on the Biological Effects
      of Microwaves-An Analysis," Health Physics, Vol. 21, p.108, Pergamon Press, July 1971.
42. Gordon, Z. V., Biological Effects of Microwaves in Occupational Hygiene, Translated
      From Russian, National Aeronautics and Space Ad ministration, Israel Program for Scientific
      Translations, 1970, available from Clearinghouse for Federal and Technical Information,
      Springfield, Va. 22151.
43. Wade, Nicholas, "Fischer-Spassky Charges: What Did The Russians Have In Mind?"
      Science, Vol.177, p.778, 1 September 1972.
44. Cases 484, 485, 540, 835, and 908.
45. Cases 748 and 895.
46. Case 697.
47. Case 755.
48. Case 590.
49. Case 629.
50. Case 787.
51. Case 525
52. Case 616.
53. Case 529.
54. Case 581.
55. Case 588.
56. Case 592.
57. Case 706.
58. Case 778.
59. Cases 551, 678, 754, 855, 871, 873, 877, 910, and 913.
60. Fuller, John G., incident At Exeter, p.143, Putnam, 1966.
61. This impression is inescapable in view of quotations from Fuller, John G., Incident At
      Exeter, pages63,65,71,72,73,81, 133,143,175,176,177, and 181, Putnam, 1966.
62. A "New FSR Catalogue, The Effects of UFOs Upon Animals, Birds, and Smaller
      Creatures," Flying Saucer Review, beginning in Vol.16, No.1, January/February 1970.
      Subsequent references in this section are identified as FSR Case NK,
63. FSR Case 34.
64. FSR Case 62.
65. FSR Case 118.
66. FSR Case 120.
67. FSR Case 30.
68. FSR Case 34.
69. FSR Case7l.
70. FSR Case 72.
71. FSR Case44.
72. FSR Case 78.
73. FSR Case 37.
74. Milroy, William C., and Michaelson, Sol M., "Biological Effects of  Microwave Radiation,
      "Health Physics, pp.567-575, Vol.20, June 1971.
75. FSR Case 28.
76. FSR Case 31.
77. FSR Case 42.
78. FSR Case 75.
79. FSR Case 23.
80. FSR Case 67.
81. FSR Case 69, original source.
82. FSR Case 75.
83. FSR Case 109.
84. For a compilation of 43 cases involving angel hair see Hall, Richard H., Editor, The
      UFO Evidence, p.100, National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964.
      Regrettably the author can offer no suggestions as to the purpose, composition, or
      significance of angel hair.
85. FSR Case 116.
86. Vallee, Jacques, Passport To Magonia, Cases 187, 222, 639, and 850, Regnery, 1969.
87. Fuller, John G., Incident at Exeter, p.35, Putnam, 1966.
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